John C. Gifford Arboretum

The John C. Gifford Arboretum is an arboretum and botanical garden located at the northwest corner of the University of Miami campus in Coral Gables, Florida in the United States; the Arboretum was founded by Prof. Frank J. Rimoldi and Dr. Roy Woodbury. In 1949 it was named for Prof. John C. Gifford, an expert on tropical woods and professor of tropical forestry at the University of Miami. In 1950, the Gifford Society of Tropical Botany was formed to promote the study of tropical plants, the arboretum grew to more than 500 plants. Coral Gables resident Kathryn Gaubatz has been an active force within the community, is working to preserve and protect the John C. Gifford Arboretum from future development. In 2005, the Coral Gables City Commission voted to approve the construction of a road within the Coral Gables campus; the reasoning for this vote was to ease traffic off of San Amaro Drive, US-1, Granada Boulevard, the three main streets which encircle the 260-acre campus and therefore handle the vast majority of vehicular traffic coming and leaving from the University of Miami.

The Coral Gables Planning Department will review and edit any plans for proposal for the suggested road through the Coral Gables UM campus. The overall design and impact on traffic will be taken into consideration and proposed to the Coral Gables City Commission for final vote and approval; as of 2007 leading into 2008 and 2009, no plans for the proposed street were submitted to the Coral Gables Planning Department. Citing the University's cessation of all construction projects, the proposed street through the University of Miami's Coral Gables campus has been indefinitely postponed and is not a talking point within the Coral Gables community; the University of Miami campus is served by the Miami Metrorail at the University Station. Official John C. Gifford Arboretum website Trophort List of botanical gardens in the United States

Macleay's mustached bat

Macleay's mustached bat is a species of bat in the family Mormoopidae. It is found in Cuba and Jamaica, is threatened by habitat loss; the species is named for William Sharp Macleay. Macleay's mustached bat is a small bat, with an average body length of 7.4 centimetres and a tail 2.3 centimetres long. Fully-grown adults weigh 4 to 7 grams, with males being larger than females; the body is covered by greyish-brown to orange-brown fur, fading to near-white on the undersides. The head is flat with a upturned snout; the ears are narrow and pointed, with serrated outer edges near the tips, a long flattened tragus. The wings have an aspect ratio of 7.6 and a wing loading of 4.6 N/m2, suitable for agile flying in cluttered environments, such as forests. The encephalisation quotient of the species has been calculated at 0.85. Macleay's mustached bats are widespread on Cuba and Jamaica, are found wherever there are suitable caves. There are two recognised subspecies: Pteronotus macleayii macleayii - Cuba, Isla de la Juventud Pteronotus macleayii griseus - Jamaica Macleay's mustached bats are gregarious and nocturnal, with colonies of several thousand individuals spending the day roosting in deep and humid cave systems.

They share the caves with many other local bat species, although clustering with members of their own species. They leave the caves shortly after sunset, spend the night feeding on insects flies and beetles; the echolocation calls of the bats are narrowband, with a dominant frequency of 70 -- 80 kHz. Breeding begins in March, results in the birth of a single young between June and July

Interactive architecture

Interactive architecture refers to the branch of architecture which deals with buildings featuring the trio of sensors and effectors, embedded as a core part of its nature and functioning. Interactive architecture encompasses building automation but goes beyond it by including forms of interaction engagements and responses that may lay in pure communication purposes as well as in the emotive and artistic realm, thus entering the field of interactive art. Interactive architecture part of the Internet of things, a term first coined by Kevin Ashton of Procter & Gamble MIT's Auto-ID Center, in 1999, can include both interior and exterior elements. Within the interior, many technologies are competing to see who will emerge as the dominant communicative signal. 4GLTE LTE being replaced by 5G, is the obvious solution. Interactive architecture and designing buildings with this technology embedded in it is essential in the development of smart cities. Another essential element in the development of a smart city is the landscape architecture.

The space in-between buildings used by the public, or the public realm as it is more termed. There are two levels of communication within the public realm and the difference between the two are accepted as the differentiation between IoT and IoE. IoE, or the Internet of Everything, was a phrase first used by Cisco in an attempt to achieve polarity with competitors that had embraced the term IoT. In Cisco's definition, they highlighted interaction with the human node as one main difference between IoT and IoE; the two public realm communication protocols that make that space a smart space are: The Intelligent Realm, or i-realm, defined as a realm designed with embedded information and communication technology, which allows the silo elements of that space, ventilation, traffic signals, waste management, to communicate with one another for the purpose of making that urban area more efficient and effective. The second communication protocol is the Interactive Realm, defined as incorporating all of the technology needed to create an intelligent realm but in addition, using communication methods such as Global Positioning System, geo-fence, near-field communication and embedded Bluetooth Low Energy, to allow communication between the architecture of the space and the consumers of it.

Sometimes referred to as the physical web by Google, an interactive realm uses exterior lighting, street furniture, bus stops and other elements to communicate to the public via their smartphone or tablet. Whilst IoT concerns itself with communication between objects in order to make the design more efficient and interactive from an operational stand point. IoE in addition incorporates communication between embedded objects and user devices; the applications include wayfinding, anti-terrorism, targeted advertising, general information such as history of the space or just to make the space more enjoyable