Lancaster, is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvanias Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States. With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvanias cities, the Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766, making it the 101st largest metropolitan area in the US and 2nd largest in the South Central Pennsylvania area. Lancaster hosts more electronic public CCTV outdoor cameras per capita than such as Boston or San Francisco. Lancaster was home to James Buchanan, the nations 15th president, originally called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright. Its symbol, the red rose, is from the House of Lancaster, Lancaster was part of the 1681 Penns Woods Charter of William Penn, and was laid out by James Hamilton in 1734. It was incorporated as a borough in 1742 and incorporated as a city in 1818, the revolutionary government moved still farther away to York, Pennsylvania.
Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, after which the capital was moved to Harrisburg, in 1851, the current Lancaster County Prison was built in the city, styled after Lancaster Castle in England. The prison remains in use, and was used for public hangings until 1912 and it replaced a 1737 structure on a different site. The first paved road in the United States was the former Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, opened in 1795, the Turnpike connected the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia, and was designed by a Scottish engineer named John Loudon McAdam. Lancaster residents are known to use the word macadam in lieu of pavement or asphalt and this name is a reference to the paving process named for McAdam. The city of Lancaster was home to important figures in American history. Wheatland, the estate of James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, is one of Lancasters most popular attractions, Thaddeus Stevens, considered among the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, lived in Lancaster as an attorney.
Stevens gained notoriety as a Radical Republican and for his abolitionism, the Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first fully functional steamboat. All of these individuals have had schools named after them. After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center, two of the most common products needed by pioneers to settle the Frontier were manufactured in Lancaster, the Conestoga wagon and the Pennsylvania long rifle. The Conestoga wagon was named after the Conestoga River, which runs through the city, the innovative gunsmith William Henry lived in Lancaster and was a U. S. congressman and leader during and after the American Revolution. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis visited Lancaster to be educated in survey methods by the well-known surveyor Andrew Ellicott, during his visit, Lewis learned to plot latitude and longitude as part of his overall training needed to lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
In 1879, Franklin Winfield Woolworth opened his first successful five and dime store in the city of Lancaster, Lancaster was one of the winning communities for the All-America City award in 2000
Penn Quakers football
The Penn Quakers football team is the college football team at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Penn has played in 1,364 football games, the most of any school in any division, Penn plays its home games at historic Franklin Field, the oldest stadium in football. All Penn games are broadcast on WNTP or WFIL radio, Penn bills itself as college footballs most historic program. The Quakers have had 63 First Team All-Americans, and the college is the alma mater of John Heisman, the team has won a share of 7 national championships and competed in the granddaddy of them all in 1917. Penns total of 837 wins puts them 11th all-time in college football,18 members of the College Football Hall of Fame played at Penn and 5 members of the College Football Hall of Fame coached at Penn. Penn has had 11 unbeaten seasons, Penn is one of the few college football teams to have had an exclusive contract with a network for broadcasting all their home games. For the 1950 season, ABC Sports broadcast all of Penns home games, the only other teams to have exclusive contracts are Miami and Notre Dame.
The Quakers competed as an independent until 1956, when they accepted the invitation to join the Ivy League. See, NCAA #Football television controversy Penn joined the Ivy League in 1956 when it was formed, Penn won its 1st Ivy League Football Championship in 1959. It was not until 1982,23 years later, that Penn would win its 2nd Ivy League Football Championship, since that year Penn has become a dominant football power in the Ivy League. They are tied with Dartmouth in winning a record 18 Ivy League Football Championships, however, is first in outright Ivy League titles, and first in undefeated Ivy League titles. NCAA record for most college football games played -1,364, NCAA record for consecutive overtime losses -3 games Most outright Ivy League titles -13, Highest number of unbeaten Ivy League seasons -8, Longest Ivy League winning streak -20 straight games. Penn holds the next two Longest Ivy League win streaks, record 18 Ivy League Football Championships. Penns home stadium Franklin Field is not only the oldest stadium in football, brooke - Twice All-America, College football Hall of Fame.
Outland - namesake of the Outland Trophy, College Football Hall of Fame Penns total of three major award winners surpasses several BCS programs to this day. A total of 51 players from Penn have been drafted in the NFL, including NFL Hall of Famers Chuck Bednarik and Bert Bell and NFL first-round pick Skip Minisi. List of Penn Quakers in the NFL Draft Penns rivalry with Cornell is the 5th-most played college football rivalry of all time and their first game was in 1893 and have played every year since, except in 1918. Penn leads in the series, 72–46–5, since the official formation of the Ivy League in 1956 Penn has won 31 games and Cornell has won 29 games
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in Philadelphia, United States. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, the university coat of arms features a dolphin on the red chief, adopted directly from the Franklin familys own coat of arms. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities and it was home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate school. With an endowment of $10.72 billion, Penn had the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, all of Penns schools exhibit very high research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Penns academic research budget was $851 million, over its history, the university has produced many distinguished alumni. S. House of Representatives,8 signers of the United States Declaration of Independence, in addition, some 30 Nobel laureates,169 Guggenheim Fellows, and 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, have been affiliated with Penn.
In addition, Penn has produced a significant number of Fortune 500 CEOs, in 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time and it was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, however, a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklins autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard and Mary, Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern.
The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklins group to assume their debts and, accordingly, on February 1,1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13,1751, the Academy of Philadelphia, using the hall at 4th and Arch Streets. A charity school was chartered July 13,1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original New Building donors, June 16,1755, the College of Philadelphia was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution, the institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Rev. William Smiths Loyalist tendencies, the result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the Legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new Board of Trustees
Donald Stafford Red Kellett was the President and General Manager of the Baltimore Colts franchise of the National Football League from 1953 until 1966. He had a playing career in Major League Baseball as an infielder for the Boston Red Sox. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Kellett attended Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn and he attended Peekskill Military Academy in Peekskill, New York, where he lettered in three sports. Kellet enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania where he majored in economics, in his first year, he captained the freshman football and baseball teams. He reached varsity level for all three of the sports the next year, and received a total of nine varsity letters while at Penn and he played halfback on the football team, guard on the basketball team, and alternated between second baseman and shortstop on the baseball team. As a senior, he was captain for the baseball team and he was President of the Kappa Sigma fraternity, was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society and served on the board of governors for Houston Hall.
After graduating Penn, Kellett played briefly for the Boston Red Sox and he appeared in nine games during the 1934 season. Following the season, he would be sent to the minors and he spent a brief amount of time with the Syracuse Chiefs before going into coaching full-time. In autumn 1935, he was named head coach for the football and basketball teams at Ursinus College in Collegeville. He became head coach of the varsity team after his brief stint with the chiefs ended. In 1941, he left Ursinus to return to his alma mater, at Penn, he served as Director of Freshmen Athletics and head coach of the freshmen basketball and football teams. He became coach of the varsity basketball team. He left Penn after the 1946–47 season to become the announcer for WFIL in Philadelphia. The first game he announced was the first commercial football telecast for the station, Kellett went on to head operations for WFILs radio and television station. During the 1948–49 season, Kellett called New York Knicks games on WOR, the Baltimore Colts made Kellett team President and General Manager shortly after the team became a National Football League franchise.
Kellett is credited for helping the team get Johnny Unitas, a move made the team a household name. In 1959, Kellett was a contender for NFL Commissioner and he was supported by four team owners who opposed the candidacy of Marshall Leahy due to his plan to move the league office to San Francisco. After eight days of deadlock, Los Angeles Rams general manager Pete Rozelle was selected as a compromise candidate, Kellett retired to Fort Lauderdale, Florida in 1966, and died there from a heart attack at age 61
Byron W. Dickson
Byron Wright By Dickson was an American football player and coach of football and baseball. Dickson was the baseball coach at Lehigh, Bucknell. In addition, he served as the basketball coach at Franklin & Marshall during the 1919–20 season. Dickson was born in Germantown, Pennsylvania and he played college football at the University of Pennsylvania from 1895 to 1897 as an end. He died on May 22,1930 in Miami Beach, byron W. Dickson at the College Football Data Warehouse
It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football and it is in college football where a players performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as a free agent. Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained extremely popular throughout the U. S, in many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. This allows them to more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries, colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as football, by the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges, the first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9,1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock, a football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College, a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional mob football played in England.
The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football, Princeton University students played a game called ballown as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as Bloody Monday began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes, in 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a figure called Football Fightum. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called Old division football, the rules of which were first published in 1871, all of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities
Franklin & Marshall College
Franklin & Marshall College is a private co-educational residential liberal arts college in the Northwest Corridor neighborhood of Lancaster, United States. It employs 175 full-time faculty members and has a student body of approximately 2,324 full-time students, F&M was ranked 37 on U. S. News & World Reports 2014 list of liberal arts colleges. The New York Times ranked F&M 26th in a ranking of The Most Economically Diverse Top Colleges in 2014, in 2011 F&M was ranked as the 4th Most Rigorous College/University on Newsweeks The Daily Beast. Forbes 2009 list of Americas Best Colleges ranked the school 36th overall and it was ranked #1 in the nation for Faculty accessibility by The Princeton Review in 2003. The college is a member of the Centennial Conference, for the Class of 2012 Admissions Cycle, the acceptance rate dropped to 35. 9%, making it F&Ms most selective class yet while increasing the admissions profile. The average SAT score is 1311, which combines the Critical Reading, the average class size is 19 students, and the student-faculty ratio is 9,1.
Franklin College was chartered on June 6,1787, in Lancaster and it was named for Benjamin Franklin, who donated £200 to the new institution. Its first trustees included five signers of the Declaration of Independence, the schools first courses were taught on July 16,1787, with instruction taking place in both English and German, making it the first bilingual college in the United States. Franklin College was Americas first coeducational institution, with its first class of students composed of 78 men and 36 women, among the latter was Richea Gratz, the first Jewish female college student in the United States. However, the policy was soon abandoned and it would take 182 years before women were again permitted to enroll in the school. In July 1789, Franklin College ran into difficulty as its annual tuition of four pounds was not enough to cover operating costs. Enrollment began to dwindle to just a few students and eventually the college existed as nothing more than a meeting of the Board of Trustees.
In an effort to help the school, an academy was established in 1807. For the next three decades, Franklin College and Franklin Academy managed to limp along financially, with instructors supplementing their income with private tutoring, in 1835, the schools Debating Society was renamed Diagnothian Literary Society at the suggestion of seminary student Samuel Reed Fisher. In June of that year, Diagnothian was divided into two friendly rivals to encourage debate, Diagnothian retained its original name, while the new society was named Goethean, in honor of German philosopher and poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The two organizations sponsored orations and debated politics and literature and they merged in 1955, but became separate entities again in 1989. The Diagnothian Society is the oldest student organization on campus, having grown from a Reformed Church academy, Marshall College opened in 1836 in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. The school was named for the fourth Chief Justice of the United States John Marshall and it was founded with the belief that harmony between knowledge and will was necessary to create a well-rounded person
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and fielding. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases, Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the team who reaches a base safely can attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates turns batting. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the team, constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, and the team with the number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball has no clock, although almost all games end in the ninth inning. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century and this game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the sport of the United States.
Baseball is now popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, in the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions, East and Central. The major league champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series, the top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision, a French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly la soule, with similarities to baseball. Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, consensus once held that todays baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders, popular in Great Britain and Ireland. Baseball Before We Knew It, A Search for the Roots of the Game, by David Block, suggests that the game originated in England, recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position.
Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of other. It has long believed that cricket descended from such games. The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, David Block discovered that the first recorded game of Bass-Ball took place in 1749 in Surrey, and featured the Prince of Wales as a player. William Bray, an English lawyer, recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford and this early form of the game was apparently brought to Canada by English immigrants
Lebanon Valley College
Lebanon Valley College is a small, liberal arts higher education institution situated in the heart of Annville in Lebanon County,19.5 mi east of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Lebanon Valley was founded on February 23,1866, with classes beginning May 7 of that year, expenses at this time for a full year were $206.50 and remained relatively unchanged for the next 50 years. The College was founded by and initially associated with the Church of the United Brethren in Christ. 1 The ties to the Methodist Church are not as strong as they once were, which is evidenced by the lack of mandatory chapel services, out of 34 colleges and academies founded by the United Brethren in Christ Church, Lebanon Valley was one of four to survive. The campus began as a building, the empty Annville Academy building. They presented the building as a gift to the East Pennsylvania Conference of the United Brethren Church to settle the argument over where to establish a college. The college was entirely contained in one building until 1868 when North College was opened at a cost of $31,500.
The Annville Academy building became known as South Hall or Ladies Hall as the North College building was now the home to the mens dormitories. A note worth mentioning, The college charter, granted in 1867, Lebanon Valley College can claim that it has been coeducational longer than any other college east of the Allegheny Mountains. However, the curricula were different for men and women, a condition created from a compromise after an uproar in the church over the equal treatment of men and women. The Ladies Course included modern languages, drawing, wax flower and fruit making, by 1878, the college catalog began announcing that experience showed that there was no difference between men and women in their ability to master college courses, an unpopular idea at its time. This was the time of the literary societies, Philokosmian and Kalozetean. They met regularly to debate topics and discuss essays, other activities included mixed socials, the annual Chestnut Picnic, and other special events throughout the years.
On Christmas Eve 1904, North College, which stood in the current footprint of the Administration/Humanities building, funding ran out, debt rose, and building halted on the gym and science buildings. Roop resigned in disgrace on New Years Day,1906 and it was not until President Lawrence W. Keister took office on June 12,1907 that the debt situation was solved. Thanks to his efforts, the debt was eliminated by 1911. World War II nearly proved to be the end of Lebanon Valley College, in the Fall of 1942, LVCs first wartime registration showed only 357 students enrolled. As the second began in 1943, there were only 282 students,145 women and 137 men