Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
Conrad N. Jordan
Conrad N. Jordan was a United States banker, Treasurer of the United States from 1885 to 1887. Conrad N. Jordan was born in New York City on April 20, 1830, he became trained as a compositor. He worked as a compositor until 1852, he worked his way up the ranks at the Hanover Bank of New York until he had become the bank's general bookkeeper. He moved to Fishkill, New York, to work in a leadership position in a bank there. Early in his career, Jordan became acquainted with Samuel J. Tilden and would have a longstanding business relationship and friendship with Tilden; when the National Western Bank of New York was created in 1864, Jordan became its cashier. Jordan became known as an expert in the field of public currency exchange. In the wake of Black Friday, Jordan was auditor to the receiver of the Gold Exchange Bank. In 1880 because of his connection with Tilden, Jordan became Treasurer of the New York and Western Railway. During this period, he unsuccessfully lobbied the New York State Legislature to create an entity to be known as the United States Exchange and Transfer Company to function as a nationwide clearing house.
A Democrat, Jordan supported Grover Cleveland in the 1884 presidential election and worked with the campaign team drawing up plans to reform the United States Department of the Treasury. Following the appointment of Daniel Manning as United States Secretary of the Treasury, Cleveland nominated Jordan to be Treasurer of the United States to implement the plans he had drawn up, he served as Treasurer of the United States from May 1, 1885 to March 23, 1887. In 1887, Jordan became President of the Western National Bank of New York. There, he led the bank's involvement with the Pell-Simmons syndicate in its attempts to capture the Sixth National Bank. President Cleveland named Jordan Assistant Treasurer of the United States in April 1893. Following the election of William McKinley in the 1896 presidential election, a number of leading bankers, including McKinley's new Treasury Secretary, Lyman J. Gage, urged McKinley to retain Jordan as Assistant Treasurer of the United States, he was re-appointed in April 1897
Benjamin Harrison was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd president of the United States from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison, creating the only grandfather–grandson duo to have held the office, he was a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a founding father. Before ascending to the presidency, Harrison had established himself as a prominent local attorney, Presbyterian church leader, politician in Indianapolis, Indiana. During the American Civil War, he served in the Union Army as a colonel, was confirmed by the U. S. Senate as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers in 1865. Harrison unsuccessfully ran for governor of Indiana in 1876; the Indiana General Assembly elected Harrison to a six-year term in the U. S. Senate, where he served from 1881 to 1887. A Republican, Harrison was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Grover Cleveland. Hallmarks of Harrison's administration included unprecedented economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff, which imposed historic protective trade rates, the Sherman Antitrust Act.
Harrison facilitated the creation of the national forest reserves through an amendment to the Land Revision Act of 1891. During his administration six western states were admitted to the Union. In addition, Harrison strengthened and modernized the U. S. Navy and conducted an active foreign policy, but his proposals to secure federal education funding as well as voting rights enforcement for African Americans were unsuccessful. Due in large part to surplus revenues from the tariffs, federal spending reached one billion dollars for the first time during his term; the spending issue in part led to the defeat of the Republicans in the 1890 mid-term elections. Cleveland defeated Harrison for re-election in 1892, due to the growing unpopularity of the high tariff and high federal spending. Harrison returned to his law practice in Indianapolis. In 1899 Harrison represented the Republic of Venezuela in their British Guiana boundary dispute against the United Kingdom. Harrison traveled to the court of Paris as part of the case and after a brief stay returned to Indianapolis.
He died at his home in Indianapolis in 1901 of complications from influenza. Although many have praised Harrison's commitment to African Americans' voting rights and historians regard his administration as below-average, rank him in the bottom half among U. S. presidents. Historians, have not questioned Harrison's commitment to personal and official integrity. Benjamin Harrison was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, the second of Elizabeth Ramsey and John Scott Harrison's ten children, his paternal ancestors were the Harrison family of Virginia, whose immigrant ancestor, Benjamin Harrison I, arrived in Jamestown, circa 1630 from England. Harrison was of English ancestry, all of his ancestors having emigrated to America during the early colonial period; the future President was a grandson of U. S. President William Henry Harrison and a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a Virginia planter who signed the Declaration of Independence and succeeded Thomas Jefferson as governor of Virginia.
Harrison was seven years old when his grandfather was elected U. S. president, but he did not attend the inauguration. Although Harrison's family was distinguished, his parents were not wealthy. John Scott Harrison, a two-term U. S. congressman from Ohio, spent much of his farm income on his children's education. Despite the family's modest resources, Harrison's boyhood was enjoyable, much of it spent outdoors fishing or hunting. Benjamin Harrison's early schooling took place in a log cabin near his home, but his parents arranged for a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies. Fourteen-year-old Harrison and his older brother, enrolled in Farmer's College near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1847, he attended the college for two years and while there met his future wife, Caroline "Carrie" Lavinia Scott, a daughter of John Witherspoon Scott, the school's science professor, a Presbyterian minister. In 1850, Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford and graduated in 1852, he joined the Phi Delta Theta fraternity.
He was a member of Delta Chi, a law fraternity which permitted dual membership. Classmates included John Alexander Anderson, who became a six-term U. S. congressman, Whitelaw Reid, Harrison's vice presidential running mate in 1892. At Miami, Harrison was influenced by history and political economy professor Robert Hamilton Bishop. Harrison joined a Presbyterian church at college and, like his mother, became a lifelong Presbyterian. After his college graduation in 1852, Harrison studied law with Judge Bellamy Storer of Cincinnati, but before he completed his studies, he returned to Oxford, Ohio, to marry Caroline Scott on October 20, 1853. Caroline's father, a Presbyterian minister, performed the ceremony; the Harrisons had Russell Benjamin Harrison and Mary "Mamie" Scott Harrison. Harrison and his wife returned to live at The Point, his father's farm in southwestern Ohio, while he finished his law studies. Harrison was admitted to the Ohio bar in early 1854, the same year he sold property that he had inherited after the death of an aunt for $800, used the funds to move with Caroline to Indianapolis, Indiana.
Harrison began practicing law in the office of John H. Ray in 1854 and became a crier for the federal court in Indianapolis, for which he was paid $2.50 per day. He served as a Commissioner for the U. S. Court of Claims. Harrison bec
W. O. Woods
Walter Orr Woods was United States Register of the Treasury from October 1, 1927 to January 17, 1929 and Treasurer of the United States from January 18, 1929 to May 31, 1933. Before becoming Treasurer, he was a member of the War Loan Board staff; as Treasurer he supervised the change from the large to the smaller sized U. S. currency now in use
James W. Hyatt
James William Hyatt was Treasurer of the United States from 1887 to 1889. He had served as Bank Commissioner for the State of Connecticut, United States Bank Examiner for Connecticut and Rhode Island, he served as a Democratic member of the Connecticut House of Representatives in 1875 and 1876, a member of the Connecticut Senate in 1884, he was Warden of the Borough of Norwalk from 1877 to 1878, from 1880 to 1882, from 1885 to 1887. James W. Hyatt was born in Norwalk, the son of James W. Hyatt, Laura Gray on September 19, 1837. With the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, Hyatt joined the 5th Regiment Connecticut Volunteer Infantry. After the war, he moved to New York City to join Lockwood & Co. a leading banking house, founded by LeGrand Lockwood of Norwalk. In 1873, Hyatt attained control of the majority of stock of the Norwalk Horse Railway Company and returned to Norwalk to work as its Secretary and General Manager, he was president of the company at the time of his death. He worked as Vice President of the Danbury and Norwalk Railroad, and, in 1881, became its president.
He represented Norwalk in the Connecticut House of Representatives in 1876 as a Democrat. In 1876, Governor of Connecticut Charles Roberts Ingersoll appointed Hyatt Bank Commissioner, he was reappointed by Govs. Richard D. Hubbard, Charles B. Andrews, Hobart B. Bigelow, Thomas M. Waller. In 1884, he was elected to the Connecticut Senate, but resigned so he could remain Bank Commissioner. In 1886, President of the United States Grover Cleveland appointed Hyatt United States Bank Examiner for Connecticut and Rhode Island. In spring 1887, President Cleveland appointed Hyatt Treasurer of the United States, with Hyatt subsequently holding that office from May 24, 1887 to May 10, 1889. After suffering for several weeks from gout and Bright's disease, Hyatt died at Norwalk on March 12, 1893. Surprising observers, who assumed that Hyatt was rich, Hyatt died a poor man and left no estate for his widow
Ellis H. Roberts
Ellis Henry Roberts was a United States Representative from New York and 20th Treasurer of the United States. Roberts was born in Utica, Oneida County, New York on September 30, 1827, he attended the common schools and the Whitestown Seminary and graduated from Yale College in 1850, where he was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi and Skull and Bones. He served as principal of Utica Free Academy in 1850 and 1851 and became editor and proprietor of the Utica Morning Herald 1851 - 1889, he was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions in 1864, 1868, 1876. Roberts was elected as a Republican to the Forty-third Congresses. Y.. Ellis Henry Roberts’ Government Revenue, Especially the American System. An Argument for Industrial Freedom vindicates the policy of favoring developing domestic commerce over foreign commerce which protectionism does best. Roberts was a member of the American Protective Tariff League, he stated. When we have had low duties something equivalent to free trade our, industries were battered and depressed, but they have thrived when protectionism was the policy.
He saw the precious home market as for the home trade, monumental, were it to invite foreign commerce the home market would be sacrificed, national sovereignty will be in peril. Thus, for strategic purposes the government should favor producers rather than those that exploit trade in all laws that it makes. Roberts considered the most benevolent act of good will that any people can perform to the public welfare is to not engage in what favors foreign commerce what trade likes most but to foster the diversity of employments, produce, he thought that the legislator who seeks to have his nation engage in commerce without developing a diversity of employments acts like a person making the gravest of mistakes. In addition he stated that rather than decrease production, what we ought to do is create a more manufacturing sector, excellent diversity of employments. Moreover, he concluded that poverty diminished at a direct ratio in which the diversity of industries had increased in the population. Next Roberts thought that civilization most greatest lesson is that the livelihood of all, most the poor, has been elevated due to the new industries being erected, thus production has augmented the diversity of employments.
With the policy of fostering the growth the diversity of employments, the United States possessed quite a promising future. It would be an egregious injustice for Washington D. C. to play an instrumental part in contracting our scale of production, to opt for a revenue system that courts foreign trade instead of facilitating a diversity of employments for our home markets. Roberts knew what Mr. Say and Professor William Sumner wanted for the United States. A nation with the potential of satisfying her home markets by developing an enormous home trade was told to organize their economy around agriculture. Roberts chose to side with Hamilton’s view of organizing an economy. Roberts gives a precise brief commentary on Hamilton’s celebrated Report on Manufactures, he says Hamilton considered relying on foreign commerce by using agricultural goods as a waste, he saw England’s fortified regulations which only invited raw materials and food stuffs as not something the young nation wanted to take advantage of.
Hamilton thought that America’s agriculture’s best market was in America, that developing resources that insured America’s future was paramount. In addition to this Hamilton asserted that the government had the right to stimulate and foster acquiring knowledge, manufactures and commerce, he saw duties on imports. Moreover he added that bounties and some raw materials be brought in free of duty, that inventors be rewarded for their congenial pursuits that benefited man. Lastly Hamilton saw the these actions as quite worthwhile to pursue to create a constant mass clientele for the agricultural commodities in the home market. Roberts did not want the United States to favor the ways of the British; the British way was foreign commerce. England relied on foreign commerce so much because her production was too dependent on foreign consumption, but U. S production relied on domestic consumption, the U. S home market was becoming the envy of all those nations. Roberts said, "We want no commerce. We refuse to maintain a costly navy to force our commodities on unwilling peoples.
We have always declined every suggestion to conduct our diplomacy in the interest of foreign trade, except as it is welcomed by the peoples whom we go to seek. The course which we are pursuing has never before been pursued by any great nation, the story of commerce has been a story of violence and grasping greed; the wars of the world have been in large part incited by the purpose to extort treasure and commodities, to thrust the products of the aggressive power upon re
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was an American soldier and international statesman, who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877. During the American Civil War Grant led the Union Army as its commanding general to victory over the Confederacy with the supervision of President Abraham Lincoln. During the Reconstruction Era, President Grant led the Republicans in their efforts to remove the vestiges of Confederate nationalism and slavery. From early childhood in Ohio, Grant was a skilled equestrian, he served with distinction in the Mexican -- American War. Upon his return, Grant married Julia Dent, together they had four children. In 1854, Grant abruptly resigned from the army, he and his family struggled financially in civilian life for seven years. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, Grant joined the Union Army and rose in rank to general. Grant was persistent in his pursuit of the Confederate enemy, winning major battles and gaining Union control of the Mississippi River. In March 1864, President Abraham Lincoln promoted Grant to Lieutenant General, a rank reserved for George Washington.
For over a year Grant's Army of the Potomac fought the Army of Northern Virginia led by Robert E. Lee in the Overland Campaign and at Petersburg. On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, the war ended. On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated. Grant continued his service under Lincoln's successor President Andrew Johnson and was promoted General of the Army in 1866. Disillusioned by Johnson's conservative approach to Reconstruction, Grant drifted toward the "Radical" Republicans. Elected the youngest 19th Century president in 1868, Grant stabilized the post-war national economy, created the Department of Justice, prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan, he appointed Jewish-Americans to prominent federal offices. In 1871, Grant created the first Civil Service Commission; the Democrats and Liberal Republicans united behind Grant's opponent in the presidential election of 1872, but Grant was handily re-elected. Grant's new Peace Policy for Native Americans had both failures. Grant's administration resolved the Alabama claims and the Virginius Affair, but Congress rejected his Dominican annexation initiative.
Grant's presidency was plagued by numerous public scandals, while the Panic of 1873 plunged the nation into a severe economic depression. After Grant left office in March 1877, he embarked on a two-and-a-half-year world tour that captured favorable global attention for him and the United States. In 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term. In the final year of his life, facing severe investment reversals and dying of throat cancer, he wrote his memoirs, which proved to be a major critical and financial success. At the time of his death, he was memorialized as a symbol of national unity. Historical assessments of Grant's legacy have varied over the years. Historians have hailed Grant's military genius, his strategies are featured in military history textbooks. Stigmatized by multiple scandals, Grant's presidency has traditionally been ranked among the worst. Modern scholars have shown greater appreciation for his achievements that included civil rights enforcement and has raised his historical reputation.
Grant has been regarded as an embattled president who performed a difficult job during Reconstruction. Hiram Ulysses Grant was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, on April 27, 1822, to Jesse Root Grant, a tanner and merchant, Hannah Grant, his ancestors Matthew and Priscilla Grant arrived aboard the ship Mary and John at Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. Grant's great-grandfather fought in the French and Indian War, his grandfather, served in the American Revolution at Bunker Hill. Afterward, Noah married Rachel Kelley, the daughter of an Irish pioneer, their son Jesse was a fervent abolitionist. Jesse Grant found work as a foreman in a tannery, he soon met his future wife and the two were married on June 24, 1821. Ten months Hannah gave birth to their first child, a son. At a family gathering several weeks the boy's name, was drawn from ballots placed in a hat. Wanting to honor his father-in-law, who had suggested Hiram, Jesse declared the boy to be Hiram Ulysses, though he would always refer to him as Ulysses.
In 1823, the family moved to Georgetown, where five more siblings were born: Simpson, Orvil and Mary. At the age of five, Ulysses began his formal education, starting at a subscription school and in two private schools. In the winter of 1836–1837, Grant was a student at Maysville Seminary, in the autumn of 1838, he attended John Rankin's academy. In his youth, Grant developed an unusual ability to manage horses. Since Grant expressed a strong dislike for the tannery his father put his ability with horses to use by giving him work driving wagon loads of supplies and transporting people. Unlike his siblings, Grant was not forced to attend church by his Methodist parents. For the rest of his life, he prayed and never joined any denomination. To others, including late in life, his own son, Grant appeared to be an agnostic, he inherited some of Hannah's Methodist quiet nature. Grant was apolitical before the war but wrote, "If I had had any political sympathies they would have been with the Whigs. I was raised in that school."
Grant's father wrote to Representative Thomas L. Hamer requesting that he nominate Ulysses to the United States