Harvard Business School
Harvard Business School is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts. The school offers a large full-time MBA program, doctoral programs, HBS Online and many executive education programs, it owns Harvard Business Publishing, which publishes business books, leadership articles, online management tools for corporate learning, case studies and the monthly Harvard Business Review. It is home to the Baker Library/Bloomberg Center; the school was established in 1908. Established by the humanities faculty, it received independent status in 1910, became a separate administrative unit in 1913; the first dean was historian Edwin Francis Gay. Yogev explains the original concept: This school of business and public administration was conceived as a school for diplomacy and government service on the model of the French Ecole des Sciences Politiques; the goal was an institution of higher learning that would offer a master of arts degree in the humanities field, with a major in business.
In discussions about the curriculum, the suggestion was made to concentrate on specific business topics such as banking, so on... Professor Lowell said the school would train qualified public administrators whom the government would have no choice but to employ, thereby building a better public administration... Harvard was blazing a new trail by educating young people for a career in business, just as its medical school trained doctors and its law faculty trained lawyers; the business school pioneered the development of the case method of teaching, drawing inspiration from this approach to legal education at Harvard. Cases are descriptions of real events in organizations. Students are positioned as managers and are presented with problems which they need to analyse and provide recommendations on. From the start the school enjoyed a close relationship with the corporate world. Within a few years of its founding many business leaders were its alumni and were hiring other alumni for starting positions in their firms.
At its founding, the school accepted only male students. The Training Course in Personnel Administration, founded at Radcliffe College in 1937, was the beginning of business training for women at Harvard. HBS took over administration of that program from Radcliffe in 1954. In 1959, alumnae of the one-year program were permitted to apply to join the HBS MBA program as second-years. In December 1962, the faculty voted to allow women to enter the MBA program directly; the first women to apply directly to the MBA program matriculated in September 1963. In 2012–2013, HBS administration implemented new programs and practices to improve the experience of female students and recruit more female professors. HBS established nine global research centers and four regional offices and functions through offices in Asia Pacific, United States, South Asia, Middle East and North Africa and Latin America. In 2018, HBS was tied for 1st with Chicago Booth by U. S. News & World ranked 5th in the world by the Financial Times.
HBS students can join more than 80 different clubs and student organizations on campus. The Student Association is the main interface between the MBA student body and the faculty/administration. In addition, HBS student body is represented at the university-level by the Harvard Graduate Council. In 2015, executive education contributed $168 million to HBS's total revenue of $707 million; the Advanced Management Program is a seven-week $82,000 residential course with the stated aim of "transforming proven leaders into global executives". It was first run in 1945, has had 20,000 attendees. There are "no formal educational requirements", on completion, "you will become a lifetime member of the HBS alumni community". In 2016, the BBC noted that attendees "can have an experience that more mimics the MBA degree, with the opportunity to develop closer friendships and full access to university alumni minus the rigorous admissions process." The Owner/President Management Program consists of three three-week $44,000 "units" spread over two years, aimed at "business owners and entrepreneurs".
There are "no formal educational requirements" Notable attendees include model-turned-businesswoman Tyra Banks, criticised for using phrases such as "I went to business school", from which people might infer that she earned a Harvard MBA. HBS Online HBX, is an online learning initiative announced by the Harvard Business School in March 2014 to host online university-level courses. Initial programs are the Credential of Readiness and Disruptive Strategy with Clayton Christensen. Leading with Finance, taught by Mihir A. Desai, was added to the catalog in August 2016. HBS Online created HBX Live, a virtual classroom based at WGBH in Boston; the duration of HBS Standard Online CORe course is 10 to 12 weeks and costs $2,250. The Summer Venture in Management Program is a one-week management training program for rising college seniors designed to increase diversity and opportunity in business education. Participants must be employed in a summer internship and be nominated by and have sponsorship from their organization to attend.
The school's faculty are divided into 10 academic units: Management. In the fall of 2010, Tata related companies and charities donated $50
Carroll Vincent Newsom
Carroll Vincent Newsom was an American educator who served as the eleventh NYU President and President of Prentice Hall. Newsom was born February 1904 in Buckley, Illinois, he received a B. A. from the College of Emporia in 1924, a M. A. from the University of Michigan in 1927 and a Doctor of Philosophy in 1931. He commenced his academic career in 1924 as a mathematics instructor at the College of Emporia. In 1927-1928 he taught at the University of Michigan and at the University of New Mexico in 1928-1929, he was appointed assistant professor in 1929, an associate professor in 1931, professor in 1933, served as Head of the Department from 1931-1944. He was Professor of Mathematics and Chairman of the Science Division at Oberlin College from 1944-1948. From 1948-1950, he was Assistant Commissioner for Higher Education Associate Commissioner for Higher and Professional Education, for the New York State. Newsom was appointed Executive Vice President in 1955 at New York University and served as 11th NYU President from 1956-1962.
He was President of Prentice Hall from 1964-1965 and Director of NBC from 1961-1971, serving as Vice President from 1966-1969. He served on many other boards of committees, listed below. Newsom had three children, his wife, Frances Jeanne Higley, died June 3, 1989 in Dublin, OH. Newsom died February 3, 1990 in Dublin. Mathematical Association of America. Raised the money to build a 13-story building to house the members of the staff and their research activities 1958 Member, Board of Directors, New York World's Fair 1964-65 Corporation 1959-72 Vice President and Trustee, Thomas Alva Edison Foundation 1960-70 Vice President, Phi Beta Kappa Association 1961 Chairman of the Board, Laboratory for Educational Materials, Inc. 1961-65 Member, Board of Design, Sterling Forest Corporation, Inc. 1961-66 Member, Board of Trustees, New College, Florida 1961-66 Member, Board of Directors, National Broadcasting Company, Inc. 1961-69 Member, Board of Trustees, Ithaca College 1961-75. 1966-70. 1967-70 Member, Education Committee, U.
S. Chamber of Commerce 1967-70 Member, Computer Science Advisory Committee, Stanford University 1967-71 Member, Governor's Commission on Public Broadcasting in New Jersey 1968 Member, Board of Managers, the Franklin Institute 1968-71 Member, Board of Trustees, Dropsie University known as the Annenberg School for Judaic Studies 1970-75 Member, Board of Directors, National Association of Educational Broadcasters 1970-75 Chairman, Phi Beta Kappa Bicentennial Fellows 1976 Member and Investment Committee, Hamilton Trust Fund 1933-38 Fellow, Cooperative Study in General Education 1939 Chairman, Seminar on College Mathematics Teaching, University of Chicago 1939-40 Member, War Policy Committee of Mathematicians 1939-42 Educational Consultant, Rinehart Publishing Company 1945-49 Chairman, Section on Teaching and History of Mathematics, International Congress of Mathematicians 1950 American Council of Education Committee on TV 1952-56 Member, Joint Council on Educational TV 1952-56 Member, National Commission on Standards of Education and Experience for CPAs 1954-56 Chairman of the Committee that created Educational TV to be renamed Public TV Member, Council of College of Home Economics of Cornell University 1955-58 Board Member, Metropolitan Educational TV Association, Inc.
1955-59. 1957-58 Member, New York Chamber of Commerce 1957-61 Member, Board of Trustees, Grant Monument Association 1957-70 Council of Higher Educational Institutions in New York City 1958-60. 1958-61 Member, National Commission on Accrediting 1958-61 State Advisory Council on Higher Education of University of State of New York 1958-62 Member and College Committee of United Negro College Fund, Inc. 1958-62 Co-chairman of Paderewsky Centennial Committee for 1960 1959 Chairman, New York Committee for the Selection of Rhodes Scholars 1959-62 Member, American Council on Relationships of Higher Education to Federal Government 1960-61 Member, Advisory Counc
Theodore Frelinghuysen was an American politician who represented New Jersey in the United States Senate. He was the Whig vice presidential nominee in the election of 1844, running on a ticket with Henry Clay. Born in Somerset County, New Jersey, Frelinghuysen established a legal practice in Newark, New Jersey after graduating from the College of New Jersey, he was the son of Senator Frederick Frelinghuysen and the adoptive father of Secretary of State Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen. He served as the New Jersey Attorney General from 1817 to 1829 and as a United States Senator from 1829 to 1835. In the Senate, Frelinghuysen opposed President Andrew Jackson's policy of Indian removal. After leaving the Senate, he served as the Mayor of Newark from 1837 to 1838. Frelinghuysen was selected as Clay's running mate at the 1844 Whig National Convention. In the 1844 election, the Whig ticket was narrowly defeated by the Democratic ticket of James K. Polk and George M. Dallas. Frelinghuysen served as President of New York University from 1839 to 1850, as president of Rutgers College from 1850 to 1862.
Upon its incorporation in 1848, Frelinghuysen Township, New Jersey was named after him. He was born in 1787 in Franklin Township, Somerset County, New Jersey, to Frederick Frelinghuysen and Gertrude Schenck, his siblings include: Catharine Frelinghuysen. His great-grandfather Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen was a minister and theologian of the Dutch Reformed Church, influential in the founding of Queen's College, now Rutgers University, one of four key leaders of the First Great Awakening in Colonial America. Theodore was the uncle of Frederick T. Frelinghuysen and great-great-grandfather of Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.. Rodney Frelinghuysen, who represented New Jersey's 11th congressional district, is a descendant. Frelinghuysen married Charlotte Mercer in 1809, they had no children together, but when Theodore's brother, Frederick Frelinghuysen died, Theodore adopted his son, Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen, who would become Secretary of State. Theodore Frelinghuysen remarried in 1857 to Harriet Pumpelly.
He graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1804 and studied law under his brother John Frelinghuysen, Richard Stockton. He was admitted to the bar as an attorney in 1808 and as a counselor in 1811, set up a law practice in Newark during this time period. In the War of 1812, he was a captain of a company of volunteers, he became Attorney General of New Jersey in 1817, turned down an appointment to the New Jersey Supreme Court and became a United States Senator in 1829, serving in that capacity until 1835. As a Senator, he led the opposition to Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act of 1830, his six-hour speech against the Removal Act was delivered over the course of three days, warned of the supposed dire consequences of the policy: Let us beware how, by oppressive encroachments upon the sacred privileges of our Indian neighbors, we minister to the agonies of future remorse. Frelinghuysen was chided for mixing his evangelical Christianity with politics, the Removal Act was passed.1He was Mayor of Newark, New Jersey from 1837 until 1838.
At the 1844 Whig National Convention, competing with Millard Fillmore, John Davis and John Sergeant, he was selected as the Whig vice-presidential candidate. He took the lead on the first ballot and never lost it being chosen by acclamation; the Whig presidential candidate, Henry Clay, was not present at the convention and expressed surprise upon hearing the news. Frelinghuysen's rectitude might have been intended to correct for Clay's reputation for moral laxity, but his opposition to Indian removal may have put off those southern voters who had suffered from their raids. Frelinghuysen was unpopular with Catholics as groups of which he was a member, such as the Protestant American Bible Society promulgated the idea that Catholics should convert to Protestantism; the two went down to defeat in the 1844 election. He was the second President of New York University between 1839 and 1850 and seventh President of Rutgers College between 1850 and 1862, he was President of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, President of the American Bible Society, President of the American Tract Society, Vice President of the American Sunday School Union, Vice President of the American Colonization Society.
He believed in temperance and opposed slavery. His moniker was the "Christian Statesman." He died in New Brunswick, New Jersey on April 12, 1862 and he was buried there at the First Reformed Church Cemetery. ^1 Anthony F. C. Wallace, The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians, pp. 68–9, Francis Paul Prucha, The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians, Volume I, pp. 204–5. Media related to Theodore Frelinghuysen at Wikimedia CommonsUnited States Congress. "Theodore Frelinghuysen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Theodore Frelinghuysen at Find a Grave Leadership on the Banks: Rutgers' Presidents, 1766–2004 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congr
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He had served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, prior to that as both a U. S. representative and senator from California. Nixon was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law, he and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40.
He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race, he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.
In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U. S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days at the age of 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith.
Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler, Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. At the age of twelve, a spot was found on Richard's lung, with a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class.
His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. He played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games, he had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon stated. At the start of his junior year beginning in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier High, Nixon suffered his first electoral defeat, for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market.
He drove to the store to wash and display them, befo
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of