Danger Mouse (musician)
Brian Joseph Burton, better known by his stage name Danger Mouse, is an American musician and record producer. He came to prominence in 2004 when he released The Grey Album, which combined vocal performances from Jay-Z's The Black Album with instrumentals from The Beatles' The Beatles, he produced its albums St. Elsewhere and The Odd Couple. In 2009 he collaborated with James Mercer of the indie rock band The Shins to form the band Broken Bells. In addition, Burton worked with rapper MF Doom as Danger Doom and released the album The Mouse and the Mask; as a producer Danger Mouse produced the second Gorillaz album, 2005's Demon Days, as well as Beck's 2008 record Modern Guilt and four albums with The Black Keys. In 2016, Danger Mouse produced, performed on and co-wrote songs for the eleventh studio album by the Red Hot Chili Peppers titled The Getaway. Danger Mouse has produced and co-written albums by Norah Jones, Electric Guest, Portugal; the Man, ASAP Rocky's. He has won six. He's been nominated in the Producer of the Year category five times, won the award in 2011.
Brian Joseph Burton was born in New York. He spent much of his childhood in New York. Burton moved to Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta, he lived in Athens, where he pursued a degree in telecommunications at the University of Georgia on scholarship, where his Trip hop works were released while he was still a student. While at the University of Georgia he met Nirvana, Pink Floyd, Portishead, came to know the indie rock scene in Athens, remixed work by several local artists, including Neutral Milk Hotel, DJ'd for University of Georgia radio station WUOG-FM. From 1998 to 2003, Burton created a series of remix CDs and records under the stage name Danger Mouse, he performed in a mouse outfit because he was too shy to show his face, took his name from the British cartoon series Danger Mouse. While in Athens, Burton took second place in a 1998 talent contest and was asked to open for a concert at the University of Georgia featuring OutKast and Goodie Mob. Afterwards, Burton approached CeeLo Green, a member of Goodie Mob, gave him an instrumental demo tape.
It would be several years before the pair made contact again, but the two would collaborate as Gnarls Barkley. Burton moved to Britain for a couple of years, living in New Cross in London and working at the Rose pub near London Bridge. While there, he sent a demo to Lex Records. Burton relocated to Los Angeles. While the Danger Mouse debut was well received by critics, he did not rise to fame until he created The Grey Album, mixing a cappella versions of Jay-Z's The Black Album over beats crafted from samples of The Beatles"White Album'; the remix album created just for his friends, spread over the Internet and became popular with both the general audience and critics, with Rolling Stone calling it the ultimate remix record and Entertainment Weekly ranking it the best record of that year. He discussed his feelings about any controversy the album may have created in the documentary Alternative Freedom. Danger Mouse was named among the Men of the Year by GQ in 2004 and won a 2005 Wired Rave Award.
The Grey Album got the attention of Damon Albarn, who enlisted Danger Mouse to produce the Gorillaz' second studio album, Demon Days. Demon Days earned Burton a Grammy Award nomination for Producer of the Year. Danger Mouse's next project was The Mouse and the Mask, a collaboration with MF DOOM about and for Cartoon Network's Adult Swim; the two had collaborated on the Danger Mouse remix of Zero 7's "Somersault", on the Prince Po track "Social Distortion", on Gorillaz' "November Has Come". A year DANGERDOOM released a follow-up EP called Occult Hymn; the 7-track EP featured new songs as well as remixes of tracks from The Mouse & The Mask and was released as a free download on Adult Swim's site. In 2006, Danger Mouse and CeeLo released their first album, St. Elsewhere, which included the international hit single "Crazy". "Crazy" became the first UK number-one single based on downloads. Gnarls Barkley set out on tour and was one of the main opening acts on the Red Hot Chili Peppers' Stadium Arcadium World Tour.
The Gnarls Barkley touring lineup featured future Chili Peppers guitarist, Josh Klinghoffer. He produced two tracks on The Rapture's 2006 album Pieces of the People We Love. In the autumn of 2006, Sparklehorse released his fourth album, Dreamt for Light Years in the Belly of a Mountain, a collaboration with Danger Mouse and Steven Drozd of The Flaming Lips. In August and September 2006, Danger Mouse collaborated with British graffiti artist Banksy to replace 500 copies of Paris Hilton's album Paris in English music stores with altered album artwork and a 40-minute instrumental song containing various statements she had made. Danger Mouse gave a rare interview to Charlie Rose on August 31, 2006. In January 2007, Danger Mouse produced another collaboration with Damon Albarn on The Good, the Bad and the Queen, along with Clash bassist Paul Simonon, former Verve guitarist Simon Tong and Afrobeat pioneer and Africa 70 drummer Tony Allen. In March 2008, The Odd Couple, the second album of his and Cee
Peter Wilton Cushing, OBE was an English actor best known for his roles in the Hammer Productions horror films of the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, as well as his performance as Grand Moff Tarkin in Star Wars. Spanning over six decades, his acting career included appearances in more than 100 films, as well as many television and radio roles. Born in Kenley, Cushing made his stage debut in 1935 and spent three years at a repertory theatre before moving to Hollywood to pursue a film career. After making his motion picture debut in the 1939 film The Man in the Iron Mask, Cushing began to find modest success in American films before returning to England at the outbreak of the Second World War. Despite performing in a string of roles, including one as Osric in Laurence Olivier's film adaptation of Hamlet, Cushing struggled to find work during this period and began to consider himself a failure, his career was revitalized once he started to work in live television plays, he soon became one of the most recognizable faces in British television.
He earned particular acclaim for his lead performance in a 1954 adaptation of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Cushing gained worldwide fame for his appearances in twenty-two horror films by the independent Hammer Productions for his role as Baron Frankenstein in six of their seven Frankenstein films, Doctor Van Helsing in five Dracula films. Cushing appeared alongside actor Christopher Lee, who became one of his closest friends, with the American horror star Vincent Price. Cushing appeared in several other Hammer films, including The Abominable Snowman, The Mummy and The Hound of the Baskervilles, the last of which marked the first of many times he portrayed the famous detective Sherlock Holmes throughout his career. Cushing continued to perform a variety of roles, although he was typecast as a horror film actor, he played Dr. Who in Dr. Who and the Daleks and Daleks' Invasion Earth 2150 A. D. and gained the highest amount of visibility in his career in 1977, when he appeared as Grand Moff Tarkin in the first Star Wars film.
Cushing continued acting into his years, wrote two autobiographies. He was lovingly devoted to his wife of twenty-eight years, Helen Cushing, who died in 1971. Cushing died in 1994 of prostate cancer. Peter Wilton Cushing was born in Kenley, a district in the English county of Surrey, on 26 May 1913 to George Edward Cushing and Nellie Marie Cushing, his mother had so hoped for a daughter that for the first few years of his life, she would dress Peter in girls' frocks, let his hair grow in long curls and tie them in bows of pink ribbon, so others would mistake him for a girl. His father, a quantity surveyor from an upper-class family, was a reserved and uncommunicative man who Peter claimed he never got to know well, his mother considered of a lower class than her husband. Cushing's family consisted of several stage actors, including his paternal grandfather Henry William Cushing, his paternal aunt Maude Ashton and his step-uncle Wilton Herriot, after whom Peter Cushing received his middle name.
The Cushing family lived in Dulwich during the First World War, but moved to Purley after the war ended in 1918. Although raised during wartime, Cushing was too young to understand or become affected by it, was shielded from the horrors of war by his mother, who encouraged him to play games under the kitchen table whenever the threat of possible bombings arose. In his infancy, Cushing twice developed pneumonia and once what was known as "double pneumonia." Although he survived, the latter was fatal during that period. During one Christmas in his youth, Cushing saw a stage production of Peter Pan, which served as an early source of inspiration and interest in acting. Cushing loved dressing up and playing pretend from an early age, claimed he always wanted to be an actor, "perhaps without knowing at first." A fan of comics and toy collectibles in his youth, Cushing earned money by staging puppet shows for family members with his glove-puppets and toys. He began his early education in Dulwich, an affluent area of South London, before attending the Shoreham Grammar School in Shoreham-by-Sea, on the Sussex coast between Brighton and Worthing.
Prone to homesickness, he was miserable at the boarding school and spent only one term there before returning home. He attended the Purley County Secondary School, where he played cricket and rugby. With the exception of art, Cushing was a self-proclaimed poor student in most subjects and had little attention span for that which did not interest him, he got fair grades only through the help of his brother, a strong student who did his homework for him. Cushing harboured aspirations for the arts all throughout his youth acting, his childhood inspiration was an American film actor and star of many Western films. D. J. Davies, the Purley County Secondary School physics teacher who produced all the school's plays, recognized some acting potential in him and encouraged him to participate in the theatre allowing Cushing to skip class to paint sets, he played the lead in nearly every school production during his teenage years, including the role of Sir Anthony Absolute in a 1929 staging of Richard Brinsley Sheridan's comedy of manners play, The Rivals.
Cushing wanted to enter the acting profession after school, but his father opposed the idea, despite the theatrical background of several of his family members. Instead, seizing upon Cushing's interest in art and drawing, he got his son a job as a surveyor's assistant in the
The Eddie Capra Mysteries
The Eddie Capra Mysteries is a 1978–1979 United States mystery television series starring Vincent Baggetta as a lawyer who investigates murders and has a knack for solving them. Original episodes aired from September 8, 1978, to January 12, 1979. Vincent Baggetta.... Eddie Capra Wendy Phillips.... Lacey Brown Ken Swofford... J. J. Devlin Michael Horton.... Harvey Winchell Seven Ann McDonald.... Jennie Brown Eddie Capra is an unconventional young lawyer who graduated from New York University Law School and works for Devlin, O'Brien, a conventional and prestigious law firm in Los Angeles, that specializes in criminal cases. Headstrong and quirky, shunning court appearances because he dislikes wearing a tie and ignoring established legal and police procedures, Eddie tends to rush off and play detective when one of the firm's clients is indicted, seeking evidence with which to exonerate the client – sometimes to the consternation of his colleagues – before the case reaches court. Lacey Brown is his secretary, personal friend, sometime girlfriend, Jennie is her precocious daughter.
Harvey Winchell, an investigator for the firm, is Eddie's enthusiastic young assistant, J. J. Devlin, an irascible senior partner in the firm, is Eddie's boss, he frequently calls his brother by phone but is never seen on camera. Former Mets/Braves pitcher Buzz CapraEach episode is constructed in the "classic style" of a detective show, opening with a graphic depiction of a puzzling murder and following Eddie as he interviews witnesses and other people who might not be telling the truth and uncovers clues missed by the authorities one-by-one until they lead to the killer. In the episode's climax, Eddie gathers all the suspects in one room – a courtroom – and uses deductive reasoning to explain which one of them is guilty; the series employs a gimmick in which viewers – who receive no more or less information than Eddie – are challenged to identify the murderer before Eddie does. Peter S. Fischer created The Eddie Capra Mysteries. Episode directors included James Frawley, William Wiard, Edward M. Abroms, Jim Benson, Ivan Dixon, Sigmund Neufeld, Jr. Ron Satlof, Nicholas Sgarro, writers included Fischer, Robert C.
Dennis, Peter Allan Fields, Ted Leighton, Michael Rhodes. Fischer, Stuart Cohen, James Duff McAdams were among the show's producers. John Cacavas and John Addison composed music for the show; some scripts used in The Eddie Capra Mysteries were adapted from scripts intended for the canceled 1975–1976 NBC series Ellery Queen. Premiering on September 8, 1978 with a two-hour pilot episode, The Eddie Capra Mysteries aired on NBC on Fridays at 10:00 p.m. throughout the rest of its run. Its last original episode aired on January 12, 1979. During the summer of 1979, NBC broadcast reruns of the show in its 10:00 p.m. Friday time slot from June to September. Reruns of The Eddie Capra Mysteries returned to the air in prime time in the summer of 1990, when CBS broadcast episodes of the show at 9:00 p.m. on Thursdays from July 26 to August 30 as a temporary replacement for Wiseguy. The Eddie Capra Mysteries opening credits on YouTube
Aberdeen, South Dakota
Aberdeen is a city in and the county seat of Brown County, South Dakota, United States, about 125 miles northeast of Pierre. The city population was 26,091 at the 2010 census, making it the third most populous city in the state after Sioux Falls and Rapid City. Aberdeen is the principal city of the Aberdeen Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Brown and Edmunds counties and has a population of 40,602 in 2010. Aberdeen is considered a college town, being the home of both Northern State University and Presentation College. Before Aberdeen or Brown County was inhabited by European settlers, it was inhabited by the Sioux Indians from 1700 to 1879. Europeans entered the region for business, founding fur trading posts during the 1820s; the first "settlers" of this region were the Arikara Indians, but they would be joined by others. The first group of Euro-American settlers to reach the area, now Brown County was a party of four people, three horses, two mules, fifteen cattle, two wagons.
This group of settlers was joined by another group the following spring, more settlers migrated toward this general area known as Columbia, South Dakota. This town was established on June 15, 1879; the town was settled in 1880, incorporated in 1882. Aberdeen, like many towns of the Midwest, was built around the newly developing railroad systems. Aberdeen was first plotted as a town site on January 3, 1881, by Charles Prior, the superintendent of the Minneapolis office of the Chicago, St. Paul Railroad, or the Milwaukee Road for short, presided over by Alexander Mitchell. Mitchell, Charles Prior's boss, was responsible for the choice of town names, was born in Aberdeen, after which the town of Aberdeen, South Dakota, was named. Aberdeen was founded on July 6, 1881, the date of the first arrival of a Milwaukee Railroad train. Aberdeen operated under a city charter granted by the Territorial Legislature in March 1883; as Aberdeen grew, many businesses and buildings were constructed along Aberdeen's Main Street.
However, this soon became a problem due to Aberdeen's periodic flooding, which led to it being referred to as "The Town in the Frog Pond". At first, this unique condition presented no problem to the newly constructed buildings because it had not rained much but, when heavy rains fell, the Pond reappeared and flooded the basements of every building on Main Street, causing many business owners and home owners much turmoil; when this flooding happened, the city had one steam-powered pump that had to be used to dry out the entire area, flooded, which would take days, if not weeks – and more than not, it would have rained again in this time period and caused more flooding in the basements, emptied of the water. When the water was gone from the basements, the city still had to deal with the mud that resulted from the heavy rains; the city decided in 1882 to build an artesian ditch to control the "Frog Pond" effects. The artesian well was designed by the city engineers to develop a water system. However, during the digging of the well, the water stream, found underground was too powerful to be contained.
The water came blasting out with violent force and had the entire Main Street submerged in up to four feet of water. The engineers realized the previous flaws of the artesian well plan and soon added a gate valve to the well to control the flow of water, giving Aberdeen its first working water supply. Aberdeen had four different railroad companies with depots built in the newly developing town. With these four railroads intersecting here, Aberdeen soon became known as the "Hub City of the Dakotas"; when looking down on Aberdeen from above, the railroad tracks converging in Aberdeen resembled the spokes of a wheel converging at a hub, hence the name "Hub City of the Dakotas". These four railroad companies are the reason why Aberdeen was able to flourish as it did; the only railroad still running through Aberdeen is the Burlington Northern Santa Fe. On October 25, 1999, a Learjet 35 carrying golfing star Payne Stewart crashed in a field near Mina, 10 miles west of Aberdeen. All on board died. Aberdeen is located in northeastern South Dakota, in the James River valley 11 miles west of the river.
The James River enters northeastern South Dakota in Brown County, where it is dammed to form two reservoirs northeast of Aberdeen. The city is bisected by Moccasin Creek, a slow-moving waterway which flows south and northeast to the James River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.60 square miles, of which 15.50 square miles is land and 0.10 square miles is water. Aberdeen has been assigned the ZIP code range 57401−57402. Aberdeen experiences a humid continental climate influenced by its position far from moderating bodies of water; this brings four distinct seasons, a phenomenon, characterized by hot humid summers and cold, dry winters, it lies in USDA Hardiness Zone 4. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 12.0 °F in January to 71.3 °F in July, while there are 13 days of 90 °F + highs and 37 days with sub-0 °F lows annually. Snowfall occurs in light to moderate amounts during the winter, totaling 38 inches. Precipitation, at 21.7 inches annually, is concentrated in the warmer months.
Extreme temperatures have ranged from −46 °F on January 12, 1912, F
Airport 1975 is a 1974 American air disaster film and the first sequel to the successful 1970 film Airport. Airport 1975 is directed by Jack Smight, produced by William Frye and Jennings Lang and has a screenplay by Don Ingalls; the film stars Charlton Heston, Karen Black and George Kennedy, as well as Gloria Swanson in her final screen appearance. The plot concerns the dramatic events aboard an airborne Boeing 747 when a small aircraft crashes into the cockpit causing the fatalities of senior crew and the blinding of the pilot with no one aboard qualified to take the controls. Airport 1975 was the seventh highest-grossing movie of 1974 at the U. S. A. and Canada box office. Columbia Air Lines Flight 409 is a Boeing 747-100 on a red-eye route from Washington Dulles International Airport to Los Angeles International Airport. Scott Freeman, meanwhile, is a New Mexican businessman flying his private Beechcraft Baron to an urgent sales meeting in Boise, Idaho. However, an occluded front has the entire West Coast socked in, with Los Angeles reporting zero visibility.
Columbia 409 and Freeman's Beechcraft are both diverted to Salt Lake City International Airport. Salt Lake air traffic control assigns Columbia 409 to land ahead of Freeman's Beechcraft; as Columbia 409 is about to start its descent, First Officer Urias unlocks himself from his seat to check out a vibration. Just Freeman suffers a heart attack and unknowingly descends into the approach of Columbia 409; the Beechcraft slams into Columbia 409 just above the co-pilot seat, blowing Urias out of the plane to his death, destroying most of the Flight Engineer's panel and fatally injuring Flight Engineer Julio. Captain Stacy is blinded. Nancy Pryor, the First Stewardess, rushes to the flight deck, to find Flight Engineer Julio dead, First Officer Urias gone and Captain Stacy injured. Although injured and blinded, he is still alive. Using the last of his strength, Captain Stacy is able to engage the autopilot and the altitude hold switch before losing consciousness. Pryor informs the Salt Lake control tower that the crew is dead or badly injured and that there is no one to fly the plane.
She gives an assessment of the damage as a large hole on the right side of the flight deck that destroyed most of the instrument gauges over the engineer station. Joe Patroni, Columbia's Vice President of Operations, is apprised of Columbia 409's situation, he seeks the advice of Captain Al Murdock, Columbia's chief flight instructor, who happens to be Nancy Pryor's boyfriend though their relationship was "on the rocks" at that time. Patroni and Murdock take the airline's executive jet to Salt Lake. En route, they communicate with Pryor, learning that the autopilot is keeping the aircraft in level flight, but it is inoperable for turns; the jet is heading into the Wasatch Mountains, so Murdock starts to guide Pryor by radio on how to perform the turn when radio communications are interrupted and the Salt Lake tower is unable to restore contact. Unable to turn, leaking fuel and dodging the peaks of the Wasatch Mountains, an air-to-air rescue attempt is undertaken from a HH-53 helicopter flown by the USAF Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service.
While a replacement pilot is preparing to be released on a tether from the helicopter to Columbia 409, Captain Stacy is able to give a cryptic clue regarding the decrease in airspeed during a climb in altitude. Pryor realizes that she must accelerate to be able to climb over the mountain and does so. After Columbia 409 has leveled off, the replacement pilot is released towards the stricken airliner. Just as Pryor is helping him in, the release cord from his harness becomes caught in the jagged metal surrounding the hole in the cockpit; as he climbs in, his harness is released from the tether and he falls from the aircraft. The only other person on the helicopter who can land a 747 is Captain Murdock, he is tethered to the helicopter, lowered to the jet and enters it through the hole in the cockpit. He lands the plane safely at Salt Lake City Airport, where the flight attendants conduct an emergency evacuation of the passengers via the inflatable slides as Pryor and Murdock reconcile. Airport 1975 used a Boeing 747-123 s/n 20390, leased from American Airlines when it was temporarily taken out of passenger service at the start of American's restructuring away from the fleet of Boeing jumbo jets.
The aircraft was converted into a freighter in 1984 and flew for UPS for over 20 years before being retired to desert storage in 2005 and was scrapped in 2011. The film was shot on location in the Salt Lake International Airport. Aerials shots over Heber Valley and the Wasatch Mountains are included; as Sister Ruth, Helen Reddy performs a solo acoustic version of her song "Best Friend" to an ailing Linda Blair. The song was written by Reddy and Ray Burton, who co-wrote her hit single "I Am Woman". Airport 1975 was a massive commercial success. With a budget of $3 million, the film made over $47 million at the box office, making it the seventh highest-grossing film of 1974 and the year's third highest-grossing disaster film, behind The Towering Inferno and Earthquake. Critical reception was unfavourable with The New Yorker magazine's film critic Pauline Kael calling the picture "cut-rate swill", "produced on a TV-movie budget by mercenary businessmen". Kael thought the audio problems gave Karen Black's voice a metallic sound, grating and that the main character, a stewardess, was being patronized by men.
Roger Ebert was less condemnatory, awarding two-and-a-half stars out of four and describi
Mrs. Columbo known as Kate Columbo, followed by Kate the Detective and ultimately Kate Loves a Mystery is an American crime drama television series based on the wife of Lieutenant Columbo, the title character from the television series Columbo, it was created and produced by Richard Alan Simmons and Universal Television for NBC, stars Kate Mulgrew as a news reporter helping to solve crimes while raising her daughter. The series debuted in February 1979 as a spin-off to the successful mystery crime drama series Columbo, focusing on Lieutenant Columbo's wife, never given a first name in the original Columbo series but was named Kate in this series. After poor ratings and reception from both audiences and the original producers of Columbo, both the series and the eponymous character herself were renamed in an attempt to change direction, but this did not help ratings and the series was canceled in March 1980 after 13 episodes had aired. Neither Peter Falk nor the character of Lieutenant Columbo appeared on or endorsed the show.
Kate Columbo is the wife of Lieutenant Columbo, the title character from the television series Columbo. Kate is a news reporter. Kate Mulgrew as Kate Columbo / Kate Callahan Lili Haydn as Jenny Callahan Henry Jones as Josh Alden Don Stroud as Sergeant Mike Varrick Shortly after the Columbo series ended its original run on NBC in 1978, despite objections from Columbo producers Richard Levinson and William Link, NBC executive Fred Silverman went forward in producing Mrs. Columbo as a spin-off to the original series; the information NBC released about the show was unambiguous about the fact that Mrs. Columbo in the new series was in fact the unseen wife mentioned on Columbo; the show received poor ratings, as part of efforts to revamp it, the linkage between this Kate Columbo and the Mrs. Columbo of the original television series was reduced; the name of the character was changed to Kate Callahan after an off-screen divorce, the series was renamed Kate the Detective, followed by Kate Loves a Mystery.
In this ultimate incarnation, the producers completed their retreat from the show's original premise, Kate Callahan was regarded as being a different character than Mrs. Columbo of Columbo, Kate's ex-husband now named Philip. None of the changes aided the new show's ratings, it was pulled from the air in 1980, after 13 episodes. Peter Falk expressed his disapproval of the spin-off, calling it a "bad idea" and "disgraceful"; when Columbo returned to the air in 1989 on ABC, it was further established that Lt. Columbo and his wife Mrs. Columbo were still married and the existence of the series Mrs. Columbo was ignored; the Mrs. Columbo episode "A Riddle for Puppets" was included as a bonus feature in the Region 1 DVD release of the fourth season of Columbo, released in August 2005; the episode "Murder Is a Parlor Game" was included in the third season of Columbo. The episode "Caviar with Everything" was included in the fifth season of Columbo. Mrs. Columbo on IMDb Mrs. Columbo on the Official Kate Mulgrew fansite
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog