John Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley
Edmund John Philip Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley, FRS, FREng, FGS, FInstP, HonFRSC, HonFIMechE, HonFIChemE, CIMgt, FInstPet, FIMMM is a British businessman. He is best known for his role as the chief executive of the energy company BP between 1995 and 2007; this period has been described as the company's "golden period of expansion and diversification" though an investigation of the fatal explosion at BP's Texas City, plant on 23 March 2005 that killed 15 workers and injured more than 170 others, resulted in fines and awards being given out for breaches in its health and safety regime. Browne was lauded during this period, as he engineered a merger with rival Amoco, gained access to Russian oil reserves with the creation of TNK-BP. Nicknamed by employees the "Sun King" for his management style, he was praised for increasing BP's interest in renewable energy sources, he resigned from BP in May 2007 in controversial circumstances surrounding his personal life. He is a former President of the Royal Academy of Engineering.
Since 2001, he has been a crossbench member of the House of Lords. Lord Browne is a former Partner of Riverstone, co-owner of Cuadrilla resources, he received his undergraduate education at the University of Cambridge and attended Stanford University. Browne was born on 20 February 1948 in Germany, his father was a British Army officer who worked for Anglo-Persian Oil, which became British Petroleum. His mother, was a Hungarian Jewish Auschwitz survivor. Many members of Browne's Jewish maternal family, including his grandparents, were murdered at the Birkenau concentration camp during The Holocaust. Browne was educated at the King's School, St John's College, where he earned a First Class BSc degree in Physics. In addition to his degree in Physics from the University of Cambridge, he holds an MS degree in Business from Stanford University, California. At the suggestion of his father, Browne joined BP as an apprentice in 1966 while still at university, he remained with the corporation throughout his career.
Between 1969 and 1983, he held a variety of exploration and production posts in Anchorage, New York, San Francisco and Canada. In 1984 he became Group Chief Executive of BP Finance International. In April 1986, he took up the position of Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Standard Oil of Ohio in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1987, following the BP/Standard merger, in addition to his position as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of BP America, he was appointed Chief Executive Officer of Standard Oil Production Company. In 1989, he became Chief Executive Officer of BP Exploration based in London. In September 1991, he joined BP's board as a Managing Director, he was appointed Group Chief Executive on 10 June 1995 after the British government sold its last remaining stake in the company. Following the merger of BP and Amoco, he became Group Chief Executive of the combined group on 31 December 1998 and served until 1 May 2007, he was one of the most paid executives in the UK, with a remuneration package of £5.7 million in 2004.
From 1997, Browne sought to re-brand BP. The company linked itself in its corporate communications with green issues by the overt link of its BP initials with the phrase "Beyond Petroleum". Browne stated that the right to self-determination was crucial for people everywhere, that he saw his company's mission as to find ways to meet current needs without excessive harm to the environment, while developing future, more sustainable sources of energy, he promised that BP would cut its production of CO2 by 10% by 2010. It was announced on 25 July 2006 that Browne would stand down as chief executive of BP in December 2008. There had been press speculation that he had wished to continue beyond this date, but he made it clear that he did not wish to do so. On 6 January 2007, Browne won his first interim injunction against the publication of allegations by his former partner, Jeff Chevalier. Browne disclosed being "terrified" that his sexuality would be revealed publicly. A week it was announced that his retirement date had been brought forward to July 2007 and that Tony Hayward would succeed him.
In April 2007, after a court case lasting over four weeks, Browne appealed to the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords, who ruled that he could not prevent Associated Newspapers from printing allegations about his romantic life and alleged misuse of company funds. Lord Browne resigned from BP on 1 May 2007, resigned as a non-executive director of Goldman Sachs on 10 May 2007. At the time he faced allegations that he had supported his partner, Canadian Jeff Chevalier, throughout their four-year relationship, when Chevalier moved back to Toronto at the end of the relationship, that Browne paid for 12 months of a lease on an apartment. Browne says he felt under pressure to resign due to UK newspaper Mail on Sunday's revelations about his personal life and relationship with Chevalier; as part of a statement made at the time of his resignation, he commented: "In my 41 years with BP, I have kept my private life separate from my business life. I have always regarded my sexuality as a personal matter.
It is a matter of deep disappointment that a newspaper group has now decided that allegations about my personal life should be made public."A court accepted that Browne had lied over how he met Chevalier. In a deposition to the court, Browne said.
Anglo-Persian Oil Company
The Anglo-Persian Oil Company was a British company founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. It was the first company to extract petroleum from Iran. In 1935 APOC was renamed the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company when Reza Shah Pahlavi formally asked foreign countries to refer to Persia by it's endonym Iran. and in 1954 it was renamed again to the British Petroleum Company, one of the antecedents of the modern BP public limited company, while its assets in Iran were nationalised and taken over by the National Iranian Oil Company. Britain's treasury purchased 51% of the company in 1914. In 1901 William Knox D'Arcy, a millionaire London socialite, negotiated an oil concession with Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar of Persia, he financed this with capital he had made from his shares in the profitable Mount Morgan mine in Queensland, Australia. D'Arcy assumed exclusive rights to prospect for oil for 60 years in a vast tract of territory including most of Iran. In exchange the Shah received £20,000, an equal amount in shares of D'Arcy's company, a promise of 16% of future profits.
D'Arcy hired geologist George Bernard Reynolds to do the prospecting in the Iranian desert. Conditions were harsh: "small pox raged and warlords ruled, water was all but unavailable, temperatures soared past 50°C". After several years of prospecting, D'Arcy's fortune dwindled away and he was forced to sell most of his rights to a Glasgow-based syndicate, the Burmah Oil Company. By 1908, having sunk more than £500,000 into their Persian venture and found no oil, D'Arcy and Burmah decided to abandon exploration in Iran. In early May 1908 they sent Reynolds a telegram telling him that they had run out of money and ordering him to "cease work, dismiss the staff, dismantle anything worth the cost of transporting to the coast for re-shipment, come home." Reynolds delayed following these orders and in a stroke of luck, struck oil shortly after on May 26, 1908. On 14 April 1909, Burmah Oil created the Anglo-Persian Oil Company as a subsidiary and sold shares to the public. Volume production of Persian oil products started in 1913 from a refinery built at Abadan, for its first 50 years the largest oil refinery in the world.
In 1913, shortly before World War I, APOC managers negotiated with a new customer, Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty. Churchill, as a part of a three-year expansion program, sought to modernise Britain's Royal Navy by abandoning the use of coal-fired steamships and adopting oil as fuel for its ships instead. Although Britain had large reserves of coal, oil had advantages in better energy density, allowing a longer steaming range for a ship for the same bunker capacity. Furthermore, Churchill wanted to free Britain from its reliance on the Standard Oil and Royal Dutch-Shell oil companies. In exchange for secure oil supplies for its ships, the British government injected new capital into the company and, in doing so, acquired a controlling interest in APOC; the contract, set up between the British Government and APOC was to hold for 20 years. The British government became a de facto hidden power behind the oil company. APOC took a 50% share in a new Turkish Petroleum Company organised in 1912 by Calouste Gulbenkian to explore and develop oil resources in the Ottoman Empire.
After a hiatus caused by World War I it reformed and struck an immense gusher at Kirkuk, Iraq in 1927, renaming itself the Iraq Petroleum Company. In 1920, the APOC acquired a northern oil concession, formally granted in 1916 to a former Russian subject, the Georgian Akaki Khoshtaria. To manage this new acquisition, the APOC formed a new subsidiary, the North Persia Oil Company, but the Iranians refused to accept the new company, giving rise to a lingering dispute over the northern Iranian oil. In 1923, a large quantity of oil was found at Naftkhana, considered a "transferred territory" along the Iran-Iraq border; the Khanaqin Oil Company was registered in London as an APOC subsidiary. During this period, Iranian popular opposition to the D'Arcy oil concession and royalty terms whereby Iran only received 16% of net profits was widespread. Since industrial development and planning, as well as other fundamental reforms were predicated on oil revenues, the government's lack of control over the oil industry served to accentuate the Iranian government's misgivings regarding the manner in which APOC conducted its affairs in Iran.
Such a pervasive atmosphere of dissatisfaction seemed to suggest that a radical revision of the concession terms would be possible. Moreover, owing to the introduction of reforms that improved fiscal order in Iran, APOC's past practice of cutting off advances in oil royalties when its demands were not met had lost much of its sting. In 1923, Burmah employed Winston Churchill as a paid consultant to lobby the British government to allow APOC to have exclusive rights to Persian oil resources, which were subsequently granted. In 1925, TPC received concession in the Mesopotamian oil resources from the Iraqi government under British mandate. TPC struck oil in Iraq on 14 October 1927. In 1928, the APOC's shareholding in TPC, which by now was named Iraq Petroleum Company, would be reduced to 23.75%. The attempt to revise the terms of the oil concession on a more favourable basis for Iran led to protracted negotiations that took place in Tehran, Lausanne and Paris between Abdolhossein Teymourtash, Iran's Minister of Court 1925–32 and its nominal Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Chairman of APOC, John Cadman, spanned 1928–32.
The overarching argu
William Fraser, 1st Baron Strathalmond
William Fraser, 1st Baron Strathalmond, MBE, was a Scottish businessman and a leading expert on the oil industry. He served as chairman of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company from 1941 to 1956. Fraser was the second son of William Fraser, of Glasgow, the founder of the Pumpherston Oil Company, his wife Janet Loch, he joined his father's firm in 1909 and became a director in 1913 and joint managing director in 1915. He was awarded the MBE in 1918 for his work in increasing oil supply during the First World War. Fraser joined the board of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in 1923, he became deputy chairman in 1928, played a great role in expanding the oil production in Iran and Kuwait, becoming known as a leading expert on Middle East oil. In 1941 he succeeded Cadman as chairman, a post he retained until 1956. Fraser was an adviser on oil affairs to the British government for many years, notably as petroleum adviser to the War Office and as chairman of the Oil Advisory Committee. Fraser was knighted in 1939 and in 1955 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Strathalmond, of Pumpherston in the County of Midlothian.
Lord Strathalmond married Mary Roberton McLintock, daughter of Thomas McLintock, in 1913. They had one son and one daughter: William Fraser Fraser, 2nd Baron Strathalmond Hon Mary Joan Fraser Lord Strathalmond died in April 1970, aged 81, he was succeeded in the barony by William. He is buried at Putney Vale Cemetery in London. William, E. T. Nicholls, C. S; the Dictionary of National Biography, 1961-1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
Anthony Bryan Hayward is a British businessman and former chief executive of oil and energy company BP. He replaced John Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley, on 1 May 2007, his tenure ended on 1 October 2010 when he was replaced by Bob Dudley following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. He has been chairman of Glencore Xstrata since May 2014. Tony Hayward was born in Slough, Berkshire, in 1957. Tony has five sisters and two brothers, the youngest sibling is adopted. Growing up Tony moved but until a teenager lived in or near Slough. At the age of 15 when his sixth sibling was born Tony moved out of the family home and started living with his paternal grandparents in Langley. On, his family moved to Bournemouth, Dorset. Tony however remained in Berkshire living with his grandparents and attended a local grammar school, The Windsor Boys' School until he started university. Tony went on to gain a first class geology degree from Aston University followed by a PhD from the University of Edinburgh School of Geosciences.
Joining BP in 1982, with his first job as a rig geologist in Aberdeen, he rose through the ranks in a series of technical and commercial roles in BP Exploration in London, France and Glasgow. Hayward first came to Lord Browne's attention during a 1990 leadership conference in Phoenix, Arizona; as a result, he was made Browne's executive assistant. In 1992, Hayward moved to Colombia as exploration manager and became president of BP's operations in Venezuela in 1995. In August 1997, he returned to London as a director of BP Exploration, he became group vice-president of BP Amoco Exploration and Production as well as a member of the BP group's Upstream executive committee in 1999. Hayward was appointed BP group treasurer in September 2000 where his responsibilities included global treasury operations, foreign exchange dealing, corporate finance, project finance and mergers and acquisitions. Hayward became an executive vice-president in April 2002, chief executive of exploration and production in January 2003.
Safety and production issues in Alaska and the explosion at the Texas City refinery, made Peter Sutherland, BP's non-executive chairman, accelerate the process for finding Lord Browne a replacement. His retirement timetable moved forward from end-2008, when Browne would be 60, when BP policy called for mandatory retirement, to July 2007. Hayward, having been described as CEO designate by both internal and media commentators, came to the fore amid the competition, including Robert Dudley, chief executive of TNK-BP, the company's Russian joint venture, John Manzoni, head of refining and marketing. On 18 December 2006, in the run-up to replace Lord Browne as chief executive of BP Group, the Financial Times reported that Hayward had criticised BP's management at an internal management meeting, in the wake of a blast at the firm's Texas City refinery that killed 15 people and injured more than 170 others. Hayward made the comments at a town hall meeting in Houston: "We have a leadership style, too directive and doesn't listen sufficiently well.
The top of the organisation doesn't listen sufficiently to what the bottom is saying."On 12 January 2007 BP announced that Hayward would replace Lord Browne as chief executive. On 2 February Andy Inglis was appointed managing director of the BP Group, succeeded Hayward as chief executive of BP's Exploration & Production business. Hayward was appointed to the chief executive position with immediate effect on 1 May 2007, after Lord Browne resigned following the lifting of a legal injunction preventing Associated Newspapers from publishing details about his private life. BP was paying Hayward an annual salary of £1,045,000. In 2008, Tony Hayward had private meetings with Igor Sechin, a close ally of Putin and a top figure of Russian military and security services serving as a CEO of largest Russian oil company Rosneft; the two negotiated on BP's deals with Russia. On 20 April 2010, an explosion occurred on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, operated by BP. Eleven people were killed in the blast and oil began to leak from the ocean floor at a rate variously estimated to be between 5,000 barrels and 100,000 barrels per day.
Hayward, BP in general downplayed the spill, stating on 17 May 2010 that the environmental impact of the Gulf spill would be "very modest" and calling the spill "relatively tiny" in comparison with the size of the ocean. By 27 May, Hayward changed his assessment, calling the spill an "environmental catastrophe" in an interview with CNN. On 12 May 2009, in a postgraduate lecture to Stanford Business School, Hayward analysed the role and organisation of the company for which he acted as chief executive officer. During the lecture he stated to the business students that "...our primary purpose in life is to create value for our shareholders. In order to do that you have to take care of the world". Hayward stated that his job might be at risk as a result of the spill, saying "we made a few little mistakes early on." He received criticism for various statements he had made during the spill, including telling a camera man to "get out of there" during a photo-op on the shores of Louisiana. On 30 May, he told a reporter.
There's no one who wants this thing over more than I do, I'd like my life back." He was condemned for his comment, perceived as selfish, United States Representative Charlie Melancon called on Hayward to resign in the wake of this comment. He apologised for the comment on BP America's Facebook Page. On 31 May, Hayward disputed claims of huge underwater plumes o
Sir Henri Wilhelm August Deterding KBE, was one of the first executives of Royal Dutch Petroleum Company and its chairman for 36 years, chair of the combined Royal Dutch/Shell oil company. He became manager after Royal Dutch's founder, he made Shell a competitor to John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil and one of the world's largest petroleum companies, he was made an honorary KBE in 1920, for service to Anglo-Dutch relations, for his work supplying Allies with petroleum during World War I. Called the "Napoleon of Oil", Deterding was responsible for developing the tanker fleet that let Royal Dutch compete with the Shell company of Marcus Samuel, he led Royal Dutch to several major mergers and acquisitions, including the merger with Samuel's "Shell" Transport and Trading Company in 1907 and the purchase of Azerbaijan oil fields from the Rothschild family in 1911. In the last years of his life, Deterding was controversial when he became an admirer of the German Nazi Party. In 1936, he discussed with them the sale of a year's oil reserves on credit.
In 1936 he bought the manor of Dobbin near Krakow am moved there. After he died in Switzerland he was buried at Dobbin in Mecklenburg, but his body was transferred to a grave in Liechtenstein in 1968. Deterding was married three times and had seven children, among whom was the socialite Olga Deterding. During his marriage to his second wife, his English estate was Buckhurst Park at Winkfield in Berkshire, where she continued to live with her two daughters after their divorce; the British newspaper the Daily Mail erroneously published his obituary on 27 June 1924, with the news being copied by The New York Times. However, that same day, the Dutch envoy in London René de Marees van Swinderen noted in a letter to the Dutch foreign minister Herman Adriaan van Karnebeek:"P. S. Ik kon de verleiding niet weerstaan om hierbij in te sluiten de necrologie door de Daily Mail heden gewijd aan den gelukkig springlevenden Deterding." Deterding died in St. Moritz on 4 February 1939; the Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil and Power List of honorary British Knights Paul Hendrix.
Sir Henri Deterding and Royal Dutch–Shell: Changing Control of World Oil, 1900–1940. Bristol Academic Press. ISBN 0-9513762-8-4. Newspaper clippings about Henri Deterding in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Durham University is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, founded by an Act of Parliament in 1832 and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1837. It was one of the first universities to commence tuition in England for more than 600 years, after Oxford and Cambridge, is one of the institutions to be described as the third-oldest university in England; as a collegiate university its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and its 16 colleges. In general, the departments perform research and provide teaching to students, while the colleges are responsible for their domestic arrangements and welfare; the university is a member of the Russell Group of British research universities after being a member of the 1994 Group. Durham is affiliated with the regional N8 Research Partnership and international university groups including the Matariki Network of Universities and the Coimbra Group; the university estate includes 63 listed buildings, ranging from the 11th-century Durham Castle to a 1930s Art Deco chapel.
The university owns and manages the Durham World Heritage Site in partnership with Durham Cathedral. The university's ownership of the World Heritage Site includes Durham Castle, Palace Green, the surrounding buildings including the historic Cosin's Library. Among British universities, it had the eighth highest average UCAS Tariff for new entrants in 2016 and the third lowest proportion of state-school educated students starting courses in 2016, at 62.9 per cent. The university is ranked 5th to 7th by recent national league tables of the British universities, 74th to 114th in three of the four major global tables and in the 201–300 range in the fourth, it was Sunday Times University of the Year for 2005, the Times and Sunday Times Sports University of the Year for 2015, was awarded a Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2018. The chancellor of the university is Sir Thomas Allen, who succeeded Bill Bryson in 2012. Current and emeritus academics include 14 Fellows of the Royal Society, 17 Fellows of the British Academy, 14 Fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences, 5 Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2 Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts and 2 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences.
Durham graduates have long used the Latin post-nominal letters Dunelm after their degree, from Dunelmensis. The strong tradition of theological teaching in Durham gave rise to various attempts to form a university there, notably under King Henry VIII and Oliver Cromwell, who issued letters patent and nominated a proctor and fellows for the establishment of a college in 1657. However, there was deep concern expressed by Oxford and Cambridge that the awarding of degree powers could hinder their position, it was not until 1832 when Parliament, at the instigation of Archdeacon Charles Thorp and with the support of the Bishop of Durham, William van Mildert, passed "an Act to enable the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral to appropriate part of the property of their church to the establishment of a University in connection therewith" that the university came into being. The act received Royal Assent from King William IV on 4 July 1832; the university opened on 28 October 1833. In 1834 all but two of the bishops of the Church of England confirmed that they would accept holders of Durham degrees for ordination.
In 1835 a fundamental statute was passed by the Dean and Chapter, as governors of the University, setting up Convocation and laying down that Durham degrees would only be open to members of the Church of England. Regulations for degrees were finalised in 1836 and the university was incorporated by Royal Charter granted by William IV on 1 June 1837 as the "Warden and Scholars of the University of Durham", with the first students graduating a week later. Accommodation was provided in the Archdeacon's Inn from 1833 to 1837. On the accession of Queen Victoria an order of the Queen-in-Council was issued granting the use of Durham Castle to the university. In 1846, Bishop Hatfield's Hall was founded, providing the opportunity for students to obtain affordable lodgings with catered communal eating, a revolutionary idea at the time, endorsed by a Royal Commission in 1862 and spread to other universities; those attending University College were expected to bring a servant with them to deal with cooking, cleaning and so on.
The level of applications to Bishop Hatfield's Hall led to a second hall along similar lines, Bishop Cosin's Hall, being founded in 1851, although this only survived until 1864. Elsewhere, the university expanded from Durham into Newcastle in 1852 when the medical school there became a college of the university; this was joined in 1871 by the College of Physical Sciences. St Cuthbert's Society was founded in 1888 for non-collegiate mature, male students as a non-residential society run by the students themselves. Two teacher-training colleges – St Hild's for women, established in 1858, The College of the Venerable Bede for men, established in 1839 existed in the city and these merged to form the mixed College of St Hild and St Bede in 1975. From 1896 these were associated with the university and graduates of St Hild's were the first female graduates from Durham in 1898. During its expansion phase the University became the first English university to establish relationships with overseas institutions.