Hessians were German soldiers who served as auxiliaries to the British Army during the American Revolutionary War and the Irish Rebellion of 1798. The Hessians were contracted by Great Britain and others as mercenaries in several 18th century European wars, but are most associated with the American Revolution, where around 30,000 German soldiers fought for the British during the war, forming a quarter of the troops sent to British America; the term Hessians is used by Americans to refer to all German troops fighting on the British side, a form of synecdoche as 65% of the German troops came from the German states of Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Hanau, while the remainder were leased from other small German states. The Hessians were led by Wilhelm von Knyphausen, entering British service as entire units, fighting under their own German flags, commanded by their usual officers, wearing their existing uniforms; the use of German troops to suppress a rebellion in the British colonies angered the American patriots, one of the 27 colonial grievances against King George III in the Declaration of Independence was "transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries".
The small German states of the Holy Roman Empire had professional armies, which their ruling princes sometimes hired out for service with other armies as auxiliaries. When military conflict broke out, the German states provided a ready supply of trained troops, prepared to go into action immediately. Hesse-Kassel was prominent in this role: Between 1706 and 1707, 10,000 Hessians served as a corps in Eugene of Savoy's army in Italy before moving to the Spanish Netherlands in 1708. In 1714, 6,000 Hessians were rented to Sweden for its war with Russia whilst 12,000 Hessians were hired by George I of Great Britain in 1715 to combat the Jacobite Rebellion.... In the midst of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1744, 6,000 Hessians were fighting with the British army in Flanders whilst another 6,000 were in the Bavarian army. By 1762, 24,000 Hessians were serving with Ferdinand of Brunswick's army in Germany. In most of these wars, Hesse-Kassel never became a belligerent by declaring war on any other country.
The troops were hired out for service in other armies, Hesse-Kassel itself had no stake in the outcome of the war. Thus, it was possible for Hessians to serve with the British and Bavarian armies in the War of the Austrian Succession though Britain and Bavaria were on opposite sides of the war. In the Seven Years' War, the forces of Hesse-Kassel served with both the Anglo-Hanoverian and the Prussian armies against the French. In July 1758, the city of Kassel and most of the principality was occupied by a French army under Charles, Prince of Soubise overcoming the home defence force of 6,000 Hessian militia. Soubise ordered his troops to live off the land while taking high-ranking hostages and extorting payments of cash and produce. However, Hessian forces together with their allies attempted to liberate their homeland but were repulsed at the Battle of Sanderhausen on 23 July, they participated in the first Siege of Cassel in 1761 and the second Siege of Cassel in 1762, surrendered by the French that November, the last action of the whole war.
To field a large professional army with a small population, Hesse-Kassel became the most militarized state in Europe. The country maintained 5.2% to 6.7% of its population under arms in the 18th century, a larger proportion than heavily-militarized Prussia. In contrast to Prussia, which relied in part on mercenaries from other German states, Hesse-Kassel employed only Landeskinder. One in four households had someone serving in the army. Hesse-Kassel manufactured its own uniforms, its textile industry was so prosperous that workers could afford to buy wine every day. Subsidy payments from Great Britain were used to build public works and buildings, taxes were reduced by one-third from the early 1760s to 1784. In 1884, the American historian Edward Jackson Lowell lauded the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel for spending the British money wisely, describing him as "one of the least disreputable of the princes who sent mercenaries to America."The characterization of Hessian troops as "mercenaries" remains controversial over two centuries later.
American history textbooks refer to the Hessians as "mercenaries." American historian Charles Ingrao said that the local prince had turned Hesse into a "mercenary state" by renting out his regiments to fund his government. However, British historian Stephen Conway called them "Britannia's auxiliaries." Canadian military historian Rodney Atwood explained that jurists of the time drew a distinction between auxiliaries and mercenaries. Auxiliaries served their prince and were sent to the aid of another prince, while mercenaries served a foreign prince as individuals. Great Britain maintained a small standing army, so it found itself in great need of troops at the outset of the American Revolutionary War. Several German princes saw an opportunity to earn some extra income by hiring out their regular army units for service in America, they entered the British service not as individuals but in entire units, with their usual uniforms, flags and officers. Methods of recruitment varied according to the state of origin.
The contingent from Waldeck for example was drawn from a principality army based on universal conscription, from which only students were exempt. Other German princes relied on long-service voluntary enlistment supplemented by conscription and the press-gang when numbers fell short. Many of t
Bristol Borough is a borough in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 23 miles northeast of Center City Philadelphia, opposite Burlington, New Jersey on the Delaware River. Bristol Borough predates Philadelphia, being settled in 1681 and first incorporated in 1720. After 1834, the town became important to the development of the American Industrial Revolution as the terminus city of the Delaware Canal providing greater Philadelphia with the days High Tech Anthracite fuels from the Lehigh Canal via Easton; the canal and a short trip on the Delaware gave the town access to the mineral resources available in Connecticut, New Jersey and New York via each of the Morris Canal, the Delaware and Hudson Canal, the Delaware and Raritan Canal, connected the community to those markets and trade from New York City. These were among the factors spurring development of Bristol and nearby towns, explaining in part the industries which developed in the region. Although its charter was revised in 1905, the original charter remains in effect, making Bristol Borough one of the older boroughs in Pennsylvania.
Bristol Borough had 7,104 residents in 1900. The most recent census has the population at 9,631 2017 census; the current Mayor is Joseph A. Saxton. Bristol Borough is served by SEPTA's Trenton Line. Samuel Clift founded the Borough of Bristol, having received a land grant from Edmund Andros, Governor of New York; the grant became effective on March 14, 1681 or March 4, 1681 at the same time as William Penn's Charter from Charles II became effective. Clift was required by the grant to maintain ferry service across the Delaware River to Burlington, New Jersey, to run a public house or inn; the inn became known as the George II. Bristol Borough was settled in 1681, named after Bristol, England, it was used as a port and dock. Bristol Borough is rich in history, boasting many historic and restored houses that line the streets of Radcliffe and Mill; until 1725, Bristol Borough served as county seat of Bucks County. From its earliest days Bristol Borough was a center of textile mills, foundries and miscellaneous manufacturing.
With the building of the 60 miles long, forty feet wide, five feet deep Delaware Canal—it became a transshipment gateway connecting the anthracite barges flowing down the Lehigh Canal's end terminal at Easton to Philadelphia. Bristol Borough was chosen to terminate the Delaware Canal because it had regular shipping connections to other parts of Philadelphia and Delaware River ports by both the era's typical animal powered barges and era typical coastal/inland shipping vessels, its docks had regular ferry services to New Jersey and other points east from as early as 1681 until 1931, the town would receive early steamboat service as that technology came to be. The expense of digging the canal was justifiable as the banks of the Delaware southerly from Easton were less suitable, there was insufficient real estate for extensive additional docks, so the legislature figured the Delaware Canal avoided the need to transship barge loads of coal to boats, drastically saving costs and time. Since Bristol Borough's long established docks were accessible to the Delaware River, the town became the Delaware Canal's southern terminal end.
The Pennsylvania Railroad would connect to the anthracite flowing through the canals, to the riverine barge and boat traffic, to provide rail depots servicing the manufacturies. Before the canal, Bristol Borough was located along a main land route to New York City and New England so with construction of the canal and railroads, it became a major center of transportation and an more attractive location for industry. By the 1880s Bristol Borough was home to many factories, including companies manufacturing wall paper and carpet. In World War I, the Bristol Borough docks had sufficient space for a shipyard to construct twelve building slips for the construction of merchant vessels. In 1917 Averell Harriman organized the Bristol Borough shipyards founding the Merchant Shipbuilding Corporation and given the U-boat menace, would land a contract to build 40 identical cargo ships for the war; the residential area that developed around the shipyards was soon named Harriman and most of the housing built therein is still in use today.
In 1922 Harriman was annexed by Bristol Borough. Most of the shipping was finished too late to enter World War I, but some of the shipyard's output was used post-war in relief and troop support missions; the majority of the contracts were canceled in 1919, the ship yards became excess real estate. Between the world wars, the eighty-acres of the shipyard were let out to various concerns, including one area converted to building amphibious planes—the flying boats technology, the heart and soul of long distance air travel until the technological advances theretofore the middle years of World War II. During World War II the old shipyards were used to build those and other airplanes, but most of the manufacturing in WW-II was not directly war related. In 1961, Bristol Borough gained national attention when the song "Bristol Stomp", by The Dovells hit #2 on the Billboard pop chart; the song remains a local favorite, it is played at ceremonies and sporting events. The Merchant Shipbuilding site returned to the news in the 1990s when the Bucks County Redevelopment Authority using state and federal funding targeted the area as a priority for urban redevelopment.
Given its riverfront location, the old shipbuilding site was ranked highest in priority, on 20 October 2000 various legislators and officials held a press conference at the form
The Conway Cabal was a group of senior Continental Army officers in late 1777 and early 1778 who aimed to have George Washington replaced as commander-in-chief of the Army during the American Revolutionary War. It was named after Brigadier General Thomas Conway, whose letters criticizing Washington were forwarded to the Second Continental Congress; when these suggestions were made public, supporters of Washington mobilized to assist him politically. Conway ended up resigning from the army, General Horatio Gates, a leading candidate to replace Washington, issued an apology for his role in events. No formal requests were made asking for Washington's removal as commander in chief. There was no sign of any formal conspiracy amongst the various malcontents, although Washington was concerned that there might be one, it was the only major political threat to Washington's command during the war. In the fall of 1777 forces of the British Army captured Philadelphia, the seat of the Second Continental Congress, forced to relocate to York, Pennsylvania.
The series of military setbacks caused many in the Continental Army and Congress to question George Washington's leadership of the war effort. In contrast, the northern army of General Horatio Gates had won a signal victory over John Burgoyne's forces, compelling Burgoyne to surrender his entire army after the Battles of Saratoga. Gates controversially claimed credit for the victory; some historians feel that this was more due to the actions of Benedict Arnold, who, in the first battle on September 19 and independently defended his forces against British assaults. It was alleged that Gates had failed to provide Arnold with adequate reinforcements which would have turned the battle into an outright American victory, although there is not universal agreement on this matter. Gates was politically well connected to Congress; some congressmen such as Richard Henry Lee, John Adams, Samuel Adams wanted tighter Congressional control of the war effort and supported Gates. Although John Adams did not call for Washington to be replaced, he worried that Washington was being made into a military idol, was fearful of the effects of this upon republicanism.
Military custom dictated that, after Saratoga, Gates would have sent his official report to Washington, his immediate superior. However, Gates sent his report directly to Congress. Washington sent his staff officer, Colonel Alexander Hamilton, to meet Gates and tell him on Washington's behalf to send three of his brigades to Washington's troops outside Philadelphia; the logic was that Washington required more troops to fight General William Howe's British Army, which had just taken the capital, whereas Gates had no major British force to contend with. Gates suggested that another British detachment might invade, he agreed to send only one 600-man brigade, which Hamilton discovered was the weakest of the three requested. Hamilton exacted a promise from Gates to send two brigades. At the same time, Gates wrote to Washington. "Conspiracy" is too strong a term to use in describing varied actions taken by disaffected officers and Congressional delegates unhappy with the course of the war. Most of those involved shared the view only that Washington was a less-than-perfect commander in chief, few of their activities were coordinated.
General Gates was used as a stalking horse to replace Washington, had himself engaged in some lobbying for the command, but he was not responsible for the strong response within the Congress. Opposition to Washington's command in Pennsylvania was anchored by Thomas Mifflin, a former Congressional delegate and a former quartermaster of the Continental Army who had worked with Washington, his view of Washington as a rank amateur was supported by Lee, Benjamin Rush, others. A number of French officers, commissioned into the Continental Army were critical of Washington; these notably included Johann de Kalb, Louis Lebègue Duportail, Thomas Conway. Thomas Conway was an Irishman, educated in France and had served in its military. Recruited by American diplomat Silas Deane, he arrived at Washington's headquarters in Morristown, New Jersey in the spring of 1777. With Washington's support, Congress made him a brigadier general in the Continental Army, he served with some distinction under Washington during the Philadelphia campaign.
His time in combat included distinguished service at Germantown. In October 1777, Conway began lobbying Congress for a promotion to major general, including in his writings criticisms of Washington. Washington in turn had grown to distrust Conway, finding his personal conduct arrogant and unbearable. Conway had publicly admitted that his desire for promotion was rooted in the fact that if he became a major general in the Continental Army, he could become a brigadier general once he returned to the French service. Washington opposed Conway's promotion, as he felt there were many American-born officers senior in rank to Conway and more deserving of promotion who would be upset by such a move, he identified Conway as someone "without conspicuous merit" and that his promotion would "give a fatal blow to the existence of the army." He continued adding, "It will be impossible for me to be of any further service if such insuperable difficulties are thrown in my way." This was seen as an implicit threat to resign.
As part of Conway's efforts at self-prom
Philadelphia Museum of Art
The Philadelphia Museum of Art is an art museum chartered in 1876 for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. The main museum building was completed in 1928 on Fairmount, a hill located at the northwest end of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway at Eakins Oval; the museum administers collections containing over 240,000 objects including major holdings of European and Asian origin. The various classes of artwork include sculpture, prints, photographs and decorative arts; the Philadelphia Museum of Art administers several annexes including the Rodin Museum located on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, the Ruth and Raymond G. Perelman Building, located across the street just north of the main building; the Perelman Building, which opened in 2007, houses more than 150,000 prints and photographs, along with 30,000 costume and textile pieces, over 1,000 modern and contemporary design objects including furniture and glasswork. The museum administers the historic colonial-era houses of Mount Pleasant and Cedar Grove, both located in Fairmount Park.
The main museum building and its annexes are owned by the City of Philadelphia and administered by a registered nonprofit corporation. Several special exhibitions are held in the museum every year, including touring exhibitions arranged with other museums in the United States and abroad; the attendance figure for the museum was 793,000 in 2017, which ranks it among the top one hundred most-visited art museums in the world. The museum is one of the largest art museums in the world based on gallery space. Philadelphia celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence with the Centennial Exposition in 1876. Memorial Hall, which contained the art gallery, was intended to outlast the Exposition and house a permanent museum. Following the example of London's South Kensington Museum, the new museum was to focus on applied art and science, provide a school to train craftsmen in drawing, painting and designing; the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art opened on May 10, 1877..
The museum's collection began with objects from the Exposition and gifts from the public impressed with the Exposition's ideals of good design and craftsmanship. European and Japanese fine and decorative art objects and books for the museum's library were among the first donations; the location outside of Center City, was distant from many of the city's inhabitants. Admission was charged until 1881 was dropped until 1962. Starting in 1882, Clara Jessup Moore donated a remarkable collection of antique furniture, carved ivory, metalwork, ceramics, books and paintings; the Countess de Brazza's lace collection was acquired in 1894 forming the nucleus of the lace collection. In 1893 Anna H. Wilstach bequeathed a large painting collection, including many American paintings, an endowment of half a million dollars for additional purchases. Works by James Abbott McNeill Whistler and George Inness were purchased within a few years and Henry Ossawa Tanner's The Annunciation was bought in 1899. In the early 1900s, the museum started an education program for the general public, as well as a membership program.
Fiske Kimball was the museum director during the rapid growth of the mid- to late-1920s, which included one million visitors in 1928—the new building's first year. The museum enlarged its print collection in 1928 with about 5,000 Old Master prints and drawings from the gift of Charles M. Lea, including French, German and Netherlandish engravings. Major exhibitions of the 1930s included works by Eakins, Renoir, Cézanne, van Gogh, Degas. In the 1940s, the museum's major gifts and acquisitions included the collections of John D. McIlhenny, George Grey Barnard, Alfred Stieglitz. Early modern art dominated the growth of the collections in the 1950s, with acquisitions of the Louise and Walter Arensberg and the A. E. Gallatin collections; the gift of Philadelphian Grace Kelly's wedding dress is the best known gift of the 1950s. Extensive renovation of the building lasted from the 1960s through 1976. Major acquisitions included the Carroll S. Tyson, Jr. and Samuel S. White III and Vera White collections, 71 objects from designer Elsa Schiaparelli, Marcel Duchamp's Étant donnés.
In 1976 there were celebrations and special exhibitions for the centennial of the museum and the bicentennial of the nation. During the last three decades major acquisitions have included After the Bath by Edgar Degas and Fifty Days at Iliam by Cy Twombly; the City Council of Philadelphia funded a competition in 1895 to design a new museum building, but it was not until 1907 that plans were first made to construct it on Fairmount, a rocky hill topped by the city's main reservoir. The Fairmount Parkway, a grand boulevard that cut diagonally across the grid of city streets, was designed to terminate at the foot of the hill, but there were conflicting views about whether to erect a single museum building, or a number of buildings to house individual collections. The architectural firms of Horace Trumbauer and Zantzinger and Medary collaborated for more than a decade to resolve these issues; the final design is credited to two architects in Trumbauer's firm: Howell Lewis Shay for the building's plan and massing, Julian Abele for the detail work and perspective drawings.
In 1902, Abele had become the first African-American student to be graduated from the University of Pennsylvania's Department of Architecture, presently known as Penn's School of Design. Abele adapted classical Greek temple columns for
Battle of Trenton
The Battle of Trenton was a small but pivotal battle during the American Revolutionary War which took place on the morning of December 26, 1776, in Trenton, New Jersey. After General George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River north of Trenton the previous night, Washington led the main body of the Continental Army against Hessian mercenaries garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle two-thirds of the Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans; the battle boosted the Continental Army's flagging morale, inspired re-enlistments. The Continental Army had suffered several defeats in New York and had been forced to retreat through New Jersey to Pennsylvania. Morale in the army was low; because the river was icy and the weather severe, the crossing proved dangerous. Two detachments were unable to cross the river, leaving Washington with only 2,400 men under his command in the assault, 3,000 less than planned; the army marched 9 miles south to Trenton. The Hessians had lowered their guard, thinking they were safe from the American army, had no long-distance outposts or patrols.
Washington's forces caught them off guard and, after a short but fierce resistance, most of the Hessians surrendered and were captured, with just over a third escaping across Assunpink Creek. Despite the battle's small numbers, the American victory inspired rebels in the colonies. With the success of the revolution in doubt a week earlier, the army had seemed on the verge of collapse; the dramatic victory attracted new recruits to the ranks. In early December 1776, American morale was low; the Americans had been ousted from New York by the British and their Hessian auxiliaries, the Continental Army was forced to retreat across New Jersey. Ninety percent of the Continental Army soldiers who had served at Long Island were gone. Men had deserted. Washington, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, expressed some doubts, writing to his cousin in Virginia, "I think the game is pretty near up."At the time a small town in New Jersey, was occupied by four regiments of Hessian soldiers commanded by Colonel Johann Rall.
Washington's force comprised 2,400 men, with infantry divisions commanded by Major Generals Nathanael Greene and John Sullivan, artillery under the direction of Brigadier General Henry Knox. George Washington had stationed a spy named posing as a Tory, in Trenton. Honeyman had served with Major General James Wolfe in Quebec at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759, had no trouble establishing his credentials as a Tory. Honeyman was a bartender, who traded with the British and Hessians; this enabled him to gather intelligence, to convince the Hessians that the Continental Army was in such a low state of morale that they would not attack Trenton. Shortly before Christmas, he arranged to be captured by the Continental Army, who had orders to bring him to Washington unharmed. After being questioned by Washington, he was imprisoned in a hut, to be tried as a Tory in the morning, but a small fire broke out nearby, enabling him to "escape." The American plan relied on launching coordinated attacks from three directions.
General John Cadwalader would launch a diversionary attack against the British garrison at Bordentown, New Jersey, to block off reinforcements from the south. General James Ewing would take 700 militia across the river at Trenton Ferry, seize the bridge over the Assunpink Creek and prevent enemy troops from escaping; the main assault force of 2,400 men would cross the river 9 mi north of Trenton and split into two groups, one under Greene and one under Sullivan, to launch a pre-dawn attack. Sullivan would attack the town from the south, Greene from the north. Depending on the success of the operation, the Americans would follow up with separate attacks on Princeton and New Brunswick. During the week before the battle, American advance parties began to ambush enemy cavalry patrols, capturing dispatch riders and attacking Hessian pickets; the Hessian commander, to emphasize the danger to his men, sent 100 infantry and an artillery detachment to deliver a letter to the British commander at Princeton.
Washington ordered Ewing and his Pennsylvania militia to try to gain information on Hessian movements and technology. Ewing instead made three successful raids across the river. On December 17 and 18, 1776, they attacked an outpost of jägers and on the 21st, they set fire to several houses. Washington put constant watches on all possible crossings near the Continental Army encampment on the Delaware, as he believed William Howe would launch an attack from the north on Philadelphia if the river froze over. On December 20, 1776, some 2,000 troops led by General Sullivan arrived in Washington's camp, they had been under the command of Charles Lee, had been moving through northern New Jersey when Lee was captured. That same day, an additional 800 troops arrived from Fort Ticonderoga under the command of Horatio Gates. On December 14, 1776, the Hessians arrived in Trenton to establish their winter quarters. At the time, Trenton was a small town with about 100 houses and two main streets, King Street and Queen Street.
Carl von Donop, Rall's superior, had marched south to Mount Holly on December 22 to deal with the resistance in New Jersey, had clashed with some New Jersey militia there on December 23. Donop, who despised Rall, was reluctant to give command of Trent
Kent County, Maryland
Kent County is a county located in the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, its population was 20,197, its county seat is Chestertown. The county was named for the county of Kent in England; the county is located on Maryland's Eastern Shore. In 1642, the governor and council appointed commissioners for the County of Kent; this act appears to have led to the establishment of Kent County. In 1675, the first county seat was New Yarmouth; the seat was moved upriver to Quaker Neck, to the site of modern Chestertown. Before the American Revolution New Town on Chester, now Chestertown, was a port entry for the counties of Cecil and Queen Anne's; the county has a number of properties. Kent County was the mean center of US population in the census of 1790. In 1793, the county had its first newspaper, called Chestertown Spy, it was succeeded by local papers such as the Chestertown Gazette. Washington College, the oldest college in Maryland, is located in Kent County. Kent County was granted home rule in 1970 under a state code.
In the early post-Civil War era Kent County, having been Confederate-leaning, tended towards the Democratic Party. William McKinley was the only Republican to carry the county between 1876 and 1924. After that, although carried by Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman during the five consecutive Democratic victories between 1932 and 1948, the county trended Republican relative to national voting. Kent County is along with Somerset County further south the most politically competitive county on Maryland’s Eastern Shore. In 2004, Republican George W. Bush won it with 52 percent of the vote to Democrat John Kerry’s 46%. In the 2008 United States Presidential Election, Barack Obama won Kent County by 48 votes more than John McCain. In 2012 Republican Mitt Romney won Kent County by 28 votes over Democrat Barack Obama; the Sheriff of Kent County is John Price IV. The commissioners of Kent County are - Ronald H. Fithian President, William W. Pickrum and William A. Short According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 413 square miles, of which 277 square miles is land and 136 square miles is water.
According to the Maryland Geological Survey, the highest point in Kent County is 102 ft above sea level 2.25 mi west of Coleman's Corner, just northeast of the mouth of Still Pond Creek. Kent County is the smallest county in Maryland, it has a 209-mile shoreline, including Eastern Neck Island. The Chesapeake Bay is on the west, Sassafras River on the north, the Chester River on the south; the eastern border with Delaware is part of the Mason–Dixon line. Cecil County New Castle County, Delaware Harford County Queen Anne's County Kent County, Delaware Anne Arundel County Baltimore County Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 19,197 people, 7,666 households, 5,136 families residing in the county; the population density was 69 people per square mile. There were 9,410 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 79.64% White, 17.41% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.04% from other races, 1.18% from two or more races.
2.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.7 % were of 11.3 % American ancestry. There were 7,666 households out of which 26.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.70% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.00% were non-families. 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.81. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.80% under the age of 18, 10.90% from 18 to 24, 23.70% from 25 to 44, 25.30% from 45 to 64, 19.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 91.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,869, the median income for a family was $46,708. Males had a median income of $31,899 versus $24,513 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $21,573. About 9.30% of families and 13.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.00% of those under age 18 and 8.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 20,197 people, 8,165 households, 5,272 families residing in the county; the population density was 72.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,549 housing units at an average density of 38.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 80.1% white, 15.1% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.9% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 18.7% were English, 18.7% were German, 15.5% were Irish, 7.9% were American, 5.8% were Italian. Of the 8,165 households, 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families, 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.78. The median age was 45.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $50,141 and the median income for a
David Erskine, 2nd Baron Erskine
David Montagu Erskine, 2nd Baron Erskine was a British diplomat and politician. A member of Clan Erskine, Erskine was the eldest son of Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine, fourth son of Henry Erskine, 10th Earl of Buchan, his mother was Frances, daughter of Daniel Moore, MP. He was educated at Charterhouse and Trinity College, Cambridge. After matriculating in 1796, he was called to the Bar, Lincoln's Inn, in 1802. Erskine did not practise law. At the request of Erskine's father to Charles James Fox Foreign Secretary, he was appointed Minister to the United States that year. In 1809, Erskine was recalled by the Foreign Secretary, George Canning, for having offered the withdrawal of the Orders in Council of 1807 against the Americans and his resolution of the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, he thus remained out of favour and unemployed until 1824, when he inherited his father's title and was appointed Minister to Stuttgart. He subsequently transferred to Munich in 1828, he retired in 1843. British historian Paul Langford looks at the decisions by the British government in 1809: The British ambassador in Washington brought affairs to an accommodation, was disappointed not by American intransigence but by one of the outstanding diplomatic blunders made by a Foreign Secretary.
It was Canning who, in his most irresponsible manner and out of sheer dislike of everything American, recalled the ambassador Erskine and wrecked the negotiations, a piece of most gratuitous folly. As a result, the possibility of a new embarrassment for Napoleon turned into the certainty of a much more serious one for his enemy. Though the British cabinet made the necessary concessions on the score of the Orders-in-Council, in response to the pressures of industrial lobbying at home, its action came too late…; the loss of the North American markets could have been a decisive blow. As it was by the time the United States declared war, the Continental System was beginning to crack, the danger correspondingly diminishing. So, the war, inconclusive though it proved in a military sense, was an irksome and expensive embarrassment which British statesman could have done much more to avert. Lord Erskine had lived in the United States prior to his appointment as Minister to Washington. In 1799, he married as his first wife Frances Cadwalader, daughter of John Cadwalader, a general during the American Revolutionary War.
She was the great granddaughter of Judge William Moore, of Moore's Hall, whose niece married Lord Erskine's father, hence Lord Erskine and his wife were cousins. The portrait of Lady Erskine by Gilbert Stuart was considered one of his masterpieces, they had twelve children: Hon. Thomas Americus Erskine 3rd Baron Erskine, diplomat. Hon. John Cadwallader Erskine 4th Baron Erskine, diplomat. Hon. Steuarta Erskine, married Timothy Yeats Brown. Hon. Elizabeth Erskine, married Sir St Vincent Hawkins-Whitshed, 2nd Baronet. Lt.-Col. Hon. David Montagu Erskine, soldier. Hon. Edward Morris Erskine, diplomat. Hon. James Stuart Erskine, created Graf Erskine by Ludwig II of Bavaria. Hon. Frances Erskine, married Gabriel Shawe. Hon. Sevilla Erskine, married Sir Henry Howard. Hon. Harriett Erskine, married Charles Woomass. Hon. Jane Plumer Erskine, married James Callander of Craigforth and Ardkinglas. Hon. Mary Erskine, married Graf Hermann von Paumgarten. Thomas Americus was named after Thomas Cadwalader, Lady Erskine's brother, who became an officer during the War of 1812.
John Cadwallader was named after her father. Lady Erskine died in Genoa in March 1843. Erskine married as his second wife Anne, daughter of John Travis, in July 1843. After Anne's death in April 1851, he married as his third wife Anna, daughter of William Cunninghame Graham of Gartmore and Finlaystone and widow of Thomas Calderwood Durham, in 1852. There were no children from his third marriage. Lord Erskine died at his home of Butler's Green in Sussex in March 1855, aged 78, was buried at Cuckfield, he was succeeded in the barony by Thomas. His widow married the Venerable John Sandford, Archdeacon of Coventry, in 1856, she died in March 1886. H. M. Stephens,'Erskine, David Montagu, second Baron Erskine', rev. H. C. G. Matthew, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 15 Nov 2007