French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Fairfax County, Virginia
Fairfax County the County of Fairfax is a county of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. Part of Northern Virginia, Fairfax County borders both the City of Alexandria and Arlington County and forms part of the inner suburban ring of Washington, DC; the county is thus predominantly suburban with some urban and rural pockets. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,081,726, in 2015, it was estimated at 1,142,234, making it the Commonwealth's most populous jurisdiction, with 13.6% of Virginia's population. The county is the most populous jurisdiction in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, with 19.8% of the MSA population, as well as the larger Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area, with 13.1% of the CSA population. The county seat is the City of Fairfax, though because it is an independent city under Virginia law, the city of Fairfax is not part of Fairfax County. Fairfax was the first U. S. county to reach a six-figure median household income and has the second-highest median household income of any county-level local jurisdiction in the United States after neighbor Loudoun County.
The county is home to the headquarters of intelligence agencies such as the Central Intelligence Agency, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, National Reconnaissance Office, as well as the National Counterterrorism Center and Office of the Director of National Intelligence. The county is home to seven Fortune 500 companies, including three with Falls Church addresses. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of what would become Fairfax County were an Algonquian-speaking sub-group called the Taux known as the Doeg or Dogue, their villages, as recorded by Captain John Smith in 1608, included Namassingakent and Nemaroughquand on the south bank of the Potomac River in what is now Fairfax County. Virginian colonists from the Northern Neck region drove the Doeg out of this area and into Maryland by 1670. Fairfax County was formed in 1742 from the northern part of Prince William County, it was named for 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, proprietor of the Northern Neck. The Fairfax family name is derived from the Old English phrase for "blond hair" – Fæger-feax.
The oldest settlements in Fairfax County were along the Potomac River. George Washington built his home, Mount Vernon, facing the river. Gunston Hall, the home of George Mason is nearby. Modern Fort Belvoir is on the estate of Belvoir Manor, built along the Potomac by William Fairfax in 1741. Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, the only member of the British nobility to reside in the colonies, lived at Belvoir before he moved to the Shenandoah Valley; the Belvoir mansion and several of its outbuildings were destroyed by fire after the Revolutionary War in 1783, George Washington noted the plantation complex deteriorated into ruins. In 1757, the northwestern two-thirds of Fairfax County became Loudoun County. In 1789, part of Fairfax County was ceded to the federal government to form Alexandria County of the District of Columbia. Alexandria County was returned to Virginia in 1846, reduced in size by the secession of the independent city of Alexandria in 1870, renamed Arlington County in 1920.
The Fairfax County town of Falls Church became an independent city in 1948. The Fairfax County town of Fairfax became an independent city in 1961. Located near Washington, D. C. Fairfax County was an important region in the Civil War; the Battle of Chantilly or Ox Hill, during the same campaign as the second Battle of Bull Run, was fought within the county. Other areas of activity included Minor's Hill, Munson's Hill, Upton's Hill, on the county's eastern border, overlooking Washington, D. C; the federal government's growth during and after World War II spurred rapid growth in the county and made the county suburban. Other large businesses continued to settle in Fairfax County and the opening of Tysons Corner Center spurred the rise of Tysons Corner; the technology boom and a steady government-driven economy created rapid growth and an growing and diverse population. The economy has made Fairfax County one of the nation's wealthiest counties. A general aviation airport located along U. S. Route 50, west of Seven Corners called the Falls Church Airpark operated in the county from 1948 to 1960.
The facility's 2,650 foot unpaved runway was used extensively by private pilots and civil defense officials. Residential development, multiple accidents, the demand for retail space led to its closure in 1960. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 406 square miles, of which 391 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water. Fairfax County is bounded on the southeast by the Potomac River. Across the river to the northeast is Washington, D. C. across the river to the north is Montgomery County and across the river to the southeast are Prince George's County and Charles County, Maryland. The county is bounded on the north and east by Arlington County and the independent cities of Alexandria and Falls Church, it is bounded on the west by Loudoun County, on the south by Prince William County. Most of the county lies in the Piedmont region, with rolling hills and deep stream valleys such as Difficult Run and its tributaries. West of Route 28, the hills give way to a flat, gentle valley which stretches west to the Bull Run Mountains in Loudoun County.
Elevations in the county range from near sea level along the tidal sections of the Potomac River in the southeast port
Jacobite rising of 1745
The Jacobite rising of 1745 known as the Forty-five Rebellion or the'45, was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was fighting in mainland Europe, proved to be the last in a series of revolts that began in 1689, with major outbreaks in 1708, 1715 and 1719. Charles launched the rebellion on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September. At a council in October, the Scots agreed to invade England after Charles assured them of substantial support from English Jacobites and a simultaneous French landing in Southern England. On that basis, the Jacobite army entered England in early November, reaching Derby on 4 December, where they decided to turn back. Similar discussions had taken place at Carlisle and Manchester and many felt they had gone too far already.
The invasion route had been selected to cross areas considered Jacobite but the promised English support failed to materialise. The decision was supported by the vast majority but caused an irretrievable split between Charles and his Scots supporters. Despite victory at Falkirk Muir in January 1746, the Battle of Culloden in April ended the Rebellion and significant backing for the Stuart cause. Charles escaped to France, but was unable to win support for another attempt, died in Rome in 1788; the 1688 Glorious Revolution replaced James II and VII with his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William, who ruled as joint monarchs of England and Scotland. Neither Mary, who died in 1694, nor her sister Anne, had surviving children, which left their Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward as the closest natural heir. To ensure a Protestant monarch, the 1701 Act of Settlement excluded Catholics from the succession and when Anne became queen in 1702, her heir was the distantly related but Protestant Sophia of Hanover.
Sophia died in June 1714 and when Anne followed two months in August, her son succeeded as George I. Louis XIV of France, the Stuarts' main backer, died in 1715 and his successors needed peace with Britain in order to rebuild their economy; the 1716 Anglo-French alliance forced James to leave France. Rebellions in 1715 and 1719 failed, the latter so badly its planners concluded that it might "ruin the King's Interest and faithful subjects in these parts." Senior exiles like Bolingbroke now accepted pardons and returned home or took employment elsewhere and while many remained sympathetic, the Stuart cause seemed at an end. The birth of his sons Charles and Henry helped maintain public interest but by 1737, James was "living tranquilly in Rome, having abandoned all hope of a restoration."In the 1730s, French statesmen began to see the post-1713 expansion of British commercial strength as a threat to the European balance of power and looked for ways to reduce it. A Stuart restoration would be expensive, risky and of little value, since they were unlikely to be any more pro-French than the Hanoverians.
A low level, ongoing insurgency was far more cost-effective and the Scottish Highlands an ideal location, due to the feudal nature of clan society, their remoteness and terrain. An opportunity was provided due to unhappiness with the London government, resulting in the 1725 malt tax riots and 1737 Porteous riots. In March 1743, the Highland-recruited 42nd Regiment or Black Watch was posted to Flanders, contrary to an understanding their service was restricted to Scotland and led to a short-lived mutiny. However, mutinies over pay and conditions were not unusual and the worst riots in 1725 took place in Glasgow, a town Charles noted in 1746 as one'where I have no friends and who are not at pains to hide it.' Trade disputes between Spain and Britain led to the 1739 War of Jenkins' Ear, followed in 1740–41 by the War of the Austrian Succession. The long-serving British prime minister Robert Walpole was forced to resign in February 1742 by an alliance of Tories and anti-Walpole Patriot Whigs, who did a deal that excluded the majority of their Tory partners from government.
Furious Tories such as the Duke of Beaufort now asked for French help in restoring James to the British throne. While war with Britain was only a matter of time, Cardinal Fleury, chief minister since 1723, viewed the Jacobites as unreliable fantasists, an opinion shared by most French ministers. One exception was the Marquis D'Argenson. In 1745, supporters of the exiled Stuarts, or Jacobites, remained a significant element in British and Irish politics but with different and competing goals; these divisions between the Scots and Irish, became apparent during the 1745 Rising, which demonstrated estimates of English support confused indifference to the Hanoverians with enthusiasm for the Stuarts. Charles' senior advisors included Irish exiles such as John O'Sullivan, who wanted an autonomous, Catholic Ireland and the return of lands confiscated after the Irish Confederate Wars. James II promised these concessions in return for Irish support in the 1689–91 Williamite War, only a Stuart on the throne of Great Britain could ensure their fulfilment.
A prominent factor in Tory opposition to th
Fortress of Louisbourg
The Fortress of Louisbourg is a National Historic Site of Canada and the location of a one-quarter partial reconstruction of an 18th-century French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Its two sieges that of 1758, were turning points in the Anglo-French struggle for what today is Canada; the original settlement was made in 1713, called Havre à l'Anglois. Subsequently, the fishing port grew to become a major commercial port and a defended fortress; the fortifications surrounded the town. The walls were constructed between 1720 and 1740. By the mid-1740s Louisbourg, named for Louis XIV of France, was one of the most extensive European fortifications constructed in North America, it was supported by two smaller garrisons on Île Royale located at present-day St. Peter's and Englishtown; the Fortress of Louisbourg suffered key weaknesses, since it was erected on low-lying ground commanded by nearby hills and its design was directed toward sea-based assaults, leaving the land-facing defences weak.
A third weakness was that it was a long way from France or Quebec, from which reinforcements might be sent. It was captured by British colonists in 1745, was a major bargaining chip in the negotiations leading to the 1748 treaty ending the War of the Austrian Succession, it was returned to the French in exchange for border towns in. It was captured again in 1758 by British forces in the Seven Years' War, after which its fortifications were systematically destroyed by British engineers; the British continued to have a garrison at Louisbourg until 1768. The fortress and town were reconstructed in the 1960s and 1970s, using some of the original stonework, which provided jobs for unemployed coal miners; the head stonemason for this project was Ron Bovaird. The site is operated by Parks Canada as a living history museum; the site stands as the largest reconstruction project in North America. French settlement on Île Royale can be traced to the early 17th century following settlements in Acadia that were concentrated on Baie Française such as at Port-Royal and other locations in present-day peninsular Nova Scotia.
A French settlement at Sainte Anne on the central east coast of Île Royale was established in 1629 and named Fort Sainte Anne, lasting until 1641. A fur trading post was established on the site from 1651–1659, but Île Royale languished under French rule as attention was focused on the St. Lawrence River/Great Lakes colony of Canada and the small agricultural settlements of mainland Acadia; the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 gave Britain control of part of Newfoundland. In 1713, France set about constructing Port Dauphin and a limited naval support base at the former site of Fort Sainte-Anne; the harbour, being ice-free and well protected, soon became a winter port for French naval forces on the Atlantic seaboard and they named it Havre Louisbourg after King Louis XIV. The Fortress was besieged in 1745 by a New England force backed by a Royal Navy squadron; the New England attackers succeeded when the fortress capitulated on June 16, 1745. A major expedition by the French to recapture the fortress led by Jean-Baptiste de La Rochefoucauld de Roye, duc d'Anville, the following year was destroyed by storms and British naval attacks before it reached the fortress.
In 1748, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of the Austrian Succession, restored Louisbourg to France in return for territory gained in the Austrian Netherlands and the British trading post at Madras in India. Maurepas, the ministre de la marine, was determined to have it back, he regarded the fortified harbour as essential to maintaining French dominance in the fisheries of the area. The disgust of the French in this transaction was matched by that of the English colonists; the New England forces left, taking with them the famous Louisbourg Cross, which had hung in the fortress chapel. This cross was rediscovered in the Harvard University archives only in the half of the 20th century. Having given up Louisbourg, Britain in 1749 created its own fortified town on Chebucto Bay which they named Halifax, it soon became the largest Royal Navy base on the Atlantic coast and hosted large numbers of British army regulars. The 29th Regiment of Foot was stationed there. Britain's American colonies were expanding into areas claimed by France by the 1750s, the efforts of French forces and their Indian allies to seal off the westward passes and approaches through which American colonists could move west soon led to the skirmishes that developed into the French and Indian War in 1754.
The conflict widened into the larger Seven Years' War by 1756, which involved all of the major European powers. A large-scale French naval deployment in 1757 fen
John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll
Field Marshal John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll, styled Marquess of Lorne from 1761 to 1770, was a Scottish soldier and nobleman. After serving as a junior officer in Flanders during the War of the Austrian Succession, he was given command of a regiment and was redeployed to Scotland where he opposed the Jacobites at Loch Fyne at an early stage of the Jacobite Rebellion and went on to fight against them at the Battle of Falkirk Muir and at the Battle of Culloden, he became adjutant-general in Ireland and spent some 20 years as a Member of Parliament before retiring to Inveraray Castle. Born the son of John Campbell, 4th Duke of Argyll and Mary Campbell, Campbell was educated at a private school in London and commissioned as second lieutenant in the 21st Royal Scots Fusiliers in 1739, he was promoted to captain in 1741 and major in 1743. He became Member of Parliament for Glasgow Burghs in March 1744 but was deployed to Flanders to serve in the War of the Austrian Succession. Campbell became lieutenant colonel commanding the 30th Regiment of Foot early in 1745 and was redeployed to Scotland where he opposed the Jacobites at Loch Fyne in November 1745 at an early stage of the Jacobite Rebellion.
He went on to see action under Lieutenant General Henry Hawley at the Battle of Falkirk Muir where the British cavalry was routed in January 1746. He served under the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Culloden where the Jacobites were defeated in April 1746. In 1749 Campbell transferred to the command of the 42nd Regiment of Foot who were serving in Ireland: he went on to become adjutant-general in Ireland in 1754. Promoted to colonel on 10 November 1755, he became colonel of the 54th Regiment of Foot in December 1755 and colonel of the 14th Dragoons in April 1757, he was promoted to major-general on 25 August 1759 and to lieutenant general on 19 January 1761. He took the courtesy title of Marquess of Lorne, stood down from the House of Commons on his disqualification from representing a Scottish seat, when his father became 4th Duke of Argyll on 15 April 1761, he became Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Scotland in 1762 and was elected unopposed as Member of Parliament for Dover, an English seat, in January 1765.
He became colonel of the 1st Regiment of Foot that year. Campbell stood down from the House of Commons again when, on the formation of the Chatham Ministry, he was created Baron Sundridge in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in November 1766, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Scotland in 1767, succeeded his father as 5th Duke of Argyll in November 1770 and was promoted to full general on 24 March 1778. He went on to be colonel of the 3rd Regiment of Footguards in May 1782 and, having been appointed Lord Lieutenant of Argyllshire on 6 May 1794, was promoted to field marshal on 30 July 1796. In retirement Campbell lived at Inveraray Castle and became an expert on agricultural improvement with a seat on the Board of Agriculture, he was buried at Kilmun Parish Church. In 1759 Campbell married Elizabeth Gunning, widow of James Hamilton, 6th Duke of Hamilton and mother of James Hamilton, 7th Duke of Hamilton and Douglas Hamilton, 8th Duke of Hamilton, she was created Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon in her own right.
They had five children: Lady Augusta Campbell George John Campbell, Earl of Campbell George William Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll Lady Charlotte Susan Maria Campbell John Douglas Edward Henry Campbell, 7th Duke of Argyll Heathcote, Tony. The British Field Marshals, 1736–1997: A Biographical Dictionary. Barnsley: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-696-5
Premier Grand Lodge of England
The organisation known as the Premier Grand Lodge of England was founded on 24 June 1717 as the'Grand Lodge of London and Westminster'. Concerned with the practice of Freemasonry in London and Westminster, it soon became known as the Grand Lodge of England; because it was the first Masonic Grand Lodge to be created, convention calls it the Premier Grand Lodge of England in order to distinguish it from the Most Ancient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons according to the Old Constitutions, more referred to as the Ancient Grand Lodge of England, the Grand Lodge of All England Meeting at York. It existed until 1813, when it united with the Ancient Grand Lodge of England to create the United Grand Lodge of England; the basic principles of the Grand Lodge of England were inspired by the ideal of tolerance and universal understanding of the Enlightenment and by the Scientific Revolution of the 17th Century. The Grand Lodge was founded shortly after George I, the first Hanoverian king of the Kingdom of Great Britain, ascended to the throne on 1 August 1714 and the end of the first Jacobite rising of 1715.
The Grand Lodge of England was founded in London on St. John the Baptist's day, 24 June 1717, when four existing Lodges gathered at the Goose and Gridiron Ale-house in St. Paul's Church-yard in London and constituted themselves a Grand Lodge; the four lodges had met together in 1716 at the Apple-Tree Tavern, "and having put into the Chair the oldest Master Mason, they constituted themselves a Grand Lodge pro Tempore in due form." It was at that meeting in 1716 that they resolved to hold the Annual Assembly and Feast and choose a Grand Master from among themselves, which they did the following year. All four lodges were named after the public houses where they were accustomed to meet, at the Goose and Gridiron Ale-house in St. Paul's Church-yard. While the three London lodges were operative lodges, the Rummer and Grapes, by the Palace of Westminster, appears to have been a lodge of accepted and speculative gentlemen masons. Little is known of Anthony Sayer, the first Grand Master, but the next, George Payne, rose to a high position within the Commissioners of Taxes.
Payne served as Grand Master twice, in 1718–19, 1720–21. The year in between was taken by John Theophilus Desaguliers, a scientist, a pupil of Newton. Thereafter, every Grand Master was a member of the nobility, although in these early years, it is unlikely that they were anything more than figureheads; the intention was to raise the public profile of the society. In 1725, aside from London Lodges, the minutes of Grand Lodge show lodges at Bath, Norwich, Chester, Gosport, Carmarthen and Warwick, embryonic Provincial Grand Lodges in Cheshire and South Wales. Grand Lodge was outgrowing London. George Payne took it upon himself to write the General Regulations of a Free Mason, which were recited at his second installation as Grand Master in 1720. Little is known of the period from 1717 to 1721, due to lack of minutes and written material, but sometime during this period the Revd. Dr. James Anderson was either commissioned or took it upon himself to write The Constitutions of the Free-Masons containing the History, Regulations, & of that most Ancient and Right Worshipful Fraternity: For use of the Lodges.
According to Anderson, he was commissioned to digest the old Gothic Constitutions of Freemasonry. The book was submitted for approval to Grand Lodge, published by order of the Grand Master in 1723, with the addition of the outgoing Grand Masters method of constituting a new Masonic Lodge, it started with Desagulier's dedication to the previous Grand Master, John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu. There followed a long "Historical" introduction, tracing Freemasonry back to biblical times, a set of six "Charges", an expanded version of Payne's Regulations, Grand Master Wharton's method of constituting a new lodge, a section of songs. For the first time, all of Freemasonry, except for the ritual, was available in a printed book. Anderson received no remuneration from the pocket editions which started to appear in the 1730s, which may have inspired the revised edition of 1738; the new Grand Lodge was evidently not attractive to the older "St. John's" or independent lodges, who found much to dislike about the organisation.
It had been their custom to mark the lodge out in chalk, which would be erased with a mop and bucket. This began to be replaced with tape and thin metal letters, hence an advertisement in a London newspaper in 1726 for a lecture on "Ante-Diluvian Masonry. Showing what innovations have been introduced by the Doctor and some other of the Moderns, with their Tape and Movable Letters, Blazing Stars, etc. to the great indignity of the Mop and Pail."The second quarter of the Eighteenth century saw the London organisation flourish as the Grand Lodge of England. However, the rapidity of growth saw. A crop of disaffected ex-masons brought a few published exposures, the most successful being Pritchard's "Masonry Dissected", in 1730; as this contained a recognisable representation of all three degrees, with the secrets that would ensure admission to a Masonic Lodge, Grand Lodge made a few changes to their ritual and password which took them out of step with