click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

John Casor

John Casor, a servant in Northampton County in the Virginia Colony, in 1655 became the first person of African descent in England's Thirteen Colonies to be declared as a slave for life as a result of a civil suit. In an earlier case, John Punch was the first man documented as a slave in the Virginia Colony, sentenced to life in servitude for attempting to escape his indenture. In one of the earliest freedom suits, Casor argued that he was an indentured servant, forced by Anthony Johnson, a free black, to serve past his term. Johnson sued Parker for Casor's services. In ordering Casor returned to his master, for life, the court both declared Casor a slave and sustained the right of free blacks to own slaves. Slavery law hardened during Casor's lifetime. In 1662, the Virginia colony passed a law incorporating the principle of partus sequitur ventrem, ruling that children of enslaved mothers would be born into slavery, regardless of their father's race or status; this was in contradiction to English common law for English subjects, which based a child's status on that of the father.

In 1699 Virginia passed a law deporting all free blacks. But many new families of free blacks continued to be formed during the colonial years by the close relationships among the working class. At this time, there were only about 300 people of African origin living in the Virginia Colony, about 1% of an estimated population of 30,000; the first group of 20 or so Africans were brought to Jamestown in 1619 as indentured servants. After working out their contracts for passage money to Virginia and completing their indenture, each was granted 50 acres of land; this enabled them to raise their own tobacco or other crops. Although most historians believe slavery, as an institution, developed much they differ on the exact status of their servitude before slavery was established, as well as differing over the date when this took place; the colonial charter entitled English subjects and their children the rights of the common law, but people of other nations were considered foreigners or aliens outside the common law.

At the time, the colony had no provision for naturalizing foreigners. Anthony Johnson was an Angolan colonist, one of the original indentured "20 and odd negroes" brought to Jamestown after arriving at Cape Comfort in August 1619. By 1623, Johnson had completed his indenture and was a "free Negro". During the late 1640s, Johnson moved with his family to Northampton County on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, he began raising livestock. He was the first known African landowner in the colony. By July 1651, he had expanded his holdings, which he referred to in a court record as myne owne ground, to 250 acres a considerable tract by Eastern Shore standards, he was prosperous enough to import five indentured servants of his own and was granted an additional 250 acres as "headrights" for bringing in workers. In 1653 John Casor, an African employed by Johnson, filed what became known as a freedom suit, he said that he had been imported as a "seaven or eight yeares" indentured servant and that, after attempting to reclaim his indenture, he had been told by Johnson that he didn't have one.

According to the civil court documents, Casor demanded his freedom. "Anthony Johnson was in a feare. Upon this his son in law, his wife and his two sonnes persuaded the said Anthony Johnson to set the said John Casor free."Casor went to work for Robert Parker, an English colonist who, along with his brother George testified that they knew Casor had an indenture. One commentator said that Johnson may have feared losing his headrights land if the case went to court. Anthony Johnson brought suit in Northampton County court against Robert Parker in 1654 for detaining his "Negro servant, John Casor," saying "Hee never did see any but that hee had ye Negro for his life". In the case of Johnson v. Parker, the court of Northampton County upheld Johnson's right to hold Casor as a slave, saying in its ruling of 8 March 1655: This daye Anthony Johnson negro made his complaint to the court against mr. Robert Parker and declared that hee deteyneth his servant John Casor negro under the pretence that said negro was a free man.

The court consideringe and maturely weighing the premisses, doe fynde that the saide Mr. Robert Parker most unjustly keepeth the said Negro from Anthony Johnson his master... It is therefore the Judgement of the Court and ordered That the said John Casor Negro forthwith returne unto the service of the said master Anthony Johnson, And that Mr. Robert Parker make payment of all charges in the suit. In sustaining the claim of Johnson to the perpetual service of Casor, the court gave judicial sanction to the right of free Negroes to own slaves of their own race. In a 1916 article, John H. Russell wrote "Indeed no earlier record, to our knowledge, has been found of judicial support given to slavery in Virginia except as a punishment for a crime." Russell makes this distinction because in 1640 John Punch "was reduced from his former condition of servitude for a limited time to a condition of slavery for life." In 1670 the colonial assembly passed a law prohibiting free and baptized negroes and Indians from purchasing Christians but allowing them to buy people "of their owne nation."

In this meaning, "purchase" related to buying the contract services of indentured servants of various "nations". In 1665 Anthony Johnson and his wife Mary, his son John and his wife Susanna, their slave John Casor moved to Somerset County, Maryland. Casor remained Johnson's slave for the rest of his life. Legal restrictions co

Johnny Armour

Johnny Armour is an English amateur flyweight and professional super fly/bantam/super bantam/featherweight boxer of the 1990s and 2000s. As an amateur he won the 1990 Amateur Boxing Association of England flyweight title, against Paul Ingle, boxing out of St Marys ABC; as a professional he won the European Boxing Union bantamweight title, World Boxing Union bantamweight title, Commonwealth bantamweight title, was a challenger for the World Boxing Union super bantamweight title against Carlos Navarro. His professional fighting weight varied from 115 lb, i.e. super flyweight to 125 lb, i.e. featherweight. Johnny Armour was trained by Collin Moorcroft, managed by Terry Toole. Professional boxing record for Johnny Armour from BoxRec Image - Johnny Armour

Venezuela Solidarity Campaign

Venezuela Solidarity Campaign is a British political organisation which expresses support to the Bolivarian Revolution and campaigns against its threats. Its Scottish section is known as the Scottish Venezuela Solidarity Campaign. According to the campaign, its aims are: To defend Venezuela's independence. To support the right of the Venezuelan people to determine their own future free from external intervention. To provide accurate and up-to-date information in support of democracy and social progress in Venezuela. To defend the achievements of the Bolivarian Revolution. To support and build activity around these objectives throughout Britain, within parliament and local government, the trade unions, amongst women and gay communities, black and Latin American communities and all others; the VSC was established in 2005 in response to an attempted military coup against the President of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez. It sought to promote and strengthen links between trade unionists in Britain and Venezuela, organised solidarity tours to Venezuela, promoted awareness of the Bolivarian Revolution through a DVD, The Revolution will not be Televised.

From 2009 the group promoted another documentary DVD, Inside the Revolution: A Journey into the Heart of Venezuela, directed by Pablo Navarrete. Following the death of Chávez in 2013, the campaign continued its work in support of his successor as President, Nicolás Maduro; the activities of the VSC and SVSC in 2015-16 included maintaining websites with extensive information about the situation in Venezuela. Ken Livingstone, former Labour MP and Mayor of London Diane Abbott, Labour MP for Hackney North and Stoke Newington Kelvin Hopkins, Labour MP for Luton North Bruce Kent, political activist and former Priest Ann Pettifor, academic Rodney Bickerstaffe was a patron until his death in 2017. Trade union bodies affiliated to the VSC include the Southern and Eastern TUC, Yorkshire and Humberside TUC and Camden Trades Council. Individual unions affiliated include Unite the Union, the University and College Union, the National Union of Teachers, the Public and Commercial Services Union, ASLEF, BECTU, BFAWU, CWU, FBU, GMB, MU, Napo, NUM, PCS, RMT, TSSA, UCATT, UCU, Unite the Union and UNISON.

Trade union affiliates to the SVSC include the STUC, CWU, EIS, GMB, RMT, UNISON, Unite the Union, Trades Councils in Dundee, Kilmarnock & Loudon and Midlothian. Website of the VSC website of the SVSC

Debby Boone

Deborah Anne Boone is an American singer and actress. She is best known for her 1977 hit, "You Light Up My Life", which spent ten weeks at No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and led to her winning the Grammy Award for Best New Artist the following year. Boone focused her music career on country music resulting in the 1980 No. 1 country hit "Are You on the Road to Lovin' Me Again". In the 1980s, she recorded Christian music which garnered her four top 10 Contemporary Christian albums as well as two more Grammys. Throughout her career, Boone has appeared in several musical theater productions and has co-authored many children's books with husband, Gabriel Ferrer. Debby Boone was born in Hackensack, New Jersey, the third of four daughters born to singer-actor Pat Boone and Shirley Foley Boone, daughter of country music star Red Foley; when Boone was 14 years old, she began touring with her parents and three sisters: Cherry and Laury. The sisters first recorded with their parents as The Pat Boone Family and as the Boones or Boone Girls.

They recorded gospel music, although the sisters released singles for the Motown and Curb labels that were remakes of secular pop music featuring Debby as the lead vocalist. The Boones twice reached Billboard's AC charts with 1975's "When The Lovelight Starts Shining Through His Eyes", a remake of the Supremes' first top 40 hit, 1977's "Hasta Mañana", a cover of a track from ABBA's Waterloo album. With her older sisters married and younger sister Laury in college, Boone was encouraged by producer Mike Curb to launch a solo career. Boone released her first solo effort, "You Light Up My Life" in 1977; the song became the biggest hit of the 1970s lasting ten consecutive weeks at No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 — longer than any other song in Hot 100 history to that point. The song earned Boone a Grammy Award for Best New Artist and an American Music Award for Favorite Pop Single of 1977, she received Grammy nominations for Best Pop Vocal Performance – Female and Record of the Year won by Barbra Streisand and the Eagles.

"You Light Up My Life" succeeded on Billboard's Adult Contemporary and Country singles charts. The single and the album of the same name were both certified platinum; the song and produced by Joe Brooks, was from the film of the same name. Brooks earned Song of the Year awards at both Oscars for writing the song. Boone's version was not featured on its soundtrack; the song was lip-synched in the film by its star, Didi Conn, performing to vocals recorded by Kacey Cisyk. It was written as a love song, but Boone interpreted the song as inspirational and stated that she recorded the song for God. Boone's overnight success led to a tour with her father and frequent television appearances, but she was unable to maintain her success in pop music after "You Light Up My Life", her follow-up single, "California", peaked at No. 50 Pop and No. 20 AC. "California" was included on Boone's second album, which faltered at No. 147 Pop. Her next single, the double-sided "God Knows"/"Baby I'm Yours" struggled, peaking at No. 74 Pop, becoming her last entry on the Hot 100.

However, the single charted returned Boone to the country chart. Boone released another movie theme, "When You're Loved", from The Magic of Lassie. Like "You Light Up My Life", the song was nominated for an Academy Award for its composers, the Sherman Brothers, but it failed to replicate the success of her first single charting only No. 48 AC. Boone's wholesome persona contrasted with the image-conscious pop-music industry, leading her career in different musical directions. With the crossover success of "You Light Up My Life" and "God Knows/Baby, I'm Yours", Boone began to focus on country music, her first country single, "In Memory of Your Love", fizzled at No. 61. But, she hit No. 11 in 1979 with a remake of Connie Francis' "My Heart Has a Mind of Its Own". Boone released another Connie Francis cover, "Breakin' in a Brand New Broken Heart", before releasing her 1979 eponymous album. Although the album included the two Francis remakes, her next two singles were not culled from this album – a remake of the Happenings' "See You in September" and yet another Francis cover, "Everybody's Somebody's Fool".

Her next album, 1980's Love Has No Reason, was produced by Larry Butler who helmed many of Kenny Rogers' records during the late 1970s. It resulted in the No. 1 Country and No. 31 AC hit, "Are You on the Road to Lovin' Me Again". Two weeks before Are You on the Road to Lovin' Me Again ascended to No. 1, Boone was part of a historic Top 5 on the Billboard Country chart. For the week ending April 19, 1980, the Top 5 positions were all held by women: Crystal Gayle Dottie West Debby Boone Emmylou Harris Tammy Wynette The album generated two more country singles, "Free to Be Lonely Again" and "Take It Like a

Painkillr

"Painkillr" is a song recorded by American singer and songwriter Erika Jayne. It reached number one on Billboard's Hot Dance Club Play chart in 2014. "Painkillr" was written by Christopher Rodriguez. Erika Jayne has described the song by saying: "The idea came to me one night from a darker place, it was. With that type of material, it's not set high in the register. So we set it low, made it yummy, sexy and 1930-ish." The black-and-white music video shows Jayne in bed wearing heels. It was shot in half a day. "I had a photoshoot in the morning, shot it in the afternoon. That's how tight that video was," she told People magazine; the music video was directed by her long-time collaborator Mikey Minden. Minden described that the music video was intended to be "edgy, gritty, in-your-face, super-sexy, super-stylized, theatrical."Television personality Bethenny Frankel criticized the music video in an episode of The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills in 2016. Over twenty different remixes and radio edits were created for the digital download release of "Painkillr".

Mirka Mora

Mirka Madeleine Mora was a French-born Australian visual artist and cultural figure who contributed to the development of contemporary art in Australia. Her media included drawing, painting and mosaic. Mirka Mora was born in Paris, to a Lithuanian Jewish father, Leon Zelik, a Romanian Jewish mother, Celia'Suzanne' Gelbein, she was arrested in 1942 during the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup. Her father, managed to arrange for her release from the concentration camp at Pithiviers before Mora and her mother, were scheduled to be deported to Auschwitz; the family evaded deportation from 1942 to 1945 by hiding in the forests of France. After the war, Mora met a wartime resistance fighter Georges Mora in Paris at the age of 17, they married in 1947. In an interview in 2004, Mora said: I wanted to make love to him, because I was humiliated that he didn't because I was 17, he said, "I know that you are not happy but we have to wait till we get married." "Ah! Married?" So I agreed to get married to lose my virginity. That's true.

Having survived the Holocaust and her husband migrated to Australia in 1951 and settled in Melbourne, occupying studios in the Grosvenor Chambers in the'Paris End' of Collins Street, became key figures on the Melbourne cultural scene. Georges became an influential art dealer, in 1967 he founded one of the first commercial art galleries in Melbourne, the Tolarno Galleries; the Mora family owned and operated three significant Melbourne cafés. The Mirka Café was opened by Jean Sablon in December 1954 at 183 Exhibition Street and was the venue for the first major solo exhibition by Joy Hester, it was followed by the Café Balzac at 62 Wellington Parade, East Melbourne and by the Tolarno in Fitzroy Street in St Kilda, which opened in 1966, where Mirka created a bas-relief behind the bar and painted murals on walls and windows of the restaurant and bistro and toilets, over the period 1965 to 1978. All three were focal points for Melbourne's bohemian subculture; as Mora's son Philippe recalls, "my parents fed artists at our home and in our restaurants".

In a 2004 interview Mora stated: Actually, the Mirka Cafe got too big, because too many people came and couldn't get in. And so we opened the Balzac Restaurant and the Balzac Restaurant was the toast of Melbourne, it was a beautiful restaurant. But it was my husband's work of art and I only came in the restaurant to help when my husband went overseas. My husband always tried to find a big house. So one day my husband came and said, "I have bought a hotel." I did get a big studio for one week I had to give it to my husband for his gallery. And I went on the first floor, where I had the bridal room, a beautiful studio; the Mora family's social circle included many progressive Australian artists and writers: Ian Sime, Charles Blackman and Barbara Blackman, Fred Williams, John Perceval, Albert Tucker, Barrett Reid, Laurence Hope, Arthur Boyd and Joy Hester. The Mora family were close friends with renowned art patrons John and Sunday Reed, spent many weekends at their famous home and artists' colony "Heide" in the Melbourne suburb of Bulleen, at the Reeds' beach house next door to the Moras' own in Aspendale.

Mora had actor Tiriel Mora, film director Philippe Mora and art dealer William Mora. They had what Philippe describes as "a culturally privileged childhood". After extramarital relationships on both sides, Mora separated from her husband Georges. After coming to Australia in 1951, three years Mora had become well known in art circles in Melbourne and, with patron friends John and Sunday Reed, was operative in reviving the Contemporary Art Society there. Mirka and Georges Mora, through the Contemporary Art Society and with Italian Gino Nibbi who showed Tucker and Nolan at his Galleria di Quattro Venti in Rome, made strenuous efforts to have Australia accepted for the first time into the Venice Biennale, urging the inclusion of contemporary art to promote its alignment with Modernist practice of Australian immigrant artists from Europe and their influence on a reinvigoration of the country's art. Though they secured an exhibition, it was not a success, as the conservative Commonwealth Arts Advisory Board maintained control over the entries, sending outdated examples of the Heidelberg School and a few Arthur Boyd landscapes.

The episode exacerbated the split between the traditionalist and modernist groups and was not until 1978 that Australia was represented at Venice under the auspices of the Australian Arts Council. Since 1954, Mora exhibited with the CAS and in the Heide Museum of Modern Art, Douglas Galleries and Tolarno Galleries in Melbourne, with Watters Gallery in Sydney. Mora innovatively used a wide range of media and large numbers of her works are in the permanent collection of the Heide Museum of Modern Art, in the National Gallery of Australia in the National Gallery of Victoria, they are available to view in public places. The latter is nine metres long and about four meters high in three different techniques in the same artwork: painting in the upper register, mosaic in the middle, larger one, painted low relief at the pavement level. Completed in 1986, in 1998, Mirka restored the eroded lower part of the mural. Mora participated with Bruce Petty, Reg Mombassa, Ginger Riley and others in the production of the Federation Tapestry Suite in Melbourne Museum coordinated by arti