Black Mountain College
Black Mountain College was an experimental college founded in 1933 by John Andrew Rice, Theodore Dreier, several others. Based in Black Mountain, North Carolina, the school was ideologically organized around John Dewey's principles of education, which emphasized holistic learning and the study of art as central to a liberal arts education. Many of the school's faculty and students were or would go on to become influential in the arts, including Josef and Anni Albers, Charles Olson, Ruth Asawa, Walter Gropius, Ray Johnson, Robert Motherwell, Dorothea Rockburne, Cy Twombly, Robert Rauschenberg, Merce Cunningham, John Cage, Buckminster Fuller, Franz Kline and Elaine de Kooning and Allen Ginsberg. Although it was quite notable during its lifetime, the school closed in 1957 after 24 years due to funding issues; the history and legacy of Black Mountain College are preserved and extended by the Black Mountain College Museum + Arts Center located in downtown Asheville, North Carolina. Black Mountain was founded in 1933 by John Andrew Rice, Theodore Dreier, Frederick Georgia, Ralph Lounsbury, who were controversially dismissed as faculty from Rollins College for refusing to sign a loyalty pledge.
Black Mountain was experimental in nature and committed to an interdisciplinary approach, prioritizing art making as a necessary component of education and attracting a faculty and lecturers that included many of America's leading visual artists, composers and designers. During the 1930s and 1940s the school flourished, becoming well known as an incubator for artistic talent. Notable events at the school were common. Additionally, the College was an important incubator for the American avant-garde. Black Mountain proved to be an important precursor to and prototype for many of the alternative colleges of today, ranging from College of the Atlantic, Naropa University, the University of California, Santa Cruz, Marlboro College to Evergreen State College, Hampshire College, Shimer College, Prescott College, Goddard College, World College West, New College of Florida, among others, including Warren Wilson College located just minutes down the road from where Black Mountain College was located.
Bennington College, based on the same philosophy, was founded one year before Black Mountain College. The school operated using non-hierarchical methodologies that placed students and educators on the same plane. Revolving around 20th-century ideals about the value and importance of balancing education and cooperative labor, students were required to participate in farm work, construction projects, kitchen duty as part of their holistic education; the students were involved at all levels of institutional decision-making. They were left in charge of deciding when they were ready to graduate, which notoriously few did. There were grades, or degrees. Graduates were presented with handcrafted diplomas as purely ceremonial symbols of their achievement; the liberal arts program offered at Black Mountain was broad, supplemented by art making as a means of cultivating creative thinking within all fields. While Albers led the school, the only two requirements were a course on materials and form taught by Albers and a course on Plato.
In 1933, the Nazis shut down the Bauhaus in Germany, a progressive arts-based educational institution. Many of the school's faculty left Europe for the US, a number of them settled at Black Mountain, most notably, Josef Albers, selected to run the art program and his wife Anni Albers, who taught weaving and textile design. Adolf Hitler's rise to power and the subsequent persecution taking place in Europe led many artists and intellectuals to flee and resettle in the US, populating Black Mountain College with an influx of both students and faculty. In addition, the college was operating in the South during the period of legal racial segregation at other colleges and universities in the region. While not immune from racial tensions, the student Alma Stone Williams, an African-American woman, is considered by some to be the first black student to enroll in an all-white institution of higher education in the South during the Jim Crow era. For the first eight years the college rented the YMCA Blue Ridge Assembly buildings south of Black Mountain, North Carolina.
In 1941, it moved across the valley to its own campus at Lake Eden, where it remained until its closing in 1956. The property was purchased and converted to an ecumenical Christian boys' residential summer camp; this has been used for years as the site of the Black Mountain Festival and the Lake Eden Arts Festival. A number of the original structures are still in use as administrative facilities. Black Mountain College closed in 1957, a few years after Albers left to direct the first design department at Yale; the college suspended classes by court order due to debts, being unable to sustain their finances given the decreased number of students. In 1962, the school's books were closed, with all debts covered; the Black Mountain College Museum & Arts Center continues the legacy of Black Mountain College through talks, performances, an annual fall conference that examines the college's legacy. Black Mountain College was the subject of the museum exhibition Leap Before You Look: Black Mountain College 1933-1957, which opened at the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston on October 10, 2015.
The show was curated by Helen Molesworth with Ruth Erickson. The show exhibited at the Hammer Museum February 21, 2016 to May 15, 2016, organized
Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art is an art museum in Kansas City, known for its neoclassical architecture and extensive collection of Asian art. In 2007, Time magazine ranked the museum's new Bloch Building number one on its list of "The 10 Best Architectural Marvels" which considered candidates from around the globe. On September 1, 2010, Julián Zugazagoitia became the fifth Director of the museum; the museum was built on the grounds of Oak Hall, the home of Kansas City Star publisher William Rockhill Nelson. When he died in 1915, his will provided that upon the deaths of his wife and daughter, the proceeds of his entire estate would go to purchasing artwork for public enjoyment; this bequest was augmented by additional funds from the estates of Nelson's daughter, son-in-law and attorney. In 1911, former schoolteacher Mary McAfee Atkins, widow of real estate speculator James Burris Atkins, bequeathed $300,000 to establish an art museum. Through sound management of the estate, this amount grew to $700,000 by 1927.
Original plans called for two art museums based on the separate bequests. However, trustees of the two estates decided to combine the two bequests along with smaller bequests from others to make a single major art institution; the building was designed by prominent Kansas City architects Wight and Wight, who designed the approaches to the Liberty Memorial and the Kansas governor's mansion, Cedar Crest. Ground was broken in July 1930, the museum opened December 11, 1933; the building's classical Beaux-Arts architecture style was modeled on the Cleveland Museum of Art Thomas Wight, the brother who did most of the design work for the building said: We are building the museum on classic principles because they have been proved by the centuries. A distinctly American principle appropriate for such a building may be developed, but, so far, everything of that kind is experimental. One doesn't experiment with two-and-a-half million dollars; when the original building opened its final cost was $2.75 million.
The dimensions of the six-story structure were 390 feet long by 175 feet wide, making it larger than the Cleveland Museum of Art. The museum, locally referred to as the Nelson Art Gallery or the Nelson Gallery, was two museums until 1983 when it was formally named the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art; the east wing was called the Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, while the west wing and lobby was called the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art. On the exterior of the building Charles Keck created 23 limestone panels depicting the march of civilization from east to west including wagon trains heading west from Westport Landing. Grillwork in the doors depict oak leaf motifs in memory of Oak Hall; the south facade of the museum is an iconic structure in Kansas City that looms over a series of terraces onto Brush Creek. About the same time as the construction of the museum, Howard Vanderslice donated 8 acres to the west of the museum, across Oak Street, for the Kansas City Art Institute, which moved from the Deardorf Building at 11th and Main streets in downtown Kansas City.
As William Nelson, the major contributor, donated money rather than a personal art collection, the curators were able to assemble a collection from scratch. At the height of the Great Depression, the worldwide art market was flooded with pieces for sale, but there were few buyers; as such, the museum's buyers found a vast market open to them. The acquisitions grew and within a short time, the Nelson-Atkins had one of the largest art collections in the country. One of the original components of the building was a recreation of Nelson's oak paneled room from Oak Hall; the room bookcases. The room was dismantled in 1988 to make way for a photography studio. One-third of the building on the first and second floors of the west wing were left unfinished when the building opened to allow for future expansion. Part was completed in 1941 to house Chinese painting and the remainder of the building was completed after World War II. In 1993 Michael Churchman wrote a history of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, High Ideals and Aspirations.
The museum had four Directors before Julián Zugazagoitia’s appointment in 2010. A native of Massachusetts, Gardner graduated from MIT in 1917 with a degree in architecture, he served with distinction in WWI, after which he traveled in North Africa for a year. In about 1919 he became a ballet dancer with Anna Pavlova's Ballet Company, dancing under the name “Paul Tchernikoff”. Gardner went back to graduate school, earning a master's in European history from George Washington University in 1928 and enrolling in the doctoral program in art history at Harvard. In March of 1932 the cautious Trustees of the Nelson Art Gallery, who were hesitant about naming a full-fledged Director, appointed the graduate student as their assistant on a trial basis. Gardner took to the new position at once, so was named by the Trustees as Director eighteen months on September 1, 1933, he would serve for the next twenty years. Ethylene Jackson, Paul Gardner’s executive secretary since 1933, became acting director in November 1942 when Gardner was commissioned a major in the United States Army.
Besides her role as executive secretary to the Director, Jackson had served as curator of the decorative arts collection. Paul Gardner served as a Monuments Man in Europe, returning to the Nelson in December 1945. Ethylene Jackson left Kansas City for New York City the following year after marrying art dealer Germain Seligman. Upon Paul Gardner's retirement
Sarasota is a city in Sarasota County on the southwestern coast of the U. S. state of Florida. The area is renowned for its cultural and environmental amenities, beaches and the Sarasota School of Architecture; the city is at the southern end of the Tampa Bay Area, north of Punta Gorda. Its official limits include Sarasota Bay and several barrier islands between the bay and the Gulf of Mexico. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, in 2013 Sarasota had a population of 53,326. In 1986 it became designated as a certified local government. Sarasota is a principal city of the Sarasota metropolitan area, is the seat of Sarasota County; the islands separating Sarasota Bay from the gulf near the city, known as keys, include Lido Key and Siesta Key, which are famous worldwide for the quality of their sandy beaches. The keys that are included in the boundary of Sarasota are Lido Key, St. Armands Key, Otter Key, Casey Key, Coon Key, Bird Key, portions of Siesta Key. Siesta Key was named Sarasota Key. At one time, it and all of Longboat Key were considered part of Sarasota and confusing contemporaneous references may be found discussing them.
Longboat Key is the largest key separating the bay from the gulf, but it was evenly divided by the new county line of 1921. The portion of the key that parallels the Sarasota city boundary that extends to that new county line along the bay front of the mainland was removed from the city boundaries at the request of John Ringling in the mid-1920s, who sought to avoid city taxation of his planned developments at the southern tip of the key. Although they never were completed in the faltering economy, those development concessions granted by the city never were reversed and the county has retained regulation of those lands; the city limits had expanded with the real estate rush of the early twentieth century, reaching 70 square miles. The wild speculation boom began to crash in 1926 and following that, the city limits began to contract, shrinking to less than a quarter of that area; the area known today as Sarasota, Florida first appeared on a sheepskin Spanish map from 1763 with the word "Zarazote" over present day Sarasota and Bradenton.
The municipal government of Sarasota was established when it was incorporated as a town in 1902. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.9 square miles, of which 14.9 sq mi is land and 11.0 sq mi is water. Sarasota has a humid subtropical climate bordering a tropical savanna climate, with hot, humid summers, warm, dry winters. There are distinct rainy and dry seasons, with the rainy season lasting from June to September, the dry season from October to May; the most recent recorded freezes in Sarasota took place on January 18, 2018, when the temperature dropped to 30 °F at the Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport. However, Sarasota averages less than one frost annually; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, there were 51,917 people residing in the city; the population density was 3,541.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 29,151 housing units at an average density of 1,988.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.41% White, 15.11% African American, 0.43% Native American, 1.33% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.22% from other races, 2.34% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.63% of the population. There were 23,427 households out of which 19.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.3% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female head of household with no husband present, 48.5% were non-families. 38.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.81. In the city, 18.4% of the population was under the age of 18, 9.2% ranged from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 22.0% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.8 males. The per capita income for residents of the city was $23,197. Females had a median income of $23,510 versus $26,604 for males; the median income for a household in the city was $34,077 and the median income for a family was $40,398.
About 12.4% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.5% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. Tourism contributes to the economy of Sarasota. Companies based in Sarasota include the Boar's Head Provision Company. Major employers include Sarasota Memorial Hospital, Doctors Hospital of Sarasota, APAC Customer Services, L-3 Aviation Recorders, The Zenith and Capgemini. Sarasota municipal government was last incorporated in 1913, changing from a town type to adopting the city type of local government found in the United States and the title of its government changed to "City of Sarasota". Sarasota was designated as the county seat when Sarasota County was carved out of Manatee County in 1921 during the creation of several new counties. In 1945 the commission-manager government form was adopted for the city and it is governed by a five-person commission elected by popular vote, two members of which serve in the ceremonial positions of "mayor" and "vice-mayor", as chosen by the commission every April.
Two at-large commissioners are elected by all voters and the city is divided into three districts for which the residents of each elect one district representative to the five member commission. Many aspects of the city are overseen by the county government ranging from the schools, the libraries, the bay, major waterways, county designated roads, the airport, fir
Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles is a contemporary art museum with three locations in greater Los Angeles, California. The main branch is located on Grand Avenue in Downtown Los Angeles, near the Walt Disney Concert Hall. MOCA's original space intended as a "temporary" exhibit space while the main facility was built, is now known as the Geffen Contemporary, in the Little Tokyo district of downtown Los Angeles; the Pacific Design Center facility is in West Hollywood. The museum's exhibits consist of American and European contemporary art created after 1940. Since the museum's inception, MOCA's programming has been defined by its multi-disciplinary approach to contemporary art. In a 1979 political fund raising event at the Beverly Hills Hotel, Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley, Councilman Joel Wachs, local philanthropist Marcia Simon Weisman happened to be seated at the same table. Throughout the evening, Weisman passionately discussed the city's need for a contemporary art museum. Weisman's brother, Norton Simon, had stepped in to bail out the financially ailing Pasadena Art Museum in 1975, but was unable to retain its focus on modern art.
In the following weeks, the Mayor's Museum Advisory Committee was organized. The committee, led by William A. Norris, set about creating a museum from scratch, including locating funds, directors, curators, a gallery, most an art collection; that same year and five other key local collectors signed an agreement whereby they would pledge chunks of their private collections, worth up to $6 million, "to create a museum of standing and repute."The following year, the fledgling Museum of Contemporary Art was operating out of an office on Boyd Street. The city's most prominent philanthropists and collectors had been assembled into a Board of Trustees in 1980, set a goal of raising $10 million in their first year. A working staff was brought together. Following Weisman's initiative, $1-million contributions from Eli Broad, Max Palevsky, Atlantic Richfield Co. helped securing the construction of the new museum. Many of MOCA's initial donors were young and supporting the arts for the first time. Making up well over 90% of the museum's works, gifts from several major private collectors form the cornerstones of MOCA's permanent collection of nearly 6,000 works.
Much of it has come from board members who donated or bequeathed key works or entire collections, or sold art to the museum at favorable terms. Within months of its fall 1983 opening, MOCA was able to turn itself into an instant player in the international art world by striking a deal with one of its board members, Giuseppe Panza, who agreed to sell a group of works for $11 million and stagger the payments over five years, interest-free; the 1984 purchase of parts of the Panza Collection encompasses 80 seminal works of abstract expressionism and pop art by Jean Fautrier, Franz Kline, Roy Lichtenstein, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Mark Rothko, Antoni Tàpies. In 1985, the museum accepted Michael Heizer's earthwork Double Negative in Nevada desert, donated by Virginia Dwan. A 1986 bequest by television executive Barry Lowen included 67 works of minimalist, post-minimalist and neo-expressionist painting, sculpture and drawing by artists such as Dan Flavin, Ellsworth Kelly, Agnes Martin, Elizabeth Murray, Julian Schnabel, Joel Shapiro, Frank Stella, Cy Twombly.
In 1989, pieces by the Rita and Taft Schreiber collection were donated to the museum, encompassing 18 paintings and drawings by Jackson Pollock, Piet Mondrian, Arshile Gorky, among others. Hollywood agent Phil Gersh and his wife Beatrice, both founding members, gave 13 important pieces from their collection to the museum the same year, including Pollock's early drip painting Number 3, 1948 and David Smith's 8-foot-tall stainless steel sculpture Cubi III — as well as works by artists such as Ed Ruscha, Cindy Sherman, Susan Rothenberg; the museum's co-founder Marcia Simon Weisman bequeathed 83 works on paper from artists including Willem de Kooning, Barnett Newman, Jasper Johns and California-based painters Richard Diebenkorn and Sam Francis. In 1991, Hollywood screenwriter Scott Spiegel donated works by Jean-Michel Basquiat, Mark Innerst, Robert Longo, Susan Rothenberg, David Salle, among others. In 2003, the museum received the promise of a gift of 33 pieces from advertising executive Clifford Einstein, chair of MOCA's board of trustees, his wife, Madeline.
In 2004 the museum received the largest group of artworks donated by a private collector in the its 25-year history when E. Blake Byrne, a MOCA trustee and retired television executive, gave 123 paintings, drawings and photographs by 78 artists. Over the years, major donations of art collections have come from the Lannan Foundation and through funding from the Ralph M. Parsons Foundation. In 2000, MOCA received gifts from artists themselves, including major pieces by sculptor and performance artist Paul McCarthy, video artist Doug Aitken and photographer Andreas Gursky. Los Angeles-based artist Ed Moses made a major gift of his work to the museum in 1995, surveying nearly 40 years of his artistic development. Included within today's permanent collection are works by further influential artists such as Greg Colson, Kim Dingle, Sam Dur
Philadelphia Museum of Art
The Philadelphia Museum of Art is an art museum chartered in 1876 for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. The main museum building was completed in 1928 on Fairmount, a hill located at the northwest end of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway at Eakins Oval; the museum administers collections containing over 240,000 objects including major holdings of European and Asian origin. The various classes of artwork include sculpture, prints, photographs and decorative arts; the Philadelphia Museum of Art administers several annexes including the Rodin Museum located on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, the Ruth and Raymond G. Perelman Building, located across the street just north of the main building; the Perelman Building, which opened in 2007, houses more than 150,000 prints and photographs, along with 30,000 costume and textile pieces, over 1,000 modern and contemporary design objects including furniture and glasswork. The museum administers the historic colonial-era houses of Mount Pleasant and Cedar Grove, both located in Fairmount Park.
The main museum building and its annexes are owned by the City of Philadelphia and administered by a registered nonprofit corporation. Several special exhibitions are held in the museum every year, including touring exhibitions arranged with other museums in the United States and abroad; the attendance figure for the museum was 793,000 in 2017, which ranks it among the top one hundred most-visited art museums in the world. The museum is one of the largest art museums in the world based on gallery space. Philadelphia celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence with the Centennial Exposition in 1876. Memorial Hall, which contained the art gallery, was intended to outlast the Exposition and house a permanent museum. Following the example of London's South Kensington Museum, the new museum was to focus on applied art and science, provide a school to train craftsmen in drawing, painting and designing; the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art opened on May 10, 1877..
The museum's collection began with objects from the Exposition and gifts from the public impressed with the Exposition's ideals of good design and craftsmanship. European and Japanese fine and decorative art objects and books for the museum's library were among the first donations; the location outside of Center City, was distant from many of the city's inhabitants. Admission was charged until 1881 was dropped until 1962. Starting in 1882, Clara Jessup Moore donated a remarkable collection of antique furniture, carved ivory, metalwork, ceramics, books and paintings; the Countess de Brazza's lace collection was acquired in 1894 forming the nucleus of the lace collection. In 1893 Anna H. Wilstach bequeathed a large painting collection, including many American paintings, an endowment of half a million dollars for additional purchases. Works by James Abbott McNeill Whistler and George Inness were purchased within a few years and Henry Ossawa Tanner's The Annunciation was bought in 1899. In the early 1900s, the museum started an education program for the general public, as well as a membership program.
Fiske Kimball was the museum director during the rapid growth of the mid- to late-1920s, which included one million visitors in 1928—the new building's first year. The museum enlarged its print collection in 1928 with about 5,000 Old Master prints and drawings from the gift of Charles M. Lea, including French, German and Netherlandish engravings. Major exhibitions of the 1930s included works by Eakins, Renoir, Cézanne, van Gogh, Degas. In the 1940s, the museum's major gifts and acquisitions included the collections of John D. McIlhenny, George Grey Barnard, Alfred Stieglitz. Early modern art dominated the growth of the collections in the 1950s, with acquisitions of the Louise and Walter Arensberg and the A. E. Gallatin collections; the gift of Philadelphian Grace Kelly's wedding dress is the best known gift of the 1950s. Extensive renovation of the building lasted from the 1960s through 1976. Major acquisitions included the Carroll S. Tyson, Jr. and Samuel S. White III and Vera White collections, 71 objects from designer Elsa Schiaparelli, Marcel Duchamp's Étant donnés.
In 1976 there were celebrations and special exhibitions for the centennial of the museum and the bicentennial of the nation. During the last three decades major acquisitions have included After the Bath by Edgar Degas and Fifty Days at Iliam by Cy Twombly; the City Council of Philadelphia funded a competition in 1895 to design a new museum building, but it was not until 1907 that plans were first made to construct it on Fairmount, a rocky hill topped by the city's main reservoir. The Fairmount Parkway, a grand boulevard that cut diagonally across the grid of city streets, was designed to terminate at the foot of the hill, but there were conflicting views about whether to erect a single museum building, or a number of buildings to house individual collections. The architectural firms of Horace Trumbauer and Zantzinger and Medary collaborated for more than a decade to resolve these issues; the final design is credited to two architects in Trumbauer's firm: Howell Lewis Shay for the building's plan and massing, Julian Abele for the detail work and perspective drawings.
In 1902, Abele had become the first African-American student to be graduated from the University of Pennsylvania's Department of Architecture, presently known as Penn's School of Design. Abele adapted classical Greek temple columns for
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s. It was the first American movement to achieve international influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role filled by Paris. Although the term "abstract expressionism" was first applied to American art in 1946 by the art critic Robert Coates, it had been first used in Germany in 1919 in the magazine Der Sturm, regarding German Expressionism. In the United States, Alfred Barr was the first to use this term in 1929 in relation to works by Wassily Kandinsky. Technically, an important predecessor is surrealism, with its emphasis on spontaneous, automatic, or subconscious creation. Jackson Pollock's dripping paint onto a canvas laid on the floor is a technique that has its roots in the work of André Masson, Max Ernst, David Alfaro Siqueiros; the newer research tends to put the exile-surrealist Wolfgang Paalen in the position of the artist and theoretician who fostered the theory of the viewer-dependent possibility space through his paintings and his magazine DYN.
Paalen considered ideas of quantum mechanics, as well as idiosyncratic interpretations of the totemic vision and the spatial structure of native-Indian painting from British Columbia and prepared the ground for the new spatial vision of the young American abstracts. His long essay Totem Art had considerable influence on such artists as Martha Graham, Isamu Noguchi, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman. Around 1944 Barnett Newman tried to explain America's newest art movement and included a list of "the men in the new movement." Paalen is mentioned twice. Motherwell is mentioned with a question mark. Another important early manifestation of what came to be abstract expressionism is the work of American Northwest artist Mark Tobey his "white writing" canvases, though not large in scale, anticipate the "all-over" look of Pollock's drip paintings; the movement's name is derived from the combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus, Synthetic Cubism.
Additionally, it has an image of being rebellious, anarchic idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic. In practice, the term is applied to any number of artists working in New York who had quite different styles, to work, neither abstract nor expressionist. California abstract expressionist Jay Meuser, who painted in the non-objective style, wrote about his painting Mare Nostrum, "It is far better to capture the glorious spirit of the sea than to paint all of its tiny ripples." Pollock's energetic "action paintings", with their "busy" feel, are different, both technically and aesthetically, from the violent and grotesque Women series of Willem de Kooning's figurative paintings and the rectangles of color in Mark Rothko's Color Field paintings. Yet all four artists are classified as abstract expressionists. Abstract expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early 20th century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Although it is true that spontaneity or the impression of spontaneity characterized many of the abstract expressionists' works, most of these paintings involved careful planning since their large size demanded it.
With artists such as Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Emma Kunz, on Rothko, Barnett Newman, Agnes Martin, abstract art implied expression of ideas concerning the spiritual, the unconscious, the mind. Why this style gained mainstream acceptance in the 1950s is a matter of debate. American social realism had been the mainstream in the 1930s, it had been influenced not only by the Great Depression, but by the muralists of Mexico such as David Alfaro Siqueiros and Diego Rivera. The political climate after World War II did not long tolerate the social protests of these painters. Abstract expressionism arose during World War II and began to be showcased during the early forties at galleries in New York such as The Art of This Century Gallery; the McCarthy era after World War II was a time of artistic censorship in the United States, but if the subject matter were abstract it would be seen as apolitical, therefore safe. Or if the art was political, the message was for the insiders. While the movement is associated with painting, painters such as Arshile Gorky, Franz Kline, Clyfford Still, Hans Hofmann, Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock, others, collagist Anne Ryan and certain sculptors in particular were integral to abstract expressionism.
David Smith, his wife Dorothy Dehner, Herbert Ferber, Isamu Noguchi, Ibram Lassaw, Theodore Roszak, Phillip Pavia, Mary Callery, Richard Stankiewicz, Louise Bourgeois, Louise Nevelson in particular were some of the sculptors considered as being important members of the movement. In addition, the artists David Hare, John Chamberlain, James Rosati, Mark di Suvero, sculptors Richard Lippold, Raoul Hague, George Rickey, Reuben Nakian, Tony Smith, Seymour Lipton, Joseph Cornell, several others were integral parts of the abstract expressionist movement. Many of the sculptors listed participated in the Ninth Street Show, a famous exhibition curated by Leo Castelli on East Ninth Street in New York City in 1951. Besides the painters and sculptors of the period the New York School of abstract expressionism generated a number of supportive poets, including Frank O'Hara and photographers such as Aaron Siskind and Fred McDarrah, (
Museum Ludwig, located in Cologne, houses a collection of modern art. It includes works from Pop Art and Surrealism, has one of the largest Picasso collections in Europe, it holds many works by Roy Lichtenstein. The museum emerged in 1976 as an independent institution from the Wallraf-Richartz Museum; that year the chocolate magnate Peter Ludwig agreed to endow 350 modern artworks—then valued at $45 million —and in return the City of Cologne committed itself to build a dedicated "Museum Ludwig" for works made after the year 1900. The recent building, designed by architects Peter Busmann and Godfrid Haberer opened in 1986 near the Cologne Cathedral; the new building first became home to both the Wallraf Richartz Museum as well as Museum Ludwig. In 1994, it was decided to separate the two institutions and to place the building on Bischofsgartenstrasse at the sole disposal of Museum Ludwig. In 1999 Steve Keene painted in the museum; the building is home to the Kölner Philharmonic. The Heinrich-Böll-Platz, a public square designed by Dani Karavan, is above the concert hall at the north-east of the building.
During concerts people can't walk upon the square as it creates acoustic disturbances for the concert goers below. The museum incorporates the Sammlung Haubrich, a collection by lawyer Josef Haubrich of art from the years 1914 to 1939 donated to the city of Cologne on 2 May 1946. Directly after World War II, in May 1946, Haubrich presented the city with his Expressionism collection and works by other representatives of Classical Modernism; the second integral part of the museum is the Sammlung Ludwig, a collection of art by Picasso, Russian avant-garde and American Pop-art artists. With around 900 works by Picasso, the museum today has the third largest collection of this artist worldwide, after Barcelona and Paris. In addition, Peter Ludwig and his wife Irene put their collection of the Russian avant-garde on permanent loan to the museum, including 600 works from the period 1905 to 1935 by artists such as Kasimir Malevich, Ljubov Popova, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov, Alexander Rodchenko.
Today the museum houses the most comprehensive collection of early Russian avant-garde artworks outside Russia. Pierre Alechinsky: Coupe sombre. Josef Albers: Green Scent. Peter Blake: ABC Minors, Bo Diddley. Salvador Dalí: La Gare de Perpignan. Otto Dix: Bildnis des Dr. Hans Koch, Vorstadtszene, Mädchen mit rosa Bluse, Bildnis Frau Dr. Koch. Richard Estes: Food Shop / Snack-bar. Natalia Goncharova: Nature morte à la peau de tigre, Portrait de Larionov, Vendeuse d'oranges. Duane Hanson: Woman with a Purse / Femme au sac en bandoulière. Jasper Johns: Untitled. Allen Jones: Figure Falling / Chute, Perfect Match / Partenaire idéale. Edward Kienholz: Night of Nights / Nuit des nuits, The Portable War Memorial / Monuments aux morts portable. Roy Lichtenstein: Takka-Takka, Mad Scientist / Le savant fou, M-Maybe / P-Peut-être, Explosion n° 1, Study for Preparedness / Étude pour Disponibilité László Moholy-Nagy: Grau-Schwarz-Blau / Gris-Noir-Bleu, Auf weissen Grund / Sur fond blanc. Kenneth Noland: Provence, Shadow Line / Ligne d'ombre.
Claes Oldenburg: The Street / La rue, Success Plant / Félicitations pour l'avancement, White Shirt with Blue Tie / Chemise blanche et cravate bleue, Green Legs with Shoes / Jambes vertes avec chaussures Eduardo Paolozzi: The Last of the Idols. Robert Rauschenberg: Odalisque, Allegory / Allégorie, Wall Street, Black Market / Marché noir, Axle / Axe, Bible Bike. James Rosenquist: Rainbow / Arc-en-ciel, Untitled / Sans titre, Horse blinders / Œillères pour cheval, Starthief / Voleur d'étoiles. George Segal: Woman washing her Feet in a Sink / Femme se lavant les pieds dans un lavabo, The Restaurant Window I / La fenêtre du restaurant I. Frank Stella: Seven Steps, Ctesiphon III, Bonin Night Heron No. 1. Wolf Vostell: Coca-Cola, Dé-coll/age, Homage to Henry Ford and Jaqueline Kennedy, Miss America. Andy Warhol: Two Dollars Bills / 80 billets de deux dollars, 129 Die in Jet / 129 morts, Close Cover before Striking / Refermer avant d'allumer, Do it Yourself / Modèle pour peintres amateurs, Two Elvis / Double Elvis, Red Race Riot / Émeute raciale rouge, Boxes / Boîtes, Flowers / Fleurs.
Tom Wesselmann: Bathtub 3 / Baignoire 3, Landscape No.2 / Paysage n° 2, Great American Nude / Grand nu américain. Since 1994 the Friends of the Museum Ludwig have honoured each year an international artist with the ‘Wolfgang Hahn Prize’, presented during the city's art fair Art Cologne. Both the annual highlight of the Friends' activities and one of the cultural features of Cologne and the Rhineland, this purchase prize is dedicated to the memory of Wolfgang Hahn, chief conservator and painting restorer at Wallraf Richartz Museum / Museum Ludwig and one of Cologne's most far-sighted collectors; the budget for the prize amounts to a maximum of 100,000 euros per annum. The museum acquires a work from each prizewinner. An international jury chooses from the nominations submitted by the members; the Wolfgang Hahn Prize has been awarde