The Yamaha DX7 is a synthesizer manufactured by the Yamaha Corporation from 1983 to 1989. It was the first commercially successful digital synthesizer and became one of the bestselling synthesizers in history, selling over 200,000 units. In the early 1980s, the synthesizer market was dominated by analog synthesizers. Frequency modulation synthesis, a means of generating sounds digitally with different results, was developed by John Chowning at Stanford University, California. Yamaha licensed the technology to create the DX7, combining it with very-large-scale integration chips to lower manufacturing costs. With its digital display, complex menus, lack of conventional controls, few learned to program the DX7 in depth. However, its preset sounds became staples of 1980s pop music, used by artists including A-ha, Kenny Loggins, Kool & the Gang, Whitney Houston, Phil Collins, Luther Vandross, Billy Ocean, its piano sound was widely used in power ballads. Producer Brian Eno mastered the programming and it was instrumental to his work in ambient music.
In years the DX7's sounds came to be seen as dated or cliched, interest in FM synthesis declined. Frequency modulation synthesis was developed in the late 1960s by John Chowning at Stanford University, California. FM synthesis uses digital technology to generate sounds, creating different results from analog synthesis. In 1971, to demonstrate its commercial potential, Chowning used FM to emulate acoustic sounds such as organs and brass. Stanford patented the technology and hoped to license it, but was turned down by American companies including Hammond and Wurlitzer. According to Chowning, "Frankly, I don't think their engineers understood it — they were into analog technology, had no idea what I was talking about." At the time, the Japanese company Yamaha was the world's largest manufacturer of musical instruments but had little market share in the United States. One of their chief engineers visited the university and, according to Chowning, "in ten minutes he understood... I guess Yamaha had been working in the digital domain, so he knew what I was saying."
Yamaha licensed the technology for one year to determine its commercial viability, in 1973 its organ division began developing a prototype FM monophonic synthesiser. In 1975, Yamaha negotiated exclusive rights for the technology. Chowning received royalties for all of Yamaha's FM synthesizers. Yamaha created the first hardware implementation of FM synthesis; the first commercial FM synthesizer was the Yamaha GS1, released in 1980, expensive to manufacture due to its integrated circuit chips. At the same time, Yamaha was developing the means to manufacture very-large-scale integration chips. Chowning credited the success of the DX7 with the combination of his FM patent with Yamaha's chip technology. Yamaha altered the implementation of the FM algorithms in the DX7 to gain efficiency and speed, producing a sampling rate higher than the digital synthesizers at Stanford. According to Chowning, "The consequence is that the bandwidth of the DX7 gives a brilliant kind of sound... I think it's quite noticeable."
Compared to the "warm" and "fuzzy" sounds of analog synthesisers, the DX7 sounds "harsh", "glassy" and "chilly", with a richer, brighter sound. The DX7's preset sounds constitute, it has sixteen-note polyphony, meaning sixteen notes can sound simultaneously. Its 32 algorithms, each a different arrangement of its six sine wave operators, allow for extensive programming flexibility; the DX7 is MIDI-compatible, which means it can be connected to compatible synth modules, drum machines, audio sequencers, computers. The DX7 was the first commercially successful digital synthesizer and remains one of the bestselling synthesizers in history. Yamaha manufactured units on a scale American competitors could not match, sold 200,000 in three years. According to Dave Smith, founder of the synthesizer company Sequential, "The synthesizer market was tiny in the late seventies. No one was selling 50,000 of these things, it wasn't until the Yamaha DX7 came out that a company shipped 100,000-plus synths." Smith said the DX7 sold well as it was reasonably priced, had keyboard expression and 16 voices, was better at emulating acoustic sounds than its rivals.
At the time of release, the DX7 was the first digital synthesizer. According to MusicRadar, it was different from the analog synthesizers that had dominated the market. With complex submenus displayed on an LCD and no knobs and sliders to adjust the sound, the DX7 was difficult to program. MusicRadar described its interface as "nearly impenetrable architecture consisting of operators and unusual envelopes, all accessed through tedious menus and a diminutive display". Rather than create their own sounds, most users used the presets, which became used in 1980s pop music; the "BASS 1" preset was used on songs such as "Take On Me" by A-ha, "Danger Zone" by Kenny Loggins, "Fresh" by Kool & the Gang. The "E PIANO 1" preset became famous for power ballads, was used by artists including Whitney Houston, Prince, Phil Collins, Luther Vandross, Billy Ocean, Celine Dion. A few musicians skilled at programming the DX7 found employment creating sounds for other acts, creating the "synthesizer programmer" occupation.
Brian Eno learnt to program the DX7 in depth and used it to create ambient music on his 1983 album Apollo: Atmospheres
In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities. The figure on the right illustrates the geometric relationship. Expressed algebraically, for quantities a and b with a > b > 0, a + b a = a b = def φ, where the Greek letter phi represents the golden ratio. It is an irrational number, a solution to the quadratic equation x 2 − x − 1 = 0, with a value of: φ = 1 + 5 2 = 1.6180339887 …. The golden ratio is called the golden mean or golden section. Other names include extreme and mean ratio, medial section, divine proportion, divine section, golden proportion, golden cut, golden number. Mathematicians since Euclid have studied the properties of the golden ratio, including its appearance in the dimensions of a regular pentagon and in a golden rectangle, which may be cut into a square and a smaller rectangle with the same aspect ratio; the golden ratio has been used to analyze the proportions of natural objects as well as man-made systems such as financial markets, in some cases based on dubious fits to data.
The golden ratio appears in some patterns in nature, including the spiral arrangement of leaves and other plant parts. Some twentieth-century artists and architects, including Le Corbusier and Salvador Dalí, have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio—especially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratio—believing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing. Two quantities a and b are said to be in the golden ratio φ if a + b a = a b = φ. One method for finding the value of φ is to start with the left fraction. Through simplifying the fraction and substituting in b/a = 1/φ, a + b a = a a + b a = 1 + b a = 1 + 1 φ. Therefore, 1 + 1 φ = φ. Multiplying by φ gives φ + 1 = φ 2 which can be rearranged to φ 2 − φ − 1 = 0. Using the quadratic formula, two solutions are obtained: 1 + 5 2 = 1.618 033 988 7 … and 1 − 5 2 = − 0.618 033 988 7 … Because φ is the ratio between positive quantities, φ is positive: φ = 1 + 5 2 = 1.61803 39887 … The golden ratio has been claimed to have held a special fascination for at least 2,400 years, although without reliable evidence.
According to Mario Livio: Some of the greatest mathematical minds of all ages, from Pythagoras and Euclid in ancient Greece, through the medieval Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa and the Renaissance astronomer Johannes Kepler, to present-day scientific figures such as Oxford physicist Roger Penrose, have spent endless hours over this simple ratio and its properties. But the fascination with the Golden Ratio is not confined just to mathematicians. Biologists, musicians, architects and mystics have pondered and debated the basis of its ubiquity and appeal. In fact, it is fair to say that the Golden Ratio has inspired thinkers of all disciplines like no other number in the history of mathematics. Ancient Greek mathematicians first studied what we now call the golden ratio because of its frequent appearance in geometry. According to one story, 5th-century BC mathematician Hippasus discovered that the golden ratio was neither a whole number nor a fraction, surprising Pythagoreans. Euclid's Elements provides several propositions and their proofs employing the golden ratio and contains the first known definition: A straight line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when, as the whole line is to the greater segment, so is the greater to the lesser.
The golden ratio was studied peripherally over the next millennium. Abu Kamil employed it in his geometric calculati
Juliette Nadia Boulanger was a French composer and teacher. She is notable for having taught many of the leading musicians of the 20th century, she performed as a pianist and organist. From a musical family, she achieved early honours as a student at the Paris Conservatoire but, believing that she had no particular talent as a composer, she gave up writing music and became a teacher. In that capacity, she influenced generations of young composers those from the United States and other English-speaking countries. Among her students were those who became leading composers, soloists and conductors, including Aaron Copland, Roy Harris, Virgil Thomson, Darius Milhaud, Elliott Carter, David Diamond, Dinu Lipatti, Igor Markevitch, İdil Biret, Daniel Barenboim, John Eliot Gardiner, Philip Glass, Lalo Schifrin, Astor Piazzolla, Quincy Jones, Michel Legrand, her female students, whose chances in the 20th century for recognition were lower than that of the men, include notable American women composers, such as Louise Talma, Elaine Bearer, Eugenie Kuffler, Elise Grant Cieslak, Anne Robertson.
Boulanger taught in the US and England, working with music academies including the Juilliard School, the Yehudi Menuhin School, the Longy School, the Royal College of Music and the Royal Academy of Music, but her principal base for most of her life was her family's flat in Paris, where she taught for most of the seven decades from the start of her career until her death at the age of 92. Boulanger was the first woman to conduct many major orchestras in America and Europe, including the BBC Symphony, Boston Symphony, Hallé, New York Philharmonic and Philadelphia orchestras, she conducted several world premieres, including works by Stravinsky. Nadia Boulanger was born in Paris on 16 September 1887, to French composer and pianist Ernest Boulanger and his wife Raissa Myshetskaya, a Russian princess, who descended from St. Mikhail Tchernigovsky. Ernest Boulanger had studied at the Paris Conservatoire and, in 1835 at the age of 20, won the coveted Prix de Rome for composition, he wrote comic operas and incidental music for plays, but was most known for his choral music.
He achieved distinction as a director of choral groups, teacher of voice, a member of choral competition juries. After years of rejection, in 1872 he was appointed to the Paris Conservatoire as professor of singing. Raissa qualified as a home tutor in 1873. According to Ernest, he and Raissa met in Russia in 1873, she followed him back to Paris, she joined his voice class at the Conservatoire in 1876, they were married in Russia in 1877. Ernest and Raissa had a daughter who died as an infant before Nadia was born on her father's 72nd birthday. Through her early years, although both parents were active musically, Nadia would get upset by hearing music and hide until it stopped. In 1892, when Nadia was five, Raissa became pregnant again. During the pregnancy, Nadia's response to music changed drastically. "One day I heard a fire bell. Instead of crying out and hiding, I tried to reproduce the sounds. My parents were amazed." After this, Boulanger paid great attention to the singing lessons her father gave, began to study the rudiments of music.
Her sister, named Marie-Juliette Olga but known as Lili, was born in 1893. When Ernest brought Nadia home from their friends' house, before she was allowed to see her mother or Lili, he made her promise solemnly to be responsible for the new baby's welfare, he urged her to take part in her sister's care. From the age of seven, Nadia studied hard in preparation for her Conservatoire entrance exams, sitting in on their classes and having private lessons with its teachers. Lili stayed in the room for these lessons and listening. In 1896, the nine-year-old Nadia entered the Conservatoire, she studied there with others. She came in third in the 1897 solfège competition, subsequently worked hard to win first prize in 1898, she took private lessons from Alexandre Guilmant. During this period, she received religious instruction to become an observant Catholic, taking her First Communion on 4 May 1899; the Catholic religion remained important to her for the rest of her life. In 1900 her father Ernest died, money became a problem for the family.
Raissa had an extravagant lifestyle, the royalties she received from performances of Ernest's music were insufficient to live on permanently. Nadia continued to work hard at the Conservatoire to become a teacher and be able to contribute to her family's support. In 1903, Nadia won the Conservatoire's first prize in harmony, she studied composition with Gabriel Fauré and, in the 1904 competitions, she came first in three categories: organ, accompagnement au piano and fugue. At her accompagnement exam, Boulanger met Raoul Pugno, a renowned French pianist and composer, who subsequently took an interest in her career. In the autumn of 1904, Nadia began to teach from the family apartment at rue Ballu. In addition to the private lessons she held there, Boulanger started holding a Wednesday afternoon group class in analysis and sightsinging, she continued these to her death. This class was followed by her famous "at homes", salons at which students could mingle with professional musicians and Boulanger's other friends from the arts, such as Igor Stravinsky, Paul Valéry, Fauré, others.
After leaving the Conservatoire in 1904 and before her sister's death in 1918, Boulanger was a keen composer, encouraged
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves, they are played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the late 1970s, synths were used in progressive rock and disco.
In the 1980s, the invention of the inexpensive Yamaha DX7 synth made digital synthesizers available. 1980s pop and dance music made heavy use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in many genres, such as pop, hip hop, metal and dance. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer; the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments. One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the Musical Telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray, he accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit, invented a basic single-note oscillator. This instrument used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field, to make the oscillator audible.
This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy and electric buzzers that generated fixed timbre sound. Though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill was granted his first patent for an electronic musical instrument, which by 1901 he had developed into the Telharmonium capable of additive synthesis. Cahill's business was unsuccessful for various reasons, but similar and more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs including the Hammond organ, invented in 1935. In 1906, American engineer Lee de Forest invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion whose amplification of weak audio signals contributed to advances in sound recording and film, the invention of early electronic musical instruments including the theremin, the ondes martenot, the trautonium. Most of these early instruments used heterodyne circuits to produce audio frequencies, were limited in their synthesis capabilities.
The ondes martenot and trautonium were continuously developed for several decades developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, similar graphical sound and tonewheel systems were developed around the world. In 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. Although his idea of reconstructing a sound from its visible image was simple, the instrument was not realized until 20 years in 1958, as Murzin was, "an engineer who worked in areas unrelated to music". In the 1930s and 1940s, the basic elements required for the modern analog subtractive synthesizers — electronic oscillators, audio filters, envelope controllers, various effects units — had appeared and were utilized in several electronic instruments; the earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in the United States. The Warbo Formant Orgel developed by Harald Bode in Germany in 1937, was a four-voice key-assignment keyboard with two formant filters and a dynamic envelope controller.
The Hammond Novachord released in 1939, was an electronic keyboard that used twelve sets of top-octave oscillators with octave dividers to generate sound, with vibrato, a resonator filter bank and a dynamic envelope controller. During the three years that Hammond manufactured this model, 1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. In the 1940s and 1950s, before the popularization of electronic organs and the introductions of combo organs, manufacturers developed various portable monophonic electronic instruments with small keyboards; these small instruments consisted of an electronic oscillator, vibrato effect, passive filters. Most were designed for conventional ensembles, rather than as experimental instruments for electronic music studios, but contributed to the evolution of modern synthesizers; these instruments include the Solovox, Multimonica and Clavioline.
In the late 1940s, Canadian inventor and composer, Hugh Le Caine invented the Electronic Sackbut, a voltage-controlled electronic musical instrument that provided the earliest real-time control of three aspects of sound —corresponding to today's touch-sensitive keyboard and modulation controllers. The controllers were impl
The Synclavier was an early digital synthesizer, polyphonic digital sampling system, music workstation manufactured by New England Digital Corporation of Norwich, Vermont. It was produced in various forms from the late 1970s into the early 1990s; the instrument has been used by prominent musicians. The original design and development of the Synclavier prototype occurred at Dartmouth College with the collaboration of Jon Appleton, Professor of Digital Electronics, Sydney A. Alonso, Cameron Jones, a software programmer and student at Dartmouth's Thayer School of Engineering. First released in 1977–78, it proved to be influential among both electronic music composers and music producers, including Mike Thorne, an early adopter from the commercial world, due to its versatility, its cutting-edge technology, distinctive sounds; the early Synclavier I used FM synthesis, re-licensed from Yamaha, was sold to universities. The initial models had only a computer and synthesis modules models added a musical keyboard and control panel.
The system evolved in its next generation of product, the Synclavier II, released in early 1980 with the strong influence of master synthesist and music producer Denny Jaeger of Oakland, California. It was Jaeger's suggestion that the FM synthesis concept be extended to allow four simultaneous channels or voices of synthesis to be triggered with one key depression to allow the final synthesized sound to have much more harmonic series activity; this change improved the overall sound design of the system and was noticeable. 16-bit user sampling was added as an option in 1982. This model was succeeded by the ABLE Model C computer based PSMT in 1984 and the Mac-based 3200, 6400 and 9600 models, all of which used the VPK keyboard. Synclavier II models used an on/off type keyboard while models, labeled "Synclavier", used a weighted velocity- and pressure-sensitive keyboard, licensed from Sequential Circuits and used in their Prophet-T8 synthesizer; the company evolved the system continuously through the early 1980s to integrate the first 16-bit digital sampling system to magnetic disk, a 16-bit polyphonic sampling system to memory, as well.
The company's product was the only digital sampling system that allowed sample rates to go as high as 100 kHz. The system was referred to as the Synclavier Digital Recording "Tapeless Studio" system among many professionals, it was a pioneer system in revolutionizing movie and television sound effects and Foley effects methods of design and production starting at Glen Glenn Sound. Although pricing made it inaccessible for most musicians, it found widespread use among producers and professional recording studios, competing at times in this market with high-end production systems such as the Fairlight CMI; when the company launched and evolved its technology, there were no off-the-shelf computing systems, integrated software, nor sound cards. All of the hardware from the company's main real-time CPU, all input and output cards, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog cards and all of its memory cards were all developed internally, as well as all of the software a monumental task; the hardware and software of the company's real-time capability was used in other fields remote to music, such as the main Dartmouth College campus computing node computers for one of the USA's first campus-wide computing networks, in medical data acquisition research projects.
New England Digital ceased operations in 1993. According to Jones, "The intellectual property was bought up by a bank—then it was owned by a Canadian company called Airworks—and I bought the intellectual property and the trademark back from a second bank which had foreclosed on it from Airworks." In 2019, Jones released an iOS version of the Synclavier dubbed Synclavier Go. Jones has worked with Arturia to bring a version of the instrument to their V Collection plugin suite. Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer ABLE computer: an early product of New England Digital, was a 16-bit mini-computer on two cards, using a transport triggered architecture, it used. Early applications of the ABLE were for laboratory automation, data collection, device control; the commercial version of the Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer, the Synclavier, was built on this processor. The FM/Additive synthesis waveforms are produced by the Synclavier Synthesizer cards; each set of these five cards produced 8 mono FM voices. The processor handles sending start-stop-setPitch-setParameter commands to the SS card set, as well as handling scanning of the keyboard and control panel.
There is little public documentation available on these cards, as their design was the unique asset of the Synclavier. However, their structure was similar to other digital synthesizers of the mid-late 1970s realized in Medium Scale Integration hardware, such as the Bell Labs Digital Synthesizer. On 1970s–late 1980s: Synclavier I Hand Operated Processor: a troubleshooting tool for the Synclavier system, connected to ABLE computer via "D01 Front Panel Interface Card". Synclavier II: 8-bit FM/additive synthesis, 32-track memory recorder, ORK keyboard. Earlier models were controlled via ORK keyboard with buttons and wheel. Models had a VT640 graphic terminal for graphical audio analysis. Original Keyboard: original musical keyboard controller in a wooden chassis, with buttons and silver
Miller Smith Puckette is the associate director of the Center for Research in Computing and the Arts as well as a professor of music at the University of California, San Diego, where he has been since 1994. Puckette is known for authoring Max, a graphical development environment for music and multimedia synthesis, which he developed while working at IRCAM in the late 1980s, he is the author of Pure Data, a real-time performing platform for audio and graphical programming language for the creation of interactive computer music and multimedia works, written in the 1990s with input from many others in the computer music and free software communities. An alumnus of St. Andrew's-Sewanee School in Tennessee, Miller Puckette got involved in computer music in 1979 at MIT with Barry Vercoe. In 1979 he became a Putnam Fellow, he earned a Ph. D. in mathematics from Harvard University in 1986 after completing an undergraduate degree at MIT in 1980. He was a member of the MIT Media Lab from its opening in 1985 until 1987 before continuing his research at IRCAM, since 1997 has been a part of the Global Visual Music project.
He used Max to complete his first work, called Pluton from the second work of Manoury' series called Sonus ex Machina. He is the 2008 SEAMUS Award Recipient. On May 11, 2011, he received the title of Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Mons. On July 21, 2012, he received an Honorary Degree from Bath Spa University in recognition of his extraordinary contribution to computer music research, he was the recipient of the Gold Medal at the 1975 Math Olympiads and the Silver Medal at the 1976 Math Olympiads. For a full list, see: http://msp.ucsd.edu/publications.htmlPuckette, Miller. The theory and technique of electronic music. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-270-077-3. Puckette, Miller “Who Owns our Software?: A first-person case study” Proceedings, ISEA, pp. 200–202, republished in September 2009 issue of Montréal: Communauté électroacoustique canadienne / Canadian Electroacoustic Community. Puckette, Miller "Max at Seventeen". Computer Music Journal 26: pp. 31–43. Miller Puckette's website Software by Miller Puckette Theory and Techniques of Electronic Music Visual Music Project