Cambuslang is a suburban town on the south-eastern outskirts of Glasgow, Scotland. It is within the local authority area of South Lanarkshire and directly borders the town of Rutherglen to the west, it was a large civil parish incorporating the nearby hamlets of Newton and Halfway. The town is located just south of the River Clyde and about 6 miles south-east of the centre of Glasgow, it has a long history of coal mining and steel making, ancillary engineering works, most Hoover. The Clydebridge Steelworks and other smaller manufacturing businesses continue but most employment in the area comes from the distribution or service industries; the headquarters of the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service is in Cambuslang. Cambuslang is an ancient part of Scotland where Iron Age remains loom over 21st century housing developments; the local geography explains a great deal of its history. It has been prosperous over time, depending first upon its agricultural land the mineral resources under its soil; these were jealously guarded by the medieval Church, by the local aristocracy the Duke of Hamilton.
Because of its relative prosperity, Cambuslang has been intimately concerned in the politics of the country and of the local Church. Bishop John Cameron of Glasgow, the Scottish King James I's first minister, Cardinal Beaton, a first minister, were both Rectors of Cambuslang; this importance continued following the Protestant Reformation. From until the Glorious Revolution a stream of Ministers of Cambuslang came, were expelled, or were re-instated, according to whether supporters of the King, Covenanters, or Oliver Cromwell were in power; the religious movements of the 18th century, including the Cambuslang Wark, were directly linked to similar movements in North America. The Scottish Enlightenment was well represented in the person of the Minister, his troubles with his parishioners foreshadowed the split in the Church of Scotland during the 19th century. The manufacturing industries that grew up from the agricultural and mineral resources attracted immigrants from all over Scotland and Ireland and other European countries.
Cambuslang benefited at all times from its closeness to the burgeoning city of Glasgow, brought closer in the 18th century by a turnpike road in the 19th century, by a railway. In the 21st century, it continues to derive benefit from its proximity to Glasgow and to wider communication networks via the M74 motorway system, its increasing population posed problems, over the centuries, of employment and housing as well as of schooling and health, not all of which have been solved. In this regard, it is typical of most Scottish towns. In sport, Cambuslang F. C. were founder members of the Scottish Football League whose most notable achievement was being the runners-up of the Scottish Cup in 1888. They folded, as did Scottish Junior Cup winners Cambuslang Hibernian, but a new team Cambuslang Rangers F. C. was established and continues to this day - they enjoyed great success in the 1970s. Cambuslang is in the Rutherglen and Hamilton West Constituency for elections to the House of Commons at Westminster.
Gerard Killen won the seat for the Scottish Labour and Co-operatve Party in the June 2017 election, replacing Margaret Ferrier of the Scottish National Party who had won in 2015. Cambuslang was in the Glasgow Rutherglen Constituency for the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood. In 2011 the boundaries were redrawn and the new constituency renamed Rutherglen. In the 2016 elections, Clare Haughey won the seat for the SNP with 15,222 votes, giving a majority of 11.4%, replacing James Kelly, elected both in 2007 and 2011. Administratively, the town centre is within the Cambuslang West ward of South Lanarkshire Council, which has a population of around 15,000. Including another ward of similar size encompassing the eastern parts of the town, its overall population was just over 30,000 in 2016. With neighbouring Rutherglen's figures being similar, the many services and amenities shared between the towns must provide for 60,000 residents; the councillors elected for Cambuslang Wards in the 2007 local elections were: WARD 13 Councillor David Baillie Councillor Russell Clearie Councillor Clare McColl WARD 14 Councillor Walter Brogan Councillor Pam Clearie Councillor John Higgins Councillor John Higgins subsequently died on 29 December 2007, a by-election was held on 6 March 2008.
This was won by Richard Tullett. In the 2012 local elections, the following councillors were elected: WARD 13 Councillor Russell Clearie Councillor Clare McColl Councillor Richard Tullett WARD 14 Councillor Walter Brogan Councillor Pam Clearie Councillor Christine Deanie In the 2017 local elections, the following councillors were elected: WARD 13 Councillor Margaret Walker Councillor Ann Le Blond Councillor John Bradley WARD 14 Councillor Walter Brogan (Scottish Labour Pa
John Loudon (politician)
Jhr. John Loudon was a Dutch top diplomat and politician, Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs during the First World War, he was a moderate liberal. He was born on 18 March 1866 to James Loudon, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1872 to 1875. Loudon Jr. obtained a doctorate in public international law at Leiden University in 1890. From 1901 to 1913 he was diplomat in Peking, Paris, Tokyo and, for the last five years, Washington DC. From September 1913 to September 1918 he was Minister of Foreign Affairs in the cabinet of Cort van der Linden, his careful policies, aimed to keep the Netherlands neutral during the war led to conflicts with the Queen. The cabinet however was on his side. After the war he became once more a diplomat in Paris, he died on 11 November 1955
Abney Park Cemetery
Abney Park cemetery is one of the Magnificent Seven cemeteries in London, England. Abney Park in Stoke Newington, in the London Borough of Hackney, is a historic parkland laid out in the early 18th century by Lady Mary Abney and Dr. Isaac Watts, the neighbouring Hartopp family. In 1840 it became a non-denominational garden cemetery, a semi-public park arboretum, an educational institute, celebrated as an example of its time. A total of 196,843 burials had taken place there up to the year 2000, it is a Local Nature Reserve. The official address of Abney Park is Stoke Newington High Street, N16; the main gate is at the junction of this street and Rectory Road, with a smaller gate on Stoke Newington Church Street. The park lies within the London Borough of Hackney; the cemetery is named after Sir Thomas Abney, who served as Lord Mayor of London in 1700–01. The manor of Stoke Newington belonged to him in the early 18th century and his town house, built in 1676, stood on the site of the present cemetery until its demolition in the 1830s.
In 1840, Abney Park opened as a model garden cemetery, a pioneering non-denominational place of rest. Its approach was based on the Congregational church's role in the London Missionary Society, whose fundamental principle was to develop a wholly non-denominational exemplar, it drew on American burial ideas Mount Auburn in Massachusetts. Details of the Abney Park Cemetery Company can be found in the diaries of William Copeland Astbury At first there were many links between Abney Park Cemetery and the LMS but this nonconformist period came to a close in the early 1880s when a commercial general cemetery company was formed and the land at Abney Park was made over to the new enterprise. Though the park had not been formalised in 1840 as a cemetery through Act of Parliament or consecration, Church faculty law never applied, burial ground use, had, by the 1880s come to predominate over the wider landscape and educational objects of its founders; the founders' financial and legal structure, adapted from the model developed for garden cemeteries in the America by City solicitor George Collison, aimed to establish a joint stock corporation managed by trustees.
The trustees would be appointed by the members. Under the trust deed, the founders sought to preserve the park in perpetuity; the weakness of the model lay in the detail however. An eventual successful prosecution by the Crown, ruled that despite their unusual business model and the way in which plots were sold as freehold land, the legal arrangements were inadequate to achieve a different status from any other commercial cemetery, either for the company or the registered keepers of plots. In consequence, company income could not be held in trust for the park, but was to be treated as for any other commercial profit-making company and taxed accordingly. Sold on the open market to a wholly commercially minded general cemetery company in the 1880s, established with a similar name, three new cemeteries were founded in London's suburbs or nearby countryside. From onwards standardised park-like landscaping principles came to be applied at Abney Park, replacing much of the unique arboretum planting.
Air pollution took its toll, affecting the conifer walks. After the First World War, path infill began to be practised. In 1978, apart from one forecourt building, the park passed to the local council as a burial ground and open space subject to the Local Authorities Cemeteries Order of 1977. For the next twenty-one years, there being only a small number of residual burial and monuments rights, the Council worked with local groups and relatives to accommodate these rights, exercise discretion to allow occasional courtesy burials, where families had held deeds from the cemetery company. Abney Park was included on the Heritage at Risk Register in 2009, as one of Britain's historic parks and gardens at risk from neglect and decay. Although the level of malicious damage is kept low by the conspicuous presence of staff and volunteers of the Abney Park Trust when maintaining the park; the roof slates and roof flashings of the Abney Park Chapel have been damaged by unauthorised climbing and theft at times when the park was left unsupervised and unlocked overnight, this has resulted in water seepage into the chapel walls, now causing serious problems to the whole building.
From time to time, some sections of boundary wall become too weak due to people climbing over them, decay has set in. However these matters could be put right and the park is a popular place to visit, with a range of educational and cultural events and an annual summer open day, it is Conservation Area. Apart from the South Lodge extension on the forecourt, Abney Park's freehold is owned by the London Borough of Hackney; the park is situated near Stoke Newington High Street, London N16, it is leased to the Abney Park Trust. It occupies 12.53 hectares, which includes a nature reserve, a classroom, a visitor's centre and a central chapel, disused. The park is opened by the trust for free public access on weekdays and weekends from about 9.30 am to 5
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practised by landscape designers, combining nature and culture. In contemporary practice, landscape design bridges the space between landscape architecture and garden design. Landscape design focuses on both the integrated master landscape planning of a property and the specific garden design of landscape elements and plants within it; the practical, aesthetic and environmental sustainability are components of landscape design, divided into hardscape design and softscape design. Landscape designers collaborate with related disciplines such as architecture and geography and civil engineering, landscape contracting and artisan specialties. Design projects may involve two different professional roles: landscape design and landscape architecture. Landscape design involves artistic composition and artisanship, horticultural finesse and expertise, emphasis on detailed site involvement from conceptual stages through to final construction.
Landscape architecture focuses more on urban planning and regional parks and corporate landscapes, large scale interdisciplinary projects, delegation to contractors after completing designs. There can be significant overlap of talent and skill between the two roles, depending on the education and experience of the professional. Both landscape designers and landscape architects practice landscape design. Design factors include objective qualities such as: microclimates. Design factors include subjective qualities such as: genius loci. There are innumerable other design factors and considerations brought to the complex process of designing a garden, beautiful, well-functioning, that thrives over time; the up-and-coming practice of online landscape design allows professional landscapers to remotely design and plan sites through manipulation of two-dimensional images without physically visiting the location. Due to the frequent lack of non-visual, supplementary data such as soil assessments and pH tests, online landscaping must focus on incorporating only plants which are tolerant across many diverse soil conditions.
Landscape designers trained by apprenticing—such as André Le Nôtre, who apprenticed with his father before designing the Gardens of Versailles—to accomplished masters in the field, with the titular name varying and reputation paramount for a career. The professional section of garden designers in Europe and the Americas went by the name'Landscape Gardener.' In the 1890s, the distinct classification of landscape architect was created, with educational and licensing test requirements for using the title legally. Beatrix Farrand, the sole woman in the founding group, refused the title preferring Landscape Gardener. Matching the client and technical needs of a project, the appropriate practitioner with talent, legal qualifications, experienced skills, surmounts title nomenclature. Institutional education in landscape design appeared in the early 20th century. Over time it became available at various levels. Ornamental horticulture programs with design components are offered at community college and universities within schools of agriculture or horticulture, with some beginning to offer garden or landscape design certificates and degrees.
Departments of landscape architecture are located within university schools of architecture or environmental design, with undergraduate and graduate degrees offered. Specialties and minors are available in horticultural botany, natural resources, landscape engineering, construction management and applied arts, landscape design history. Traditionally, hand drawn drawings documented the design and position of features for construction, but Landscape design software is used now. Other routes of training are through informal apprenticeships with practicing landscape designers, landscape architects, landscape contractors, gardeners and garden centers, docent programs at botanical and public gardens. Since the landscape designer title does not have college degree or licensing requirements to be used, there is a wide range of sophistication, aesthetic talent, technical expertise, specialty strengths to be responsibly matched with specific client and project requirements. Many landscape designers have an interest and involvement with gardening or professionally.
Gardens are dynamic and not static after construction and planting are completed, so in some ways are'never done.' Involvement with landscape management and direction of ongoing garden direction and care depend on the professional's and client's needs and inclinations. As with the other interrelated landscape disciplines, there can be overlap of services offered under the titles of landscape designer or professional gardener. Concrete landscape curbing Garden design Landscape architecture Landscape assessment
Opium is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy. 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade. The latex contains the related opiates codeine and thebaine, non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine; the traditional, labor-intensive method of obtaining the latex is to scratch the immature seed pods by hand. The word "meconium" referred to related, weaker preparations made from other parts of the opium poppy or different species of poppies; the production methods have not changed since ancient times. Through selective breeding of the Papaver somniferum plant, the content of the phenanthrene alkaloids morphine, to a lesser extent thebaine has been increased. In modern times, much of the thebaine, which serves as the raw material for the synthesis for oxycodone, hydrocodone and other semisynthetic opiates, originates from extracting Papaver orientale or Papaver bracteatum.
For the illegal drug trade, the morphine is extracted from the opium latex, reducing the bulk weight by 88%. It is converted to heroin, two to four times as potent, increases the value by a similar factor; the reduced weight and bulk make it easier to smuggle. The Mediterranean region contains the earliest archeological evidence of human use. Evidence from ancient Greece indicates that opium was consumed in several ways, including inhalation of vapors, medical poultices, as a combination with hemlock for suicide; the Sumerian, Egyptian, Minoan, Roman and Arab Empires all made widespread use of opium, the most potent form of pain relief available, allowing ancient surgeons to perform prolonged surgical procedures. Opium is mentioned in the most important medical texts of the ancient world, including the Ebers Papyrus and the writings of Dioscorides and Avicenna. Widespread medical use of unprocessed opium continued through the American Civil War before giving way to morphine and its successors, which could be injected at a controlled dosage.
Opium has been collected since prehistoric times, since 3400 BCE. A common name for males in Afghanistan is "Redey", which in Pashto means "poppy"; this term may be derived from the Sanskrit words rddhi and hrdya, which mean "magical", "a type of medicinal plant", "heart-pleasing", respectively. The upper Asian belt of Afghanistan, northern India, Burma still account for the world's largest supply of opium. At least 17 finds of Papaver somniferum from Neolithic settlements have been reported throughout Switzerland and Spain, including the placement of large numbers of poppy seed capsules at a burial site, which have been carbon-14 dated to 4200 BCE. Numerous finds of P. somniferum or P. setigerum from Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have been reported. The first known cultivation of opium poppies was in Mesopotamia 3400 BCE, by Sumerians, who called the plant hul gil, the "joy plant". Tablets found at Nippur, a Sumerian spiritual center south of Baghdad, described the collection of poppy juice in the morning and its use in production of opium.
Cultivation continued in the Middle East by the Assyrians, who collected poppy juice in the morning after scoring the pods with an iron scoop. Opium production continued under the Egyptians. Opium was used with poison hemlock to put people and painlessly to death, but it was used in medicine. Spongia somnifera, sponges soaked in opium, were used during surgery; the Egyptians cultivated opium thebaicum in famous poppy fields around 1300 BCE. Opium was traded from Egypt by the Phoenicians and Minoans to destinations around the Mediterranean Sea, including Greece and Europe. By 1100 BCE, opium was cultivated on Cyprus, where surgical-quality knives were used to score the poppy pods, opium was cultivated and smoked. Opium was mentioned after the Persian conquest of Assyria and Babylonian lands in the 6th century BCE. From the earliest finds, opium has appeared to have ritual significance, anthropologists have speculated ancient priests may have used the drug as a proof of healing power. In Egypt, the use of opium was restricted to priests and warriors, its invention is credited to Thoth, it was said to have been given by Isis to Ra as treatment for a headache.
A figure of the Minoan "goddess of the narcotics", wearing a crown of three opium poppies, c. 1300 BCE, was recovered from the Sanctuary of Gazi, together with a simple smoking apparatus. The Greek gods Hypnos and Thanatos were depicted wreathed in poppies or holding them. Poppies frequently adorned statues of Apollo, Pluto, Aphrodite and Isis, symbolizing nocturnal oblivion; as the power of the Roman Empire declined, the lands to the south and east of the Mediterranean Sea became incorporated into the Islamic Empires. Some Muslims believe hadiths, such as in Sahih Bukhari, prohibits every intoxicating substance, though the use of intoxicants in medicine has been wi
Harewood House is a country house in Harewood near Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. Designed by architects John Carr and Robert Adam, it was built, between 1759 and 1771, for wealthy plantation and slave owner Edwin Lascelles, 1st Baron Harewood; the landscape was designed by spans 1,000 acres at Harewood. Still home to the Lascelles family, Harewood House is a member of the Treasure Houses of England, a marketing consortium for ten of the foremost historic homes in the country; the house is a Grade I listed building and a number of features in the grounds and courtyard have been listed as Grade I, II and II*. The Lascelles family claim to have arrived in England with William the Conqueror, during the Norman Conquest of England; the family had settled in Yorkshire by 1315 as the "de Lascelles". Prosperous members of the county gentry, the Lascelles served as members of parliament and held prominent military positions. In the late seventeenth century the family purchased plantations in the West Indies, the income generated allowed Henry Lascelles to purchase the estate in 1738.
Edwin employed the services of John Carr, an architect practising in the north of England and employed by a number of prominent Yorkshire families to design their new country houses. The foundations were laid in 1759, with the house being complete by 1765; the fashionable Robert Adam submitted designs for the interiors, which were approved in 1765. Adam made a number of minor alterations to Carr's designs for the exterior of the building, including internal courtyards; the house remained untouched until the 1840s when Sir Charles Barry was employed by the Henry Lascelles, 3rd Earl of Harewood, the father of thirteen children, to increase the accommodation. Barry added second storeys to each of the flanking wings to provide extra bedrooms, removed the south portico and created formal parterres and terraces. In 1922, Henry Lascelles, Viscount Lascelles married Mary, Princess Royal, the only daughter of George V. Living in the nearby Goldsborough Hall, the couple moved permanently into Harewood House at the death of Henry's father in 1929.
The house is the family seat of the Lascelles family, home of David Lascelles, the eighth Earl. The house and grounds have been transferred into a trust ownership structure managed by Harewood House Trust and are open to the public for most of the year. Harewood won a Large Visitor Attraction of the Year award in the 2009 national Excellence in England awards. Harewood houses a collection of paintings by masters of the Italian Renaissance, family portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds, John Hoppner and Sir Thomas Lawrence, modern art collected by the 7th Earl and Countess. Changing temporary exhibitions are held each season in the Terrace Gallery. Catering facilities in the house include Michelin-starred fine dining; as well as tours of the house and grounds, Harewood has more than 100 acres of gardens, including a Himalayan garden and its stupa, an educational bird garden, an adventure playground and the historic All Saints' Church with its alabaster tombs. From May 2007 to October 2008 the grounds contained Yorkshire's first planetarium, the Yorkshire Planetarium.
The Leeds Country Way passes through the Harewood Estate, to the south of the house and lake, as does the route of The White Rose Way. Artist J. M. W. Turner painted the outdoor landscape in watercolour. Rock musician Elton John has performed a concert on the grounds; the house was used as a filming location for the 1991 comedy film King Ralph. Since 1996, part of the estate has been developed as the village in the ITV soap opera Emmerdale, based in two different Yorkshire villages since its inception 24 years earlier; the popular show Victoria from ITV starring Jenna Coleman and Tom Hughes has filmed at Harewood House. On 1 July 2006, Irish vocal pop band Westlife held a concert for their Face to Face Tour supporting their album Face to Face. Harewood House was used as a filming location for the upcoming Downton Abbey film in November 2018; the house was the location for BBC's Mary Berry's Country House at Christmas with Mary Berry, broadcast on Christmas Day 2018. The Bird Garden at Harewood House has a small collection of exotic Bird species, of which more than 5 are listed as vulnerable or endangered by the IUCN.
It is a member of the British and Irish Association of Aquariums. Birds that can be seen in the garden include Humboldt penguins, Chilean flamingos, Duyvenbode's lories and macaws. Media related to Harewood House at Wikimedia Commons Official website