George Washington University
The George Washington University is a private research university in Washington, D. C, it was chartered in 1821 by an act of the United States Congress. The university is organized into 14 colleges and schools, including the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Elliott School of International Affairs, the GW School of Business, the School of Media and Public Affairs, the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration, the GW Law School and the Corcoran School of the Arts and Design. George Washington's main Foggy Bottom Campus is located in the heart of Washington, D. C. with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank located on campus and the White House and the U. S. Department of State within blocks of campus. GWU hosts numerous research centers and institutes, including the National Security Archive and the Institute for International Economic Policy. GWU has two satellite campuses: the Mount Vernon Campus, located in D. C.'s the Virginia Science and Technology Campus.
It is the largest institution of higher education in the District of Columbia. George Washington, the first President of the United States, advocated the establishment of a national university in the U. S. capital in his first State of the Union address in 1790 and continued to promote this idea throughout his career and until his death. In his will, Washington left shares in the Potomac Company to endow the university. However, due to the company's financial difficulties, funds were raised independently. On 9 February 1821, the university was founded by an Act of Congress, making it one of only five universities in the United States with a Congressional charter. George Washington offers degree programs in seventy-one disciplines, enrolling an average of 11,000 undergraduate and 15,500 post-graduate students from more than 130 countries; the Princeton Review ranked GWU 1st for Top Universities for Internship Opportunities. As of 2015, George Washington had over 1,100 active alumni in the U. S. Foreign Service, the nation's diplomatic corps.
GWU is ranked by The Princeton Review in the top "Most Politically Active" Schools. George Washington is home to extensive student life programs, as well as a strong Greek culture, over 450 other student organizations; the school's athletic teams, the George Washington Colonials, play in the Atlantic 10 Conference. GW is known for the numerous prominent events it holds yearly, from hosting U. S. presidential debates and academic symposiums to the being the host of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund's Annual Meetings in DC, since 2013. George Washington alumni and affiliates include numerous prominent politicians, including the current U. S. Attorney General, heads of state and government, CEOs of major corporations, Nobel laureates, MacArthur fellows, Olympic athletes, Academy Award and Golden Globe winners and Time 100 notables. Historical records have shown that the first president of the United States, President George Washington, had made indications to Congress that he aspired to have a university established in the capital of the United States.
He included the subject in his last will and testament. Baptist missionary and leading minister Luther Rice raised funds to purchase a site in Washington, D. C. for a college to educate citizens from throughout the young nation. A large building was constructed on College Hill, now known as Meridian Hill, on February 9, 1821, President James Monroe approved the congressional charter creating the non-denominational Columbian College; the first commencement in 1824 was considered an important event for the young city of Washington, D. C. In attendance were President Monroe, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, Marquis de Lafayette and other dignitaries; the George Washington University, like much of Washington, D. C. traces many of its origins back to the Freemasons. The Bible that the President of the George Washington University use to swear an oath on upon inauguration is the Bible of Freemason George Washington. Freemasonry symbols are prominently displayed throughout the campus including the foundation stones of many of the university buildings.
During the Civil War, most students left to join the Confederacy and the college's buildings were used as a hospital and barracks. Walt Whitman was among many of the volunteers to work on the campus. Following the war, in 1873, Columbian College became the Columbian University and moved to an urban downtown location centered on 15th and H streets, NW. In 1904, Columbian University changed its name to the George Washington University in an agreement with the George Washington Memorial Association to build a campus building in honor of the first U. S. President. Neither the university nor the association were able to raise enough funds for the proposed building near the National Mall; the university moved its principal operations to the D. C. neighborhood of Foggy Bottom in 1912. Many of the Colleges of the George Washington University stand out for their history; the Law School is the oldest law school in the District of Columbia. The School of Medicine and Health Sciences is the 11th oldest medical school in the nation.
The Columbian College was founded in 1821, is the oldest unit of the university. The Elliott School of International Affairs was formalized in 1898; the majority of the present infrastructure and financial stability at GW is due to the tenures of GW Presidents Cloyd Heck Marvin, Lloyd Hartman Elliott and Stephen Joel Trachtenberg. In the 1930s, the university was a major center for theoretical physics; the cosmologist George Gamow produced critica
Washington and Lee University
Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts university in Lexington, Virginia. Established in 1749, the university is a colonial-era college and the ninth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Washington and Lee's 325-acre campus sits at the edge of Lexington and abuts the campus of the Virginia Military Institute in the Shenandoah Valley region between the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Allegheny Mountains; the campus is 50 miles northeast from Roanoke, 140 miles west from the state capital of Richmond, 180 miles inland southwest from the national capital at Washington, D. C. Washington and Lee was founded as a small classical school named Augusta Academy by Scots-Irish Presbyterian pioneers, though the University has never claimed any sectarian affiliation. In 1796, shortly before the end of his second term as American President, George Washington endowed the struggling academy with a gift of stock, one of the largest gifts to an educational institution at that time.
In gratitude, the school was renamed for the commander of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, president at the Federal Constitutional Convention meeting in Philadelphia, framer of the American Constitution, the first President of the United States. In 1865, shortly after his April 9 surrender to Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the Union Armies, former Confederate States Army General-in-Chief Robert E. Lee was called and served as president of the college for five years until his death in 1870, when the college was thereafter renamed the "Washington and Lee University". One of the oldest institutions of higher education in the American South, W&L is the second-oldest in the Commonwealth of Virginia; the University consists of three academic units: The College itself. The University hosts 24 intercollegiate varsity athletic teams which compete as part of the Old Dominion Athletic Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the classical school from which Washington and Lee descended was established in 1749 by Scots-Irish Presbyterian pioneers and soon named Augusta Academy, about 20 miles north of its present location.
In 1776, it was renamed Liberty Hall in a burst of revolutionary fervor. The academy moved to Lexington in 1780, when it was chartered as Liberty Hall Academy, built its first facility near town in 1782; the academy granted its first bachelor's degree in 1785. Liberty Hall is said to have admitted its first African-American student when John Chavis, a free black, enrolled in 1795. Chavis accomplished much in his life including fighting in the American Revolution, studying at both Liberty Hall and the College of New Jersey, becoming an ordained Presbyterian minister, opening a school that instructed white and poor black students in North Carolina, he is believed to be the first black student to enroll in higher education in the United States, although he did not receive a degree. Washington and Lee enrolled its next African-American student in 1966 in the law school. In 1796, George Washington endowed the academy with $20,000 in James River Canal stock, at the time one of the largest gifts given to an educational institution in the United States.
Washington's gift continues to provide nearly $1.87 a year toward every student's tuition. The gift rescued Liberty Hall from near-certain insolvency. In gratitude, the trustees changed the school's name to Washington Academy. An 8-foot tall statue of George Washington, carved by Matthew Kahle and known as Old George, was placed atop Washington Hall on the historic Colonnade in 1844 in memory of Washington's gift; the current statue is made of bronze. The campus took its current architectural form in the 1820s when a local merchant, "Jockey" John Robinson, an uneducated Irish immigrant, donated funds to build a central building. For the dedication celebration in 1824, Robinson supplied a huge barrel of whiskey, which he intended for the dignitaries in attendance, but according to a contemporary history, the rabble broke through the barriers and created pandemonium, which ended only when college officials demolished the whiskey barrel with an axe. A justice of the Virginia State Supreme Court, Alex.
M. Harman, Jr. re-created the episode in 1976 for the dedication of the new law school building by having several barrels of Scotch imported. Robinson left his estate to Washington College; the estate included between 70 and 80 slaves. Until 1852, the institution benefited from their enslaved labor and, in some cases, from their sale. In 2014, Washington and Lee University joined such colleges as Harvard University, Brown University, the University of Virginia, The College of William & Mary in researching and publicly regretting their participation in the institution of slavery. During the Civil War, the students of Washington College raised the Confederate flag in support of Virginia's secession; the students formed the Liberty Hall Volunteers, as part of the Stonewall Brigade under General Stonewall Jackson and marched from Lexington. In the war, during Hunter's Raid, Union Captain Henry A. du Pont refused to destroy the Colonnade due to its support of the statue of George Washington, Old George.
After the Civil War, General Robert E. Lee turned down several financially tantalizing offers of
An archivist is an information professional who assesses, organizes, maintains control over, provides access to records and archives determined to have long-term value. The records maintained by an archivist can consist of a variety of forms, including letters, logs, other personal documents, government documents, sound and/or picture recordings, digital files, or other physical objects; as Richard Pearce-Moses wrote: "Archivists keep records that have enduring value as reliable memories of the past, they help people find and understand the information they need in those records."Determining what records have enduring value can be challenging. Archivists must select records valuable enough to justify the costs of storage and preservation, plus the labor-intensive expenses of arrangement and reference service; the theory and scholarly work underpinning archives practices is called archival science. The most common related occupations are librarians, museum curators, records managers; the archivist occupation is distinct from that of librarian.
The two occupations have separate courses of training, adhere to separate and distinct principles, are represented by separate professional organizations. In general, the librarian tends to deal with published media, whereas the archivist deals with unpublished media. In addition, because archival records are unique, some archivists may be as much concerned with the preservation and custody of the information carrier as with its informational content. In this regard, some would argue the archivist may have more in common with the museum curator than with the librarian; the occupation of archivist is frequently distinguished from that of records manager, although in this case the distinction is less absolute: the archivist is predominantly concerned with records deemed worthy of permanent preservation, whereas the records manager is more concerned with records of current administrative importance. Because of this, the position duties for each occupation can intertwine if both occupations are present at an institution.
Archivists' duties include acquiring and appraising new collections and describing records, providing reference service, preserving materials. In arranging records, archivists apply two important principles: original order. Provenance refers to the creation of records and keeping different records separate in order to maintain context. Many entities create records, including governments, businesses and individuals. Original order is applied by keeping records in their order as established and maintained by the creator. Both provenance and original order are related to the concept of respect des fonds, which states that records from one corporate body should not be mixed with records from another. There are two aspects to arrangement: physical. Both aspects follow the principle of original order. Archivists process the records physically by placing them in acid-free folders and boxes to ensure their long-term survival, they process the records intellectually, by determining what the records consist of, how they are organized, what, if any, finding aids need to be created.
Finding aids can be descriptive inventories, or indexes. If the original arrangement is unclear or unhelpful in terms of accessing the collection, it is rearranged to something that makes more sense; this is because preserving the original order shows how the creator of the records functioned, why the records were created, how they went about arranging them. Moreover, the provenance and authenticity of the records may be lost. However, original order is not always the best way to maintain some collections and archivists must use their own experience and current best practices to determine the correct way to preserve collections of mixed media or those lacking a clear original arrangement. Archivists' work encompasses a range of ethical decisions that may be thought of as falling into three broad and intertwined areas: legal requirements. In negotiating the ethical conflicts that arise in their work, archivists are guided by codes of ethics; the Society of American Archivists first adopted a code of ethics in 1980.
Alongside their work in arranging and caring for collections, archivists assist users in interpreting materials and answering inquiries. This reference work can be a small part of an archivist's job in a smaller organization, or consist of most of their occupation in a larger archive where specific roles may be delineated. Archivists work for a variety of organizations, including government agencies, local authorities, hospitals, historical societies, charities, corporations and universities, national parks and historic sites, any institution whose records may be valuable to researchers, genealogists, or others, they can work on the collections of a large family or of an individual. Archivists are educators as well. Archivi
The Congressional Cemetery Washington Parish Burial Ground, is an historic and active cemetery located at 1801 E Street, SE, in Washington, D. C. on the west bank of the Anacostia River. It is the only American "cemetery of national memory" founded before the Civil War. Over 65,000 individuals are buried or memorialized at the cemetery, including many who helped form the nation and the city of Washington in the early 19th century. Although the Episcopal Christ Church, Washington Parish owns the cemetery, the U. S. government has purchased 806 burial plots, which are administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs. Congress, located about a mile and a half to the northwest, has influenced the history of the cemetery; the cemetery still sells plots, is an active burial ground. From the Washington Metro, the cemetery lies three blocks east of the Potomac Avenue station and two blocks south of the Stadium-Armory station. Many members of the U. S. Congress who died while Congress was in session are interred at Congressional Cemetery.
Other burials include early landowners and speculators, the builders and architects of early Washington, Native American diplomats, Washington city mayors, American Civil War veterans. Nineteenth-century Washington, D. C. families unaffiliated with the federal government have graves and tombs at the cemetery. In all, there are one Vice President, one Supreme Court justice, six Cabinet members, 19 Senators and 71 Representatives buried there, as well as veterans of every American war, the first director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, J. Edgar Hoover; the cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 23, 1969, designated a National Historic Landmark in 2011. The Congressional Cemetery was established by private citizens associated with Christ Church on a 4.5 acre plot in 1807 and was given to Christ Church, which gave it its official name Washington Parish Burial Ground. By 1817 sites were set aside for government officials; the cenotaphs, designed by Benjamin Latrobe, each have a large square block with recessed panels set on a wider plinth and surmounted by a conical point.
From 1823 to 1876 the U. S. Congress funded the expansion and maintenance of the cemetery, but it never became a federal institution. Appropriations funded a gravel road from the Capitol to the cemetery, paving within the cemetery, the public vault and the gatehouse, as well as funerals for congressmen and the cenotaphs. During the early part of this period, graves were laid out in a grid pattern in an extension of the grid in the L'Enfant Plan for Washington, little or no landscaping or plantings were made on the grounds; the grid was extended as the cemetery expanded. Starting in the late 1840s, the cemetery was influenced by the rural cemetery movement in which the graves were placed in a park-like setting with extensive landscaping. To implement this new vision, the cemetery needed to expand. Between 1849 and 1869 the cemetery grew in area to 35.75 acres. The original cemetery was located on block 1115 on E Street between 18th and 19th Streets Southeast in 1808. In 1849, it doubled in size by acquiring the block to its south, 1116.
In 1853, it expanded to the east on blocks 1130, 1148 and 1149 between G Streets Southeast. In 1853-53, the cemetery expanded to the west by acquiring block 1104, between 17th Street and 18th Streets Southeast. In 1858, the cemetery acquired block 1105 and Reservation 13. In 1859, it added blocks 1105 and 1123; the cemetery reached its current extent of 35.75 acres by growing south to Water Street Southeast with blocks 1106 and 1117 in 1869. The land to the south of the cemetery was transferred to the National Park Service although the access road to the RFK Stadium parking lot is administered by the DC Sports and Entertainment Commission. In the 1950s, it appeared that the southeast corner of the cemetery would become a part of the right of way for the Southeast-Southwest Freeway. However, protracted environmental litigation halted construction at Pennsylvania Avenue, with the dead end of the freeway being connected by a temporary road to the RFK parking lot and to 17th Street Southeast at the southwest corner of the cemetery.
After 1876 the cemetery was used or supported by Congress. Many wealthy Washingtonians continued to bury family members there, figures associated with the government who were local residents, such as Marine Corps Band Director John Philip Sousa and J. Edgar Hoover, were buried there. By the 1970s urban decay, the declining membership of Christ Church, the declining value of the endowment funded by Christ Church, left the cemetery in serious difficulties. Monuments and burial vaults were in disrepair. Maintenance on buildings had been long delayed. There was minimal funding. Drug dealers and prostitutes began to occupy the cemetery; the cemetery is still owned by Christ Church but since 1976 it has been managed by the Association for the Preservation of Historic Congressional Cemetery. Progress on the renovation was slow until two volunteers became involved. Jim Oliver assistant manager of the House Republican Cloakroom, became involved in the late 1980s and helped revive congressional interest in the cemetery.
The K-9 Corps, a group of dog owners whose activities helped drive away the drug dealers, was organized in 1997. Renovation picked-up after C-SPAN broadcast a video on the cemetery on July 5, 1996; the following weekend 100 airmen from Andrews Air Force Base arrived unannounced to mow the 35-acre lawn, a contingent from the Army post at Fort Belvoir followed the ne
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
St. Mary's College of Maryland
St. Mary's College of Maryland, established in 1840, is a U. S. public, secular and co-educational four-year liberal arts college located in St. Mary's City, Maryland. St. Mary's College of Maryland is a public, state-supported honors college which offers an experience similar to that of an elite liberal arts college. With about 1,800 enrolled students, the institution offers bachelor's degrees in 24 disciplines, as well as a master's program and numerous certification programs; the college is located in St. Mary's City and shares much of its campus with Historic St. Mary's City, the site of Maryland's first colony and first capital, it is the site of the fourth colony in British North America. St. Mary's City is considered to be the birthplace of adherents to Catholicism in America seeking to reestablish it as a state religion; this is due to its connection to colonial Maryland being founded as a Catholic colony in opposition to the 1689 Bill of Rights. The British colony of Maryland established Christianity as its state religion.
The Historical Archaeology Field School is jointly operated by St. Mary's College of Maryland and Historic St. Mary's City; the campus and the rest of St. Mary's City combined are considered to be one of the premier archaeological sites in the United States. St. Mary's College of Maryland is located on the original site of Maryland's first colony, St. Mary's City, the first capital of Maryland and is considered to be the birthplace of religious freedom in America. Colonial St. Mary's City was only a town and at its peak had between 500 and 600 residents. However, as the colony expanded and settlements spread throughout the Eastern part of what is now Maryland, the town remained the capital and representatives would travel from all over the colony to participate in the Maryland General Assembly, the colony's first legislative body; the Colony was founded under a mandate by the colonial proprietor, Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore of England, that the new settlers engage in religious tolerance of each other.
The first settlers were both Catholic during a time of persecution of Catholics. This mandate was unprecedented at the time, as England had been wracked by religious conflict for centuries; the following history passed through times of new ideas, times of setbacks, long periods of oppression and times of hope and renewal. The school evolved in response to many milestone events, in some cases the school contributed to history as well as being influenced by it. St. Mary's College of Maryland offers over 31 different undergraduate degrees and minors, it has a masters program in education. St. Mary's College is a public honors college, it is one of only two such Public Honors Colleges in the United States. As such, it maintains a core honors-level curriculum that all of its students, regardless of major, must complete; the school is non-religious and has been since it was started in 1840. The school has been coeducational since 1949; the college community is guided by a set of principles called "The St. Mary's Way".
These principles intend to cultivate a supportive, caring environment where a passion for curiosity and discovery can flourish. This set of principles stresses the importance of making a difference in the world, informed by the natural beauty and historic meaning of the St. Mary's City area; the St. Mary's Way sets a tone for integrity and tolerance of differences in viewpoint and experience; the text of the St. Mary's Way is as follows: The St. Mary's Way St. Mary's College of Maryland lies in a setting of natural beauty and historic meaning which enhances our ability to reflect on our lives in an complex and interdependent world; as a member of St. Mary's College of Maryland, I accept the St. Mary's Way and agree to join in working with others to develop this College as a community: Where people respect the natural environment and the tradition of tolerance, the heritage of this place Where people cultivate a life-long quest for disciplined learning and creativity Where people take individual responsibility for their work and actions Where people foster relationships based upon mutual respect, honesty and trust Where people are engaged in an ongoing dialogue that values differences and the unique contributions of others' talents, backgrounds and world views Where people are committed to examining and shaping the functional, ethical values of our changing world Where people contribute to a spirit of caring and an ethic of service.
By choosing to join this community, I accept the responsibility of helping to build on its past heritage, of living its ideals, contributing to its future. The college has 31 undergraduate programs that allow a choice of 24 majors, leading to a Bachelor of Arts, 26 minors.69% of St. Mary's students major or minor in a second academic discipline. Popular degree programs include biology, English, political science, psychology; the college has the possibility for students to develop their own major, a Student Designed Major. The college offers a Master of Arts in Teaching. Including teacher certification 81% overall graduation rate 70% four-year graduation rate, highest of any public institution in Maryland and third highest in the United States among public colleges. (69% of students pursue dual concurrent degrees or dual minors, which may take longer than fo
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N