Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is the fifth largest museum in the United States. It contains more than 450,000 works of art, making it one of the most comprehensive collections in the Americas. With more than one million visitors a year, it is the 60th most-visited art museum in the world as of 2017. Founded in 1870, the museum moved to its current location in 1909; the museum is affiliated with the School of the Museum of Fine Arts at Tufts. The Museum of Fine Arts was founded in 1870 and was located on the top floor of the Boston Athenaeum and most of its initial collection came from the Athenæum's Art Gallery. Francis Davis Millet, a local artist, was instrumental in starting the Art School affiliated with the museum, in appointing Emil Otto Grundmann as its first director. In 1876, the museum moved to a ornamented brick Gothic Revival building designed by John Hubbard Sturgis and Charles Brigham, noted for its massed architectural terracotta, it was located in Copley Square at St. James Streets.
It was built entirely of brick and terracotta, imported from England, with some stone about its base. In 1907, plans were laid to build a new home for the museum on Huntington Avenue in Boston's Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood, near the recently-constructed mansion that would become the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Museum trustees decided to hire architect Guy Lowell to create a design for a museum that could be built in stages, as funding was obtained for each phase. Two years the first section of Lowell’s neoclassical design was completed, it featured a 500-foot façade of a grand rotunda. The museum moved to its new location that year; the second phase of construction built a wing along The Fens to house paintings galleries. It was funded by Maria Antoinette Evans Hunt, the wife of wealthy business magnate Robert Dawson Evans, opened in 1915. From 1916 through 1925, the noted artist John Singer Sargent painted the frescoes that adorn the rotunda and the associated colonnades; the Decorative Arts Wing was built in 1928 and expanded in 1968.
An addition designed by Hugh Stubbins and Associates was built in 1966–70, another by The Architects Collaborative in 1976. The West Wing, now the Linde Family Wing for Contemporary Art, was designed by I. M. Pei and opened in 1981; this wing now houses the museum's cafe, meeting rooms, a giftshop/bookstore, as well as large exhibition spaces. The Tenshin-En Japanese Garden designed by Kinsaku Nakane opened in 1988, the Norma Jean Calderwood Garden Court and Terrace opened in 1997. In the mid-2000s, the museum launched a major effort to expand its facilities. In a seven-year fundraising campaign between 2001 and 2008 for a new wing, the endowment, operating expenses, the museum managed to total over $500 million, in addition to acquiring over $160 million worth of art. During the global financial crisis between 2007 and 2012, the museum's budget was trimmed by $1.5 million and the museum increased revenues by conducting traveling exhibitions, which included a loan exhibition sent to the for-profit Bellagio in Las Vegas in exchange for $1 million.
In 2011, Moody's Investors Service calculated that the museum had over $180 million in outstanding debt. However, the agency cited growing attendance, a large endowment, positive cash flow as reasons to believe that the museum's finances would become stable in the near future. In 2011, the museum put eight paintings by Monet, Pissarro, Sisley and others on sale at Sotheby's, bringing in a total of $21.6 million, to pay for Man at His Bath by Gustave Caillebotte at a cost reported to be more than $15 million. The renovation included a new Art of the Americas Wing to feature artwork from North and Central America. In 2006, the groundbreaking ceremonies took place; the wing and adjoining Ruth and Carl J. Shapiro Family Courtyard were designed in a restrained, contemporary style by the London-based architectural firm Foster and Partners, under the directorship of Thomas T. Difraia and CBT/Childs Bertman Tseckares Architects; the landscape architecture firm Gustafson Guthrie Nichol redesigned the Huntington Avenue and Fenway entrances, access roads, interior courtyards.
The wing opened on November 2010 with free admission to the public. Mayor Thomas Menino declared it "Museum of Fine Arts Day", more than 13,500 visitors attended the opening; the 12,000-square-foot glass-enclosed courtyard features a 42.5-foot high glass sculpture, titled the Lime Green Icicle Tower, by Dale Chihuly. In 2014, the Art of the Americas Wing was recognized for its high architectural achievement by being awarded the Harleston Parker Medal, by the Boston Society of Architects. In 2015, the museum renovated Tenshin-en; the garden, which opened in 1988, was designed by Japanese professor Kinsaku Nakane. The garden's kabukimon-style entrance gate was built by Chris Hall of Massachusetts, using traditional Japanese carpentry techniques; the Museum of Fine Arts possesses materials from a wide variety of art cultures. The museum maintains a large online database with information on over 346,000 items from its collection, accompanied with digitized images; some highlights of the collection include: Egyptian artifacts including sculptures and jewelry Dutch Golden Age painting, including 113 works given in 2017 by collectors Rose-Marie and Eijk van Otterloo and Susan and Matthew Weatherbie The gift includes works from 76 artists, as well as the Haverkamp-Begemann Library, a collection of more than 20,000 books, donated by the van Otterloos.
The donors are establishing a dedic
Yale University Art Gallery
The Yale University Art Gallery houses a significant and encyclopedic collection of art in several buildings on the campus of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Although it embraces all cultures and periods, the gallery emphasizes early Italian painting, African sculpture, modern art; the Yale University Art Gallery is the oldest university art museum in the western hemisphere. The gallery was founded in 1832, when patriot-artist, John Trumbull, donated more than 100 paintings of the American Revolution to Yale College and designed the original Picture Gallery; this building, on the university's Old Campus, was razed in 1901. The gallery's main building was built in 1953, was among the first designed by Louis Kahn, who taught architecture at Yale. A complete renovation, which returned many spaces to Kahn's original vision, was completed in December 2006, by Polshek Partnership Architects; the older Tuscan romanesque portion was built in 1928, was designed by Egerton Swartwout. The Gallery reopened on December 12, 2012, after a 14-year renovation and expansion project at a cost of $135 million.
The expanded space totals 69,975 sq ft. The museum is a member of the North American Reciprocal Museums program. On the second floor was a valuable collection of paintings by John Trumbull of historical events. Among them were his well-known paintings of the Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery before Quebec, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, Declaration of Independence, etc. Trumbull gave the paintings to Yale in consideration of an annuity of $1,000 and subject to the condition that he and his wife should be forever buried beneath the pictures; the Gallery's encyclopedic collections number more than 200,000 objects ranging in date from ancient times to the present day. The permanent collection includes: African Art: over 1000 objects in wood, metal and ceramic. American Decorative Arts: about 18,000 objects in silver, wood and textile with an emphasis on the colonial and early federal periods. American Paintings and Sculpture: over 2,500 paintings, 500 sculptures, 300 miniatures from before the mid-twentieth century including paintings by Benjamin West, John Singleton Copley, Albert Bierstadt, Frederic Church, Frederic Remington, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, George Bellows, John Singer Sargent, Edwin Austin Abbey, Arthur Dove, Elizabeth Goodridge, Edward Hopper, sculptures by Hezekiah Augur, Hiram Powers, Horatio Greenough, William Henry Rinehart, Chauncey Ives, Alexander Archipenko, Alexander Calder.
Ancient Art: over 13,000 objects from the Near East, Greece and Rome dating from the Neolithic to the early Byzantine. Art of the Ancient Americas: Mayan and Olmec figurines and sculptures. Asian Art Coins and Medals Early European Art Modern and Contemporary Art: including paintings and sculpture by Josef Albers, Edgar Degas, Marcel Duchamp, Alberto Giacometti, Jean Metzinger, Joan Miró, Piet Mondrian, Pablo Picasso, Mark Rothko, Roy Lichtenstein. Prints and PhotographsIn 2005, the museum announced that it had acquired 1,465 gelatin silver prints by the influential American landscape photographer, Robert Adams. In 2009, the museum mounted an exhibition of its extensive collection of Picasso paintings and drawings, in collaboration with the Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University. For the first time, portions of the Yale University Library's, Gertrude Stein writing archives were displayed next to relevant drawings from Picasso; as an affiliate of Yale University, the gallery maintains a robust roster of education programs for university students, New Haven schools, the general public.
One such program is the Gallery Guide program, founded in 1998, which trains undergraduate students to lead tours at the museum. The Yale Art Gallery charges no admission. Official website
Birmingham Museum of Art
Founded in 1951, the Birmingham Museum of Art in Birmingham, today has one of the finest collections in the Southeastern United States, with more than 24,000 paintings, prints and decorative arts representing a numerous diverse cultures, including Asian, American, Pre-Columbian, Native American. Among other highlights, the Museum’s collection of Asian art is considered the finest and most comprehensive in the Southeast, its Vietnamese ceramics one of the finest in the U. S; the Museum is home to a remarkable Kress Collection of Renaissance and Baroque paintings and decorative arts from the late 13th century to c.1750, the 18th-century European decorative arts include superior examples of English ceramics and French furniture. The Birmingham Museum of Art is owned by the City of Birmingham and encompasses 3.9 acres in the heart of the city’s cultural district. Erected in 1959, the present building was designed by architects Warren and Davis, a major renovation and expansion by Edward Larrabee Barnes of New York was completed in 1993.
The facility encompasses 180,000 square feet, including an outdoor sculpture garden. The Museum’s growing collection of nearly 2,000 objects is derived from the major culture groups of sub-Saharan Africa and dates from the 12th century to the present; the collection features fine examples of figure sculpture, ritual objects and household and utilitarian objects, textiles and metal arts, with an Egyptian false door, Yoruba mask, Benin bronze hip pendant, a divination portrait of a king from Dahomey. Spanning the late 18th through mid-20th century, the Museum’s collection of American painting, works on paper, decorative arts features paintings by Gilbert Stuart, Childe Hassam, Georgia O'Keeffe. Considered one of the three most important American landscape paintings, the Museum’s Looking Down Yosemite Valley, California by Bierstadt was chosen by The National Endowment for the Humanities as one of 40 American masterpieces that best depict the people and events that have shaped our country and tell America’s story.
Since its doors opened to the public in 1951, the Birmingham Museum of Art has collected and exhibited the art of Alabama. Among the earliest works to enter the collection were paintings by significant Alabama artists including the miniaturist Hannah Elliott and the landscapist Carrie Hill. Throughout its history, the Museum has continued its commitment to the arts of Alabama. In 1995, it organized Made in Alabama, a groundbreaking survey of artistic production in the state during the 19th century. In addition to collecting the works of academically trained native artists, the Museum has built an impressive collection of folk art, including painting, sculpture and pottery. Thanks to the generosity of Robert and Helen Cargo, the Museum possesses one of the largest and most comprehensive collections of Southern quilts in the country. Several major private collectors are helping the Museum build the most significant repository of Alabama pottery in the State; the Museum’s Asian art collection started with a gift of Chinese textiles in 1951 and today, with more than 4,000 objects, is the largest and most comprehensive in the Southeast.
The collection hails from China, Japan and Southeast Asia, featuring the finest collection of Vietnamese ceramics in the U. S. as well as outstanding examples of Buddhist and Hindu art, lacquer ware, paintings and sculpture. Highlights include Tang dynasty tomb figures from China. On long-term loan from The Smithsonian Institution is the Vetlesen Jade Collection of 16th- to 19th-century pieces, one of the most important jade collections in the U. S; the Museum has the only gallery for Korean art in the Southeast. The collection features painting, video, works on paper, installation art that illuminate movements and trends from the 1960s to the present, by renowned artists such as Joan Mitchell, Andy Warhol, Bill Viola, Lynda Benglis, Cham Hendon, Kerry James Marshall, Callum Innes, Grace Hartigan, Larry Rivers, Louise Nevelson, Frank Fleming and Philip Guston, as well as works by a younger generation who are defining the new century. Since 2009 a permanent display of Folk art will feature works by Bill Traylor, Thornton Dial, Alabama’s outstanding quilters, other self-taught artists.
Among the highlights of the European art holdings is the Kress Collection of Renaissance Art, featuring Renaissance and Baroque paintings and decorative arts dating from the late 13th century to c.1750, with works by Pietro Perugino, Antonio Canaletto, Paris Bordone. Other strengths include 17th-century Dutch paintings by Jacob van Ruisdael, Ferdinand Bol, Balthasar van der Ast. One of the foundations of the Museum’s permanent collection, the European decorative arts comprise more than 12,000 objects including ceramics and furniture dating from the Renaissance to present day. Notable holdings include the only public collection of late 19th-century European cast iron items in the U. S. and the Eugenia Woodward Hitt Collection of 18th-century French art, including furniture of the Louis
A porringer is a shallow bowl, between 4 and 6 inches in diameter, 1½" to 3" deep. They had horizontal handles. Colonial porringers tended to have one handle, whereas European ones tended to have two handles on opposite sides, on which the owner's initials were sometimes engraved, they came with a lid. Porringers resembled a Scottish drinking vessel. One can discern authentic pewter porringers in much the same way that silver can be authenticated from the touch marks that were stamped either into the bowl of the porringer or on its base. Wooden porringers are found from excavations; the most famous colonial porringers are those made by Paul Revere. In more modern times, some manufacturers of porringers have produced them without handles; these types of porringers appear to be deep bowls, with the sides being nearly flat. Porringers are used less and less, as a bowl will suffice for most people. A second, modern usage, for the term porringer is a double saucepan similar to a bain-marie used for cooking porridge.
The porridge is cooked in the inner saucepan, heated by steam from boiling water in the outer saucepan. This ensures the porridge does not burn and allows a longer cooking time so that the oats can absorb the water or milk in which they are cooked more completely; the porridge does not need stirring during the cooking process, which means the oats maintain their structural integrity and the porridge has a better mouthfeel and texture. The lower heat may degrade less of the beta-glucan in the oats, which gives oats their cholesterol-lowering properties. Porringers were made out of red earthenware clay in a type of pottery, called "redware" today but called "earthen" during colonial and Early America; these would have the typical strap or pulled handle, familiar on mugs and cups today. Some collectors or materials historians call what resembles the pewter porringer a "bleeding cup". Grabit List of cooking vessels One-handled Porringer picture from the Brooklyn Museum Two-handled Porringer picture from Learn NC Definition of porringer from Britannica online
Paul Revere was an American silversmith, early industrialist, Patriot in the American Revolution. He is best known for his midnight ride to alert the colonial militia in April 1775 to the approach of British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride". At age 41, Revere was a prosperous and prominent Boston silversmith, he had helped organize an alarm system to keep watch on the British military. Revere served as a Massachusetts militia officer, though his service ended after the Penobscot Expedition, one of the most disastrous campaigns of the American Revolutionary War, for which he was absolved of blame. Following the war, Revere returned to his silversmith trade, he used the profits from his expanding business to finance his work in iron casting, bronze bell and cannon casting, the forging of copper bolts and spikes. In 1800 he became the first American to roll copper into sheets for use as sheathing on naval vessels.
Revere was born in the North End of Boston on December 21, 1734, according to the Old Style calendar in use, or January 1, 1735, in the modern calendar. His father, a French Huguenot born Apollos Rivoire came to Boston at the age of 13 and was apprenticed to the silversmith John Coney. By the time he married Deborah Hitchborn, a member of a long-standing Boston family that owned a small shipping wharf, in 1729, Rivoire had anglicized his name to Paul Revere, their son, Paul Revere, was the third of 12 children and the eldest surviving son. Revere grew up in the environment of the extended Hitchborn family, never learned his father's native language. At 13 he became an apprentice to his father; the silversmith trade afforded him connections with a cross-section of Boston society, which would serve him well when he became active in the American Revolution. As for religion, although his father attended Puritan services, Revere was drawn to the Church of England. Revere began attending the services of the political and provocative Jonathan Mayhew at the West Church.
His father did not approve, as a result father and son came to blows on one occasion. Revere relented and returned to his father's church, although he did become friends with Mayhew, returned to the West Church in the late 1760s. Revere's father died in 1754, when Paul was too young to be the master of the family silver shop. In February 1756, during the French and Indian War, he enlisted in the provincial army, he made this decision because of the weak economy, since army service promised consistent pay. Commissioned a second lieutenant in a provincial artillery regiment, he spent the summer at Fort William Henry at the southern end of Lake George in New York as part of an abortive plan for the capture of Fort St. Frédéric, he did not stay long in the army, but returned to Boston and assumed control of the silver shop in his own name. On August 4, 1757, he married Sarah Orne, he and Sarah had eight children, but two died young, only one, survived her father. Revere's business began to suffer when the British economy entered a recession in the years following the Seven Years' War, declined further when the Stamp Act of 1765 resulted in a further downturn in the Massachusetts economy.
Business was so poor that an attempt was made to attach his property in late 1765. To help make ends meet he took up dentistry, a skill set he was taught by a practicing surgeon who lodged at a friend's house. One client was Doctor Joseph Warren, a local physician and political opposition leader with whom Revere formed a close friendship. Revere and Warren, in addition to having common political views, were both active in the same local Masonic lodges. Although Revere was not one of the "Loyal Nine"—organizers of the earliest protests against the Stamp Act—he was well connected with its members, who were laborers and artisans. Revere did not participate in some of the more raucous protests, such as the attack on the home of Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson. In 1765, a group of militants who would become known as the "Sons of Liberty" formed, of which Revere was a member. From 1765 on, in support of the dissident cause, he produced engravings and other artifacts with political themes. Among these engravings are a depiction of the arrival of British troops in 1768 and a famous depiction of the March 1770 Boston Massacre.
Although the latter was engraved by Revere and he included the inscription, "Engraved, Printed, & Sold by Paul Revere Boston", it was modeled on a drawing by Henry Pelham, Revere's engraving of the drawing was colored by a third man and printed by a fourth. Revere produced a bowl commemorating the Massachusetts assembly's refusal to retract the Massachusetts Circular Letter. In 1770 Revere purchased a house on North Square in Boston's North End. Now a museum, the house provided space for his growing family while he continued to maintain his shop at nearby Clark's Wharf. Sarah died in 1773, on October 10 of that year, Revere married Rachel Walker, they had eight children. In November 1773 the merchant ship Dartmouth arrived in Boston harbor carrying the first shipment of tea made under the terms of the Tea Act; this act authorized the British East India Company to ship tea (of which it had huge surplu
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world; the school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. Three years the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate. Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton; the school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period."The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board.
Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, it was styled Harvard University as Harvard College was thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular. Today Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, housing, student life, athletics – all undergraduate matters except instruction, the purview of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women.
About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying. Few transfers are accepted. Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration. Joint concentrations and special concentrations are possible. Most Harvard College concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus completed in four years, though students leaving high school with substantial college-level coursework may finish in three. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus. There are special degree programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music. Undergraduates must fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in eight designated fields: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding Culture and Belief Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning Ethical Reasoning Science of Living Systems Science of the Physical Universe Societies of the World United States in the WorldEach student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well."In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course.
The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015. The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, for 2018–2019 was $67,580. Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10 percent of their annual income. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions. Grants total 88 percent of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid provided by loans and work-study. Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a incohesive and administratively daunting university environment; each house is presided over by a senior-faculty dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being.
The faculty dean and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior Common Room—select graduate students and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the house, as do the faculty resident dean. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, Junior Common Room reflect