Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Springfield is a city in the state of Massachusetts, United States, the seat of Hampden County. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers: the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, the eastern Mill River; as of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 153,060. As of 2017, the estimated population was 154,758, making it the third-largest city in Massachusetts, the fourth-most populous city in New England after Boston and Providence, the 12th-most populous in the Northeastern United States. Metropolitan Springfield, as one of two metropolitan areas in Massachusetts, had a population of 692,942 as of 2010; the first Springfield in the New World, during the American Revolution, George Washington designated it as the site of the Springfield Armory for its central location. The Armory would play a pivotal role in the Civil War with its manufacture of the famed "Springfield rifles". Today the city is the largest in western New England, the urban and media capital of Massachusetts' section of the Connecticut River Valley, colloquially known as the Pioneer Valley.
Springfield has several nicknames – "The City of Firsts", due to the many innovations developed there, such as the first American dictionary, the first American gas-powered automobile, the first machining lathe for interchangeable parts. Hartford, the capital of Connecticut, lies 24 miles south of Springfield, on the western bank of the Connecticut River; the Hartford-Springfield region is known as the Knowledge Corridor because it hosts over 160,000 university students and over 32 universities and liberal arts colleges – the second-highest concentration of higher-learning institutions in the United States. The city of Springfield itself is home to Springfield College, Western New England University, American International College, Springfield Technical Community College, among other higher educational institutions. Springfield was founded in 1636 by English Puritan William Pynchon as "Agawam Plantation" under the administration of the Connecticut Colony. In 1641 it was renamed after Pynchon's hometown of Springfield, England, following incidents, including trade disputes as well as Captain John Mason's hostilities toward native tribes, that precipitated the settlement joining the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
During its early existence, Springfield flourished as both an agricultural settlement and trading post, although its prosperity waned during King Philip's War in 1675, when natives laid siege to it and burned it to the ground as part of the ongoing campaign. During that attack, three-quarters of the original settlement was burned to the ground, with many of Springfield's residents survived by taking refuge in John Pynchon's brick house, the "Old Fort", the first such house to be built in the Connecticut River Valley. Out of the siege, Miles Morgan and his sons were lauded as heroes; the original settlement – today's downtown Springfield – was located atop bluffs at the confluence of four rivers, at the nexus of trade routes to Boston, New York City, Montreal, with some of the northeastern United States' most fertile soil. In 1777, Springfield's location at numerous crossroads led George Washington and Henry Knox to establish the United States' National Armory at Springfield, which produced the first American musket in 1794, the famous Springfield rifle.
From 1777 until its closing during the Vietnam War, the Springfield Armory attracted skilled laborers to Springfield, making it the United States' longtime center for precision manufacturing. The near-capture of the armory during Shays' Rebellion of 1787 led directly to the formation of the U. S. Constitutional Convention. During the 19th and 20th centuries, Springfielders produced many innovations, including the first American-English dictionary. Springfield underwent a protracted decline during the second half of the 20th century, due to the decommissioning of the Springfield Armory in 1969. During the 1980s and 1990s, Springfield developed a national reputation for crime, political corruption and cronyism. During the early 21st century, Springfield sought to overcome its downgrade in reputation via long-term revitalization projects and undertook several large projects, including a $1 billion intercity rail line a $1 billion MGM casino.
Patriarca crime family
The Patriarca crime family known as the New England Mafia, the Boston Mafia, the Providence Mafia, or The Office is an Italian-American Mafia crime family in New England. It has two distinct factions, one based in Providence, Rhode Island, the other in Boston, Massachusetts; the family is led by Carmen Dinunzio, part of the Boston faction. They are active in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and eastern Connecticut. Two separate Mafia families emerged in New England before prohibition began, one based in Boston and the other based in Providence, Rhode Island; the Boston crime family was founded in 1916 by Gaspare Messina. Frank Morelli formed the Providence crime family in 1917, he controlled bootlegging and gambling operations in Providence and Connecticut. In 1924, Gaspare Messina stepped down as Boston's Mafia boss, assuming a businessman's role while working with Frank Cucchiara and Paolo Pagnotta from a grocery store on Prince Street in Boston's North End. A Mafia power struggle ensued in Boston, as rival gangs fought for loan sharking, illegal gambling, bootlegging rackets, East Boston mobster Filippo Buccola emerged as the boss of the Boston crime family.
In December 1930 or early 1931, a Mafia meeting was held and Gaspare Messina was elected the temporary capo dei capi of the American Mafia. He retired from Mafia affairs in the early 1930s and died in June 1957 in his Somerville, Massachusetts home. During the early 1930s, Buccola battled other ethnic gangs for territory, along with his underboss Joseph Lombardo, another mobster from Boston's North End. In December 1931, Lombardo arranged the murder of Frank Wallace, the boss of South Boston's Irish Gustin Gang. In 1932, Frank Morelli merged his Providence family with Buccola's Boston family, forming the New England crime family. Buccola ruled as boss of the New England family from East Boston as he continued to have his competition murdered, he had the boss of Boston's Jewish mob Charles Solomon murdered, leaving himself as the most powerful gangster in Boston. He held a party in Johnston, Rhode Island on April 27, 1952 to celebrate his retirement and Raymond Patriarca's ascension to boss of the New England crime family, he retired to Sicily in 1954 where he ran a chicken farm.
He died in 1987 of natural causes at the age of 101. In 1956, Raymond Patriarca made drastic changes in the family, the biggest being to move their base of operations to Providence, Rhode Island, he ran his family from the National Cigarette Service Company and Coin-O-Matic Distributors, a vending machine and pinball business on Atwells Avenue in the Federal Hill neighborhood of Providence. The business was known to family members as "The Office." Patriarca was a ruthless leader. He was skilled at warding off police and maintaining a low profile and thus received little hindrance from law enforcement; the family ventured into new rackets such as pornography and narcotics, though mob informer Vincent Teresa insisted that Patriarca forbade the family to deal in drugs. During his reign as boss, Patriarca formed strong relationships with the New York-based Genovese crime family and Colombo crime family, he worked with the Genovese family and decided that the Connecticut River would be the dividing line between the New York families and his family.
The New England family controlled organized crime in Boston and Worcester, Massachusetts where Genovese capo Carlo Mastrototaro reigned as local boss for half a century, as well as the state of Maine. Patriarca's long-time underboss Enrico Tameleo was a member of New York's Bonanno crime family. In addition to having close ties to the powerful New York Mafia, Patriarca was on the Mafia's ruling commission and had investments in two Las Vegas casinos. Another of his underbosses was Gennaro "Jerry" Angiulo, involved in the numbers racket in Boston, was being shaken down by rival mobsters because he was not a "made" member, he solved this problem by paying Patriarca $50,000 and agreeing to pay him $100,000 a year to become a made member of the family. Angiulo gained complete control of gambling in the city. In 1957, more than 60 of the country's most powerful crime bosses met in Apalachin, a hamlet in upstate New York; the Apalachin meeting was attended by well-known organized crime figures, such as Joe Bonanno, Carlo Gambino, Vito Genovese.
Raymond Patriarca was in attendance and was subsequently arrested, drawing much attention to him from the press, the public, law enforcement. The situation became worse for Patriarca and his family in 1961, when Robert F. Kennedy became Attorney General and began an assault on organized crime. Law enforcement agencies worked to develop informers within the mob and succeeded in 1966 when Joe Barboza was arrested on a concealed weapons charge, he was a hit man for the Patriarca family who claimed to have killed 26 people, but he became concerned when Patriarca did not raise his bail and two of his friends were killed for trying to do so. He became an informant not long after, Patriarca and Enrico Tameleo were indicted in 1967 for the murder of Providence bookmaker Willie Marfeo. Patriarca was convicted and began serving time in 1969, Gennaro Angiulo served as acting boss. Patriarca resumed control of the family. For his testimony, Barboza was given a one-year prison term, including time served.
He was told to leave Massachusetts forever. In 1971, he pleaded guilty to a second-degree murd
New England Law Boston
New England Law Boston is a private law school in Boston, Massachusetts. It was founded in 1908 as a law school for women. According to New England Law's 2017 ABA-required disclosures, 38.2% of the Class of 2017 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation. The Portia School of Law started informally in 1908 when Arthur W. MacLean, a graduate of the Boston University School of Law and a professor at Suffolk University Law School, agreed to tutor two young women who were studying for the Massachusetts bar examination. At the time, few options were available to women seeking a legal education in New England. Soon afterwards, MacLean rented space at 88 Tremont Street, began admitting students, took on a second faculty member, A. Chesley York. MacLean's wife, named the school after the character Portia in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. In the play, Portia disguises herself as a male lawyer and eloquently pleads her client's case in the famous "quality of mercy" speech.
The Portia School of Law was the only law school in the country for women. The school was incorporated in 1918. By this time it had 91 students; the following year, the Massachusetts legislature granted the school the power to confer the degree of Bachelor of Laws, the school was reincorporated as the Portia Law School. In 1920 the school awarded its first LL. B degrees to 39 women; the school was one of the few that offered part-time enrollment, enabling working-class women to pursue their studies while supporting themselves. In 1920, the school outgrew its space on Tremont Street and moved to a townhouse at 45 Mt. Vernon Street on Beacon Hill; the Portia Law School was granted the authority to confer the degree of Master of Laws in 1926. M. the following year. The Portia Law School was integrated from its earliest days. Blanche E. Braxton, who graduated in 1921, became the first African-American woman admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1923. Another Portia graduate, Dorothy Crockett, became the first African-American woman admitted to the Rhode Island bar in 1932.
The former site of the Portia Law School at 45 Mount Vernon Street is a stop on the Boston Women's Heritage Trail. The school began admitting male students out of financial necessity in the 1920s. In 1930, the school's first two male graduates received the LL. M. degree. From 1940 to 1950, the men's program was referred to as the Calvin Coolidge Law School; as the school entered the 1950s it saw its student body shift from a student body that had a majority female population to a predominately male student body. 1963 saw Portia Law School begin the process of applying for American Bar Association accreditation, some of the steps the school took included restructuring its board of governors and launching the school's first law review. In 1969, the school changed its name to New England School of Law to coincide with its accreditation granted by the ABA; as New England Law neared its 75th anniversary, new programs were started, the first was the creation of Law Day in 1970 and the opening of its clinical law services office in 1971.
The clinical law services program is performed by the law students providing representation to those who did not have the economic means to seek paid legal assistance. In 1980, New England moved into its current location. To honor the 75th anniversary of New England Law the 41st President, George H. W. Bush, was the keynote speaker for the celebration. In the 1980s, the school started a program that arranged for students to study abroad and work with former Soviet Bloc nations to develop their own legal systems. New England Law became a co-founder of the Consortium for Innovative Legal Education. In 1996, New England Law students worked with Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunals by providing legal research and analysis for war crimes in Rwanda and the former nation of Yugoslavia. New England Law received membership from the Association of American Law Schools in 1998. In 2002, New England Law expanded its campus by buying adjacent buildings around the schools current location.
In 2008, New England School of Law began a new campaign to rebrand itself as "New England Law | Boston", with the purpose to put an emphasis on its location. The law school's main academic building is a five-story building on Stuart Street in the Boston Theater District, which includes classrooms, faculty offices, law review offices, the school's library. Clinic, admissions and other offices are in a nearby building in the Bay Village on Church Street. New England Law shares its bookstore facilities with Tufts University. Students have access to the Tufts University Medical Library located down the street. New England Law offers full-time and part-time programs, with an application deadline of March 15. In 2017, the school accepted 70.68% of all applicants. Enrolled students from that entering class had Law School Admission Test scores in the range of 146 to 153, it is a small law school with 600 students. New England Law has six concentrations, including in immigration law and intellectual property law and offers an LL.
M. in American Law. New England Law offers a program where a student may spend a period of time up to two academic semesters at a law school associated with the Consortium for Innovative Legal Education, Inc.. The schools takin
Illegal drug trade
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws; the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime's World Drug Report 2005 estimates the size of the global illicit drug market at US$321.6 billion in 2003 alone. With a world GDP of US$36 trillion in the same year, the illegal drug trade may be estimated as nearly 1% of total global trade. Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally and remains difficult for local authorities to thwart its popularity. Chinese authorities issued edicts against opium smoking in 1729, 1796 and 1800; the West prohibited addictive drugs throughout the late early 20th centuries. In the early 19th century, an illegal drug trade in China emerged; as a result, by 1838 the number of Chinese opium-addicts had grown to between four and twelve million.
The Chinese government responded by enforcing a ban on the import of opium. The United Kingdom forced China to allow British merchants to sell Indian-grown opium. Trading in opium was lucrative, smoking opium had become common in the 19th century, so British merchants increased trade with the Chinese; the Second Opium War broke out in 1856. After the two Opium Wars, the British Crown, via the treaties of Nanking, Tianjin, obligated the Chinese government to pay large sums of money for opium they had seized and destroyed, which were referred to as "reparations". In 1868, as a result of the increased use of opium, the UK restricted the sale of opium in Britain by implementing the 1868 Pharmacy Act. In the United States, control of opium remained under the control of individual US states until the introduction of the Harrison Act in 1914, after 12 international powers signed the International Opium Convention in 1912. Between 1920 and 1933 the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution banned alcohol in the United States.
Prohibition proved impossible to enforce and resulted in the rise of organized crime, including the modern American Mafia, which identified enormous business opportunities in the manufacturing and sale of illicit liquor. The beginning of the 21st century saw drug use increase in North America and Europe, with a increased demand for marijuana and cocaine; as a result, international organized crime syndicates such as the Sinaloa Cartel and'Ndrangheta have increased cooperation among each other in order to facilitate trans-Atlantic drug-trafficking. Use of another illicit drug, has increased in Europe. Drug trafficking is regarded by lawmakers as a serious offense around the world. Penalties depend on the type of drug, the quantity trafficked, where the drugs are sold and how they are distributed. If the drugs are sold to underage people the penalties for trafficking may be harsher than in other circumstances. Drug smuggling carries severe penalties in many countries. Sentencing may include lengthy periods of incarceration and the death penalty.
In December 2005, Van Tuong Nguyen, a 25-year-old Australian drug smuggler, was hanged in Singapore after being convicted in March 2004. In 2010, two people were sentenced to death in Malaysia for trafficking 1 kilogram of cannabis into the country. Execution is used as a deterrent, many have called upon much more effective measures to be taken by countries to tackle drug trafficking; the countries of drug production and transit are some of the most affected by the drug trade, though countries receiving the illegally imported substances are adversely affected. For example, Ecuador has absorbed up to 300,000 refugees from Colombia who are running from guerrillas and drug lords. While some applied for asylum, others are still illegal immigrants; the drugs that pass from Colombia through Ecuador to other parts of South America create economic and social problems. Honduras, through which an estimated 79% of cocaine passes on its way to the United States, has the highest murder rate in the world. According to the International Crisis Group, the most violent regions in Central America along the Guatemala–Honduras border, are correlated with an abundance of drug trafficking activity.
In many countries worldwide, the illegal drug trade is thought to be directly linked to violent crimes such as murder. This is true in all developing countries, such as Honduras, but is an issue for many developed countries worldwide. In the late 1990s in the United States the Federal Bureau of Investigation estimated that 5% of murders were drug-related. In Colombia, Drug violence can be caused by factors such as, the economy, poor governments, no authority within the law enforcement. After a crackdown by US and Mexican authorities in the first decade of the 21st century as part of tightened border security in the wake of the September 11 attacks, border violence inside Mexico surged; the Mexican government estimates. A report by the UK government's Drug Strategy Unit, leaked to the press, stated that due to the expensive price of addictive drugs heroin and coc
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
College of the Holy Cross
The College of the Holy Cross or better known as Holy Cross is a private Jesuit liberal arts college in Worcester, Massachusetts. Founded in 1843, Holy Cross is the oldest Catholic college in New England and one of the oldest in the United States. Opened as a school for boys under the auspices of the Society of Jesus, it was the first Jesuit college in New England. Today, Holy Cross is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities and is part of the Colleges of Worcester Consortium. Holy Cross sports teams are called the Crusaders, their sole color is purple. Holy Cross was founded by Benedict Joseph Fenwick, S. J. Second Bishop of Boston, after his efforts to found a Catholic college in Boston were thwarted by the city's Protestant civic leaders. From the beginning of his tenure as bishop, Fenwick intended to establish a Catholic college within the boundaries of his diocese. Relations with Boston's civic leaders worsened such that, when a Jesuit faculty was secured in 1843, Fenwick decided to leave the Boston school and instead opened the College of the Holy Cross 45 miles west of the city in central Massachusetts, where he felt the Jesuits could operate with greater autonomy.
The site of the college, Mount Saint James, was occupied by a Roman Catholic boarding school run by the Rev. James Fitton, with his lay collaborator Joseph Brigden, since 1832. On February 2, 1843, Fr. Fitton sold the land to Bishop Fenwick and the Diocese of Boston to be used to found the Roman Catholic college that the bishop had wanted in Boston. Fenwick gave the college the Cathedral of the Holy Cross; the Bishop's letters record his enthusiasm for the project as well as for its location: Next May I shall lay the foundation of a splendid College in Worcester... It is calculated to contain 100 boys and I shall take them for $125 per an. & supply them with everything but clothes. Will not this be a bold undertaking? I will try it, it will stand on a beautiful eminence. The school opened in October 1843 with the Rev. Thomas F. Mulledy, S. J. former president of Georgetown University, as its first president, on the second day of November, with six students aged 9 to 19, the first classes were held.
Within three years, the enrollment had increased to 100 students. The education was more at the elementary and high school level. Since its founding, Holy Cross has produced the fifth most members of the Catholic clergy out of all American Catholic colleges; the first class graduated in 1849, led by the valedictorian James Augustine Healy, the mixed-race son of an Irish planter in Georgia and his common-law wife, a mulatto former slave. Healy is now recognized as the first African-American bishop in the United States, but at the time he identified as white Irish Catholic and was accepted as such, without denying his African ancestry, his father sent all his sons north for their education at Holy Cross College. Healy graduated with his close friend Colby Kane, who would go on to join the clergy, was influential in many of Healy's early writings on Eucharistic transubstantiation. Fenwick Hall, the school's main building, was destroyed by fire in 1852. Funds were raised to rebuild the college, in 1853 it opened for the second time.
Petitions to secure a charter for the college from the state legislature were denied in 1847 for a variety of reasons, including anti-Catholicism on the part of some legislators. The increased rate of immigration from Ireland during the famine years roused resistance from some residents of Massachusetts. Holy Cross diplomas were signed by the president of Georgetown University. After repeated denials, a charter was granted on March 24, 1865, by Governor John Albion Andrew. During World War II, College of the Holy Cross was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1998, Holy Cross initiated an eight-year capital campaign, "Lift High the Cross," with a three-year quiet period; the campaign for Holy Cross ended in fiscal 2006 with $216.3 million raised, surpassing its original goal of $175 million. The funds allowed Holy Cross to establish an additional 12 new faculty positions, along with more than 75 newly endowed scholarships for students.
The campaign provided support for the renovation of the Mary Chapel as well as construction of new facilities on campus, including Smith Hall which houses the new Michael C. McFarland Center for Religion and Culture. During the campaign, the college's endowment grew to more than $544 million. On July 1, 2000, Rev. Michael C. McFarland, S. J. became the president of the college. On February 3, 2011, Fr. McFarland announced his resignation as President of the College, a national search, led by the Board of Trustees, was conducted to find his successor. On May 7, 2011, Rev. Philip L. Boroughs, S. J. the Vice President for Mission and Ministry at Georgetown University, was named as McFarland's successor. In early 2018, the college began publicly exploring the possibility of changing its "Crusader" nickname and associated imagery; the college's leadership decided to keep the nickname, distinguishing its use of the nickname from the historical associations with the crusades. In line with this, the college's leadership decided to retire the used imagery of an armed medie