Donald Judd was an American artist associated with minimalism. In his work, Judd sought autonomy and clarity for the constructed object and the space created by it achieving a rigorously democratic presentation without compositional hierarchy, it created an outpouring of effervescent works that defied the term "minimalism". He is considered the leading international exponent of "minimalism," and its most important theoretician through such seminal writings as "Specific Objects". Judd voices his unorthodox perception of minimalism in Arts Yearbook 8, where he asserts; the common aspects are too general and too little common to define a movement. The differences are greater than the similarities" Through his work Judd shines light on the profound effect on new three dimensional by specificity and generality. Judd was born in Missouri, he served in the Army from 1946 to 1947 as an engineer and in 1948 began his studies in philosophy at the College of William and Mary transferring to Columbia University School of General Studies.
At Columbia, he earned a degree in philosophy and worked towards a master's in art history under Rudolf Wittkower and Meyer Schapiro. At this time he attended night classes at the Art Students League of New York, he supported himself by writing art criticism for major American art magazines between 1959 and 1965. In 1968 Judd bought a five-story cast-iron building, designed by Nicholas Whyte in 1870, at 101 Spring Street for under $70,000, serving as his New York residence and studio. Over the next 25 years, Judd renovated the building floor by floor, sometimes installing works he purchased or commissioned from other artists. Judd died of Lymphoma in New York City on February 12, 1994. In the late 1940s, Donald Judd began to practice as a painter, his first solo exhibition, of expressionist paintings, opened in New York in 1957. From the mid-1950s to 1961, as he explored the medium of the woodcut, Judd progressively moved from figurative to abstract imagery, first carving organic rounded shapes moving on to the painstaking craftsmanship of straight lines and angles.
His artistic style soon moved away from illusory media and embraced constructions in which materiality was central to the work. He would not have another one person show until the Green Gallery in 1963, an exhibition of works that he thought worthy of showing. By 1963 Judd had established an essential vocabulary of forms — ‘stacks’, ‘boxes’ and ‘progressions’ — which preoccupied him for the next thirty years. Most of his output was in freestanding "specific objects", that used simple repeated forms to explore space and the use of space. Humble materials such as metals, industrial plywood and color-impregnated Plexiglas became staples of his career. Judd's first floor box structure was made in 1964, his first floor box using Plexiglas followed one year later. By 1964, he began work on wall-mounted sculptures, first developed the curved progression format of these works in 1964 as a development from his work on an untitled floor piece that set a hollow pipe into a solid wooden block. While Judd executed early works himself, in 1964 he began delegating fabrication to professional artisans and manufacturers based on his drawings.
In 1965, Judd created his first stack, an arrangement of identical iron units stretching from floor to ceiling. As he abandoned painting for sculpture in the early 1960s, he wrote the manifesto-like essay “Specific Objects” in 1964. In his essay, Judd found a starting point for a new territory for American art, a simultaneous rejection of residual inherited European artistic values, these values being illusion and represented space, as opposed to real space, he pointed to evidence of this development in the works of an array of artists active in New York at the time, including H. C. Westermann, Lucas Samaras, John Chamberlain, Jasper Johns, Dan Flavin, George Earl Ortman and Lee Bontecou; the works that Judd had fabricated inhabited a space not comfortably classifiable as either painting or sculpture and in fact he refused to call them sculpture, pointing out that they were not sculpted but made by small fabricators using industrial processes. That the categorical identity of such objects was itself in question, that they avoided easy association with well-worn and over-familiar conventions, was a part of their value for Judd.
He displayed two pieces in the seminal 1966 exhibit, "Primary Structures" at the Jewish Museum in New York where, during a panel discussion of the work, he challenged Mark di Suvero's assertion that real artists make their own art. He replied. In 1968, the Whitney Museum of American Art staged a retrospective of his work which included none of his early paintings. In 1968, Judd bought a five-story building in New York that allowed him to start placing his work in a more permanent manner than was possible in gallery or museum shows; this would lead him to push for permanent installations for his work and that of others, as he believed that temporary exhibitions, being designed by curators for the public, placed the art itself in the background degrading it due to incompetency or incomprehension. This would become a major preoccupation as the idea of permanent installation grew in importance and his distaste for the art wor
Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art
The Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art is part of the National Galleries of Scotland, which are based in Edinburgh. The National Gallery of Modern Art houses the collection of modern and contemporary art dating from about 1900 to the present in two buildings that face each other, Modern One and Modern Two, on Belford Road to the west of the city centre; the National Gallery has a collection of more than 6000 paintings, installations, video work and drawings and stages major exhibitions. The first Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art opened in the August 1960 in Inverleith House, a Georgian building set in the middle of Edinburgh’s Royal Botanic Garden. In 1984 the National Gallery moved to Belford Road, Inverleith House became a contemporary art gallery, curated by the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh featuring exhibitions of works and specimens from its historic collections. In 1984 the National Gallery moved to the former premises of the John Watson's Institution, a large neo-classical building designed by William Burn in 1825 as a refuge for fatherless children.
Works from the collection are presented here as well as a programme of changing exhibitions. The early part of the collection features European art from the beginning of the twentieth century, including work by André Derain and Pierre Bonnard, cubist paintings and holdings of expressionist and modern British art. Special highlights include paintings by Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso and the Scottish Colourists Samuel John Peploe, John Duncan Fergusson, Francis Cadell and Leslie Hunter; the Gallery has a renowned collection of international post-war work and an outstanding collection of modern Scottish art. The post-war collection features art by Francis Bacon, David Hockney, Andy Warhol, Joan Eardley and Alan Davie, with more recent works by artists including Douglas Gordon, Antony Gormley, Robert Priseman and Tracey Emin; the collection includes ARTIST ROOMS, a collection of modern and contemporary art acquired for the nation by National Galleries of Scotland and Tate through the Anthony d’Offay donation with support from the National Heritage Memorial Fund, the Art Fund and the Scottish and British Governments.
The growing collection includes works by major international artists including Andy Warhol, Louise Bourgeois, Robert Mapplethorpe and Damien Hirst. The displays change on a regular basis. Across the road, the Dean Orphan Hospital designed by Thomas Hamilton was constructed in 1833, it was converted to a gallery in 1999 by Terry Farrell and Partners. Modern Two is home to a changing programme of world-class exhibitions and displays drawn from the permanent collection. On permanent display is a recreation of the sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi’s studio, as well as his 7.3 metre-tall sculpture, that dominates the café. Modern Two is home to the Gallery’s world-famous collection of Surrealism, including works by Salvador Dalí, René Magritte and Alberto Giacometti; the building houses a library and special books collection. The library’s great strengths are Dada and Surrealism, early twentieth century artists and contemporary Scottish art; the archive contains over 120 holdings relating to twentieth and twenty-first century artists and art organisations, including the Gallery’s own papers.
The archive holds one of the world’s best collections of Dada and Surrealist material made up by the collections of Roland Penrose and Gabrielle Keiller. The special books collection contains over 2,500 artist books and limited edition livres d’artiste, again with a main focus on Dada and Surrealism, but books by other major artists from the twentieth century including Oskar Kokoschka’s Die Träumenden Knaben and Henri Matisse’s Jazz; this material is available to the public in the reading room, open to the public by appointment. There are regular changing displays in the Gabrielle Keiller library to showcase items from these collections. Modern One and Two are set in extensive parkland, where visitors can discover sculpture by such artists as Ian Hamilton Finlay, Barbara Hepworth, Henry Moore, George Rickey, Rachel Whiteread, Richard Long and Nathan Coley; the lawn to the front of Modern One was re-landscaped in 2002 to a design by Charles Jencks. This dramatic work, or Landform, comprises a stepped, serpentine mound reflected in three crescent-shaped pools of water.
The façade of Modern One is home to Martin Creed’s Work No. 975, EVERYTHING IS GOING TO BE ALRIGHT. Modern One backs on to the Water of Leith river and walkway, which can be accessed by a long flight of steep steps behind the Gallery. Open daily, 10am-5pm. Admission is free. Both galleries have renowned cafés. There is a Gallery Bus which takes visitors from the Scottish National Gallery to the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art and back again; the gallery's director is Simon Groom, appointed in 2007. National Galleries of Scotland In the Car Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art and Sculpture Garden – official website official website – Museum collections Charles Jencks' Landform
Andy Warhol was an American artist and producer, a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, advertising that flourished by the 1960s, span a variety of media, including painting, photography and sculpture; some of his best known works include the silkscreen paintings Campbell's Soup Cans and Marilyn Diptych, the experimental film Chelsea Girls, the multimedia events known as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol pursued a successful career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in several galleries in the late 1950s, he began to receive recognition as an influential and controversial artist, his New York studio, The Factory, became a well-known gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, wealthy patrons. He promoted a collection of personalities known as Warhol superstars, is credited with coining the used expression "15 minutes of fame."
In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the experimental rock band The Velvet Underground and founded Interview magazine. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Popism: The Warhol Sixties, he lived as a gay man before the gay liberation movement. After gallbladder surgery, Warhol died of cardiac arrhythmia in February 1987 at the age of 58. Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions and feature and documentary films; the Andy Warhol Museum in his native city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives, is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Many of his creations are collectible and valuable; the highest price paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash. A 2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market". Warhol was born on August 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he was the fourth child of Ondrej Warhola and Julia, whose first child was born in their homeland and died before their move to the U.
S. His parents were working-class Lemko emigrants from Austria-Hungary. Warhol's father emigrated to the United States in 1914, his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine; the family lived at 55 Beelen Street and at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh. The family was attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church. Andy Warhol had two older brothers—Pavol, the oldest, was born before the family emigrated. Pavol's son, James Warhola, became a successful children's book illustrator. In third grade, Warhol had Sydenham's chorea, the nervous system disease that causes involuntary movements of the extremities, believed to be a complication of scarlet fever which causes skin pigmentation blotchiness. At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio and collected pictures of movie stars around his bed. Warhol described this period as important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences.
When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident. As a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in 1945; as a teen, Warhol won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. After graduating from high school, his intentions were to study art education at the University of Pittsburgh in the hope of becoming an art teacher, but his plans changed and he enrolled in the Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, where he studied commercial art. During his time there, Warhol joined the campus Beaux Arts Society, he served as art director of the student art magazine, illustrating a cover in 1948 and a full-page interior illustration in 1949. These are believed to be his first two published artworks. Warhol earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in pictorial design in 1949; that year, he moved to New York City and began a career in magazine illustration and advertising. Warhol's early career was dedicated to commercial and advertising art, where his first commission had been to draw shoes for Glamour magazine in the late 1940s.
In the 1950s, Warhol worked as a designer for shoe manufacturer Israel Miller. American photographer John Coplans recalled, he somehow gave each shoe a temperament of its own, a sort of sly, Toulouse-Lautrec kind of sophistication, but the shape and the style came through and the buckle was always in the right place. The kids in the apartment noticed that the vamps on Andy's shoe drawings kept getting longer and longer but Miller didn't mind. Miller loved them. Warhol's "whimsical" ink drawings of shoe advertisements figured in some of his earliest showings at the Bodley Gallery in New York. Warhol was an early adopter of the silk screen printmaking process as a technique for making paintings. A young Warhol was taught silk screen printmaking techniques by Max Arthur Cohn at his graphic arts business in Manhattan. While working in the shoe industry, Warhol developed his "blotted line" technique, applying ink to paper and blotting the ink while still wet
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
MoMA PS1 is one of the largest art institutions in the United States dedicated to contemporary art. It is located in the Long Island City neighborhood in the borough of New York City. In addition to its exhibitions, the institution organizes the Sunday Sessions performance series, the Warm Up summer music series, the Young Architects Program with the Museum of Modern Art. MoMA PS1 has been affiliated with the Museum of Modern Art since January 2000 and, as of 2013, attracts about 200,000 visitors a year. What would become MoMA PS1 was founded in 1971 by Alanna Heiss as the Institute for Art and Urban Resources Inc. an organization with the mission of turning abandoned, underutilized buildings in New York City into artist studios and exhibition spaces. Recognizing that New York was a worldwide magnet for contemporary artists, believing that traditional museums were not providing adequate exhibition opportunities for site-specific art, in 1971 Heiss established a formal, alternative arts organization with architecture/theater critic Brendan Gill called The Institute for Art and Urban Resources, began renovating abandoned buildings in New York City.
In 1976, Heiss opened the P. S. 1 Contemporary Art Center in a deserted Romanesque Revival public school building, exponentially increased the organization's exhibition and studio capacity. This building, dating from 1892, served as the first school in Long Island City until 1963, when the First Ward school it housed was closed due to low attendance and the building was turned into a warehouse. In October 1997, P. S.1 Contemporary Art Center reopened to the public after a three-year, $8.5 million renovation project designed by Los Angeles-based architecture firm Frederick Fisher & Partners. The building's facilities were increased from 84,000 to 125,000 square feet in order to include a large outdoor gallery, a dramatic entryway, a two-story project space. In February 1999, P. S. 1 Contemporary Art Center and the Museum of Modern Art announced their institutional merger, stated to take 10 years and designed to preserve P. S. 1 as a center of independent experimentation and exploration. In 2008, following the completion of a 10-year merger process with MoMA, Alana Heiss retired as director of P.
S. 1 Contemporary Art Center after 36 years. In 2009, Klaus Biesenbach was named Director of the renamed MoMA PS1. Biesenbach first joined at PS1 as a curator in 1997, subsequently held the positions of Curator in MoMA's Department of Film and Media and Chief Curator of MoMA's Department of Media and Performance Art. Biesenbach left the museum for the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles in July 2018. MoMA PS1 and the Museum of Modern Art formalized their affiliation in January 2000. New York City, which owns the MoMA PS1 building, endorsed the merger; the principal objective of MoMA's partnership with MoMA PS1 is to promote the enjoyment, appreciation and understanding of contemporary art to a wide and growing audience. Collaborative programs of exhibitions, educational activities, special projects allow both institutions to draw on their respective strengths and resources and to continue shaping a cultural discourse; the two institutions integrated their development, marketing, financial planning and membership departments.
To mark the 10th anniversary of the merger between the former P. S. 1 Contemporary Art Center and MoMA, the museum changed its name to MoMA PS1 in 2010. From its inception, MoMA PS1 has championed the experimental; the premiere exhibition, held in June 1976, featured the works of 78 artists, many of whom created site-specific installations in the former classrooms. For Rooms, the sculptor Alan Saret cut a tiny hole in one wall, creating an heavenly aureole of light at one end of the third-floor hallway; the museum has featured the works of the artists Janet Cardiff, David Hammons, Hilma af Klint, Donald Lipski, John McCracken, Dennis Oppenheim, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Alan Saret, Katharina Sieverding, Keith Sonnier, Michael Tracy, Franz West, Maria Lassnig, Judy Rifka, Peter Young. A focus has been on outsider artists such as Henry Darger, included in "Disasters of War: Francisco de Goya, Henry Darger and Dinos Chapman". "Greater New York," a survey of emerging artists working in New York City, was established in 2000 and is mounted every five years.
Many exhibitions organized by MoMA PS1 travel to museums in the United States and abroad, including collaborations with Kunst-Werke Institute for Contemporary Art in Berlin. Throughout its history, MoMA PS1 has organized exhibitions outside of its building, including street performances throughout New York City, projects in the Rockaways, international exhibitions and projects. Important exhibitions hosted since the founding of MoMA PS1 in 1976 include: Rooms Afro-American Abstraction West/East: First Generation Environmental Sculptures New York/New Wave The Knot: Arte Povera at P. S. 1 James Turrell: "Meeting" John McCracken: Heroic Stance, A Survey of Sculpture 1965–1986 Michelangelo Pistoletto: Division and Multiplication of the Mirror Franz West David Hammons: Rousing the Rubble, 1969 - 1990 Dennis Oppenheim: And the Mind Grew Fingers Jack Smith: Flaming Creature Gordon Matta-Clark: Reorganizing Structure by Drawing Through It Inside Out: New Chinese Art Minimalia: An Italian Vision in 20th Century Art C
Honolulu Museum of Art
The Honolulu Museum of Art is an art museum in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi. The museum is largest of its kind in the state, was founded in 1922 by Anna Rice Cooke; the museum has one of the largest single collections of Asian and Pan-Pacific art in the United States, since its official opening on April 8, 1927, its collections have grown to more than 50,000 works of art. The Honolulu Museum of Art was called “the finest small museum in the United Statesˮ by J. Carter Brown, director of the National Gallery of Art from 1969 to 1992, it presents international caliber special exhibitions and features a collection that includes Hokusai, van Gogh, Monet and Warhol, as well as traditional Asian and Hawaiian art. In 2011, The Contemporary Museum gifted its assets and collection to the Honolulu Academy of Arts; the museum is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums and is registered as a National and State Historical site. In 1990, the Honolulu Museum of Art School was opened to expand the program of studio art classes and workshops.
In 2001, the Henry R. Luce Pavilion Complex opened with the Honolulu Museum of Art Café, Museum Shop, Henry R. Luce Wing with 8,000 square feet of gallery space; the Honolulu Museum of Art has a large collection of Asian art Japanese and Chinese works. Major collections include the Samuel H. Kress collection of Italian Renaissance paintings and European paintings and decorative arts, art of Africa and the Americas, contemporary art, a graphics collection of over 23,000 works on paper. Other collections include the James A. Michener collection of ukiyo-e prints and the Hawaiian art collection, which chronicles the history of art in Hawaiʻi; the Department of European and American Art has paintings by Josef Albers, Francis Bacon, Edward Mitchell Bannister, Romare Bearden, Jean-Baptiste Belin, Bernardino di Betti, Abraham van Beyeren, Albert Bierstadt, Carlo Bonavia, Pierre Bonnard, François Boucher, Aelbrecht Bouts, Georges Braque, Mary Cassatt, Paul Cézanne, Giorgio de Chirico, Frederic Edwin Church, Jacopo di Cione, Edwaert Colyer, John Singleton Copley, Piero di Cosimo, Gustave Courbet, Carlo Crivelli, Jasper Francis Cropsey, Henri-Edmond Cross, Stuart Davis, Edgar Degas, Eugène Delacroix, Robert Delaunay, Richard Diebenkorn, Arthur Dove, Thomas Eakins, Henri Fantin-Latour, Helen Frankenthaler, Bartolo di Fredi, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Jan van Goyen, Francesco Granacci, Childe Hassam, Hans Hofmann, Pieter de Hooch, Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, Philip Guston, William Harnett, George Inness, Alex Katz, Paul Klee, Nicolas de Largillière, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Fernand Léger, Morris Louis, Maximilien Luce, Alessandro Magnasco, Robert Mangold, the Master of 1518, Henri Matisse, Pierre Mignard, Amedeo Modigliani, Claude Monet, Thomas Moran, Giovanni Battista Moroni, Grandma Moses, Robert Motherwell, Alice Neel, Kenneth Noland, Georgia O'Keeffe, Amédée Ozenfant, Charles Willson Peale, James Peale, Pablo Picasso, Camille Pissarro, Fairfield Porter, Robert Priseman, Robert Rauschenberg, Odilon Redon, Diego Rivera, George Romney, Francesco de' Rossi, Carlo Saraceni, John Singer Sargent, Gino Severini, Frank Stella, Gilbert Stuart, Thomas Sully, Yves Tanguy, Jan Philips van Thielen, Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, Bartolomeo Vivarini, Maurice de Vlaminck, William Guy Wall and James McNeill Whistler.
The collection includes three-dimensional works by Alexander Archipenko, Robert Arneson, Leonard Baskin, Lee Bontecou, Émile Antoine Bourdelle, Alexander Calder, Dale Chihuly, John Talbott Donoghue, Jacob Epstein, David Hockney, Donald Judd, Jun Kaneko, Gaston Lachaise, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Roy Lichtenstein, Jacques Lipschitz, Aristide Maillol, John McCracken, Claude Michel, Henry Moore, Elie Nadelman, George Nakashima, Louise Nevelson, Isamu Noguchi, Hiram Powers, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, George Rickey, Auguste Rodin, James Rosati, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Lucas Samaras, George Segal, David Smith, Mark di Suvero, Tom Wesselmann and Jack Zajac. The permanent collection is presented in six courtyards; the Honolulu Museum of Art occupies 3.2 acres near downtown Honolulu. The museum is open to the public Tuesday through Sunday. Admission is free to members and for some events, but otherwise a fee is charged; some events and certain days offer free admission to all. Guided tours are offered several times daily.
Tours in the Japanese language, for the hearing impaired and specialty group tours for 10 or more are available. The museum is open from 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. from Tuesday to Sunday. Closed on Monday; the museum's second location, Spalding House, is located in Makiki Heights and includes galleries, a café, a sculpture garden. On permanent view is David Hockney's installation "L'enfant et les sortilèges," the artist's interpretation of his original stage designs for the 1981 Metropolitan Opera production; the Doris Duke Theatre at the museum seats 280. It hosts movies, concerts and presentations; the theatre is home to Hawaii's GLBT film festival the Rainbow Film Festival. It is run by Theatre Manager, Taylour Chang. In 1927, the Research Library opened with 500 books. In 1955, it was named for Robert Allerton; the collection includes 45,000 books and periodicals, biographical files on artists, auction catalogues dating to the beginning of the 20th century. The museum has over 8,000 woodblock prints.
More than 2,000 Japanese ukiyo-e prints are available for viewing online. The library is a non-circulating research facility. Th
Albright–Knox Art Gallery
The Albright–Knox Art Gallery is an art museum located at 1285 Elmwood Avenue, New York, in Delaware Park. The gallery is a major showplace for contemporary art, it is located directly opposite the Burchfield Penney Art Center. The parent organization of the Albright–Knox Art Gallery is the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, founded in 1862, one of the oldest public arts institutions in the United States. On January 15, 1900, Buffalo entrepreneur and philanthropist John J. Albright, a wealthy Buffalo industrialist, donated funds to the Academy to begin construction of an art gallery; the building was designed by prominent local architect Edward Brodhead Green. It was intended to be used as the Fine Arts Pavilion for the Pan-American Exposition in 1901, but delays in its construction caused it to remain uncompleted until 1905; when it opened its doors on May 31, 1905, it was named the Albright Art Gallery. Clifton Hall, the third building on the museum's campus, was constructed in 1920 as the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences.
Today, Clifton Hall houses the F. Paul Norton and Frederic P. Norton Family Prints And Drawings Study Center, the AK Innovation Lab, working spaces for the Public Art Initiative, staff offices. In 1962, a new addition was made to the gallery through the contributions of Seymour H. Knox, Jr. and his family, many other donors. At this time the museum was renamed the Albright–Knox Art Gallery; the new building was designed by Skidmore and Merrill architect Gordon Bunshaft, noted for the Lever House in New York City. The Albright–Knox Art Gallery is listed in the National Register of Historic Places; the museum first began discussing a possible expansion in 2001. In 2012, the board commissioned the architectural firm Snøhetta to produce a master plan for future growth. In 2014, the board voted to initiate a museum expansion and, in June 2016, the museum announced its selection of OMA as the architect for the project. Doubleline CEO and Buffalo native Jeffrey Gundlach has pledged $42.5 million to the project, while businesses, government groups, individuals have promised matching funds toward a $125 million goal.
In 1978, the Gallery's exhibition on the work of Richard Diebenkorn was chosen to represent the United States at the 28th Venice Biennale. In 1988, the museum again won the competition to organize the exhibition representing the United States in Venice; the Albright–Knox Art Gallery has long operated not by collecting artists' work in depth but by trying to acquire key works. The gallery's collection includes several pieces spanning art throughout the centuries. Impressionistic and Post-Impressionistic styles can be found in works by artists of the nineteenth century such as Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh. Revolutionary styles from the early twentieth century such as cubism, constructivism are represented in works by artists like Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Henri Matisse, André Derain, Joan Miró, Piet Mondrian, Alexander Rodchenko. Frida Kahlo is represented by Self-Portrait with Monkey; because of Seymour H. Knox and Gordon M. Smith, a former director, the Albright-Knox was one of the first museums to collect Abstract Expressionism in depth.
More modern pieces showing styles of abstract expressionism, pop art, art of the 1970s through the end of the century can be found represented by artists such as Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock, Clyfford Still, Andy Warhol. Additionally, the gallery is rich in various pieces of post-war American and European art; the museum bought Anselm Kiefer's large-scale Die Milchstrasse in 1988 to celebrate its 125th anniversary. The Albright-Knox's current exhibition space can accommodate only 200 works — just 3% of its 6,740-piece collection; the Albright-Knox has more than 6,500 works in its collection, below is a list highlighting a few other notable paintings: The gallery contains a variety of sculptures on the exterior grounds. Some of the most notable, from the past and the present, include: In 2007, the Albright–Knox Art Gallery deaccessioned a Roman-era bronze sculpture and the Stag, auctioned at Sotheby's New York on June 7, 2007, brought $28.6 million. This was the highest price paid at auction for an antiquity or a sculpture of any period, according to Sotheby's.
It was purchased by the London dealer Giuseppe Eskenazi on behalf of a private European collector. The event brought national attention to what until had been a local question, the mission of the Albright-Knox. In February 2007, when the list of works to be deaccessioned was made public, Albright-Knox Director Louis Grachos defined the ancient sculpture as falling outside the institution's historical "core mission" of "acquiring and exhibiting art of the present." This definition made public critics wonder whether the position at the Gallery of "William Hogarth's Lady's Last Stake or Sir Joshua Reynolds' Cupid as a Link Boy were secure. Works by Gustave Courbet, Honoré Daumier, Jacques-Louis David and Eugène Delacroix had been purchased by the museum in earlier decades; the decision to deaccession certain art works was made by a vote of the museum's Board of Directors, was voted on and ratified by the entire membership, followed the guidelines of the American Alliance of Museums. The sale raised questions about how museums can remain vital when they are situated in economically declining regions and have limited means for raising funds for operations and acquisitions.
The gallery is open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Tuesday through S