Neils Hogenson House
The Neils Hogenson home is an original catalogue order house purchased through the T. Eaton’s Co. Catalogue and built by Mr. Neils Hogensen. Shipped from Winnipeg by train, the home came to Stirling in crates with instruction, including shingles, doors, windows, nails and building paper, all this for the cost of about $1,577.00. The home was hauled to the site of construction. Today the Neils Hogensen House remains on its original foundation and has become a local landmark, retaining many of the original features from the time it was constructed in 1917. From the early 1900s to the 1930s, Eaton's sold entire houses from their catalogues to help with the population boom throughout Western Canada; the materials were shipped by rail to the nearest community, paid for at the station, hauled to the site for construction. Pricing for a home cost around $1,577.00 to $2,049.00 from 1917-1918. The total price depended on the extras to be added in. For $146.00 more you could add a "Hot Air Heating Plant" and for $180.00, a complete "Plumbing Outfit".
The basement concrete and interior finishing were extra. This made building a home a quick and easier job for the settlers living throughout the prairies, where wood was scarce and supplies were short. Kit houses in North America Sears Catalog Home List of attractions and landmarks in Stirling Stirling, Alberta Maps of historic sites in Stirling Neils Hogenson House
The T. Eaton Company Limited known as Eaton's, was a Canadian retailer, once Canada's largest department store chain, it was founded in 1869 in Toronto by Timothy Eaton, a Presbyterian Ulster Scot immigrant from what is now Northern Ireland. Eaton's grew to become a retail and social institution in Canada, with stores across the country, buying-offices around the globe, a catalogue, found in the homes of most Canadians. A changing economic and retail environment in the late 20th century, along with mismanagement, culminated in the chain's bankruptcy in 1999. Eaton's pioneered several retail innovations. In an era when haggling for goods was the norm, the chain proclaimed "We propose to sell our goods for CASH ONLY – In selling goods, to have only one price." In addition, it had the long-standing slogan "Goods Satisfactory or Money Refunded." In 1869, Timothy Eaton sold his interest in a small dry-goods store in the market town of St. Marys, he bought a dry-goods and haberdashery business at 178 Yonge Street in the city of Toronto.
The first store was only 24 by 60 feet, with two shop windows, was located a fair distance from Toronto's fashionable shopping district of King Street West. In its first year of operation, with Timothy Eaton responsible for buying the goods to stock the store, a staff of four, expectations were low that a store with a no-credit and no-haggling policy would succeed; the business prospered, Eaton moved the store one block north in August 1883 into much larger premises at 190 Yonge Street. The new store boasted the biggest plate-glass windows in Toronto, the first electric lights in any Canadian store, three full floors of retail space featuring 35 departments, a lightwell that ran the full-length of the store; the store's first telephone, with phone number 370, was installed in 1885. In 1886, the first elevator in a retail establishment in Toronto was installed in the Eaton store. Eaton maintained the lease on the empty store at 178 Yonge Street until its expiry in 1884 in order to delay the expansion plans of one of his competitors, Robert Simpson.
Over time, the competition between the Simpson's and Eaton's department stores, facing each other across Queen Street West, became one of Toronto's great business rivalries. The pedestrian crosswalk on Queen Street West, just to the west of the intersection with Yonge Street, was for years one of the busiest in Canada, as thousands of shoppers a day comparison-shopped between Eaton's and Simpson's. By 1896, Eaton's was billing itself as "Canada’s Greatest Store"; the store continued to expand in size, new buildings were constructed to house the mail order division and the Eaton's factories. The number of people employed in Eaton's operations numbered 17,500 in 1911. In 1919, the Eaton's buildings in Toronto contained a floor space of over 60 acres, occupied several city blocks between Yonge Street and Bay Street, north of Queen Street West. At the beginning of the 20th century, Eaton's conducted a large business in Western Canada through its catalogue. Eaton's considered Winnipeg, Manitoba, as the most logical location for a new mail order warehouse to better serve its western customers.
A store was not part of the plans. John Craig Eaton, the son of Timothy Eaton, became an early proponent of building a combined store and mail order operation in Winnipeg. Although Timothy Eaton had misgivings over the difficulties involved in managing a store 2,100 kilometres from Toronto, John Craig was able to convince his father. Eaton's acquired a city block on Portage Avenue at Donald Street, the five-storey Eaton's store opened to much fanfare on July 15, 1905. Timothy Eaton and his family were on hand for the opening of the second Eaton's store, with the Winnipeg Daily Tribune noting in its front-page headline: "The Canadian Napoleon of Retail Commerce Reaches the Capital - Views His Great Store for First Time - Well Pleased"; the landmark red brick store, known as "the Big Store" to Winnipeggers, was a success. The initial staff of 750 grew to 1200 within a few weeks of the opening. By 1910, three more storeys were added to the store and other buildings were constructed. By 1919, the Eaton's operations in Winnipeg employed 8000 people.
For many years, the Winnipeg Eaton's store was considered the most successful department store in the world, given how it dominated its local market. As late as the 1960s, Canadian Magazine estimated that Winnipeggers spent more than 50 cents of every shopping dollar at Eaton's, that on a busy day, one out of every ten Winnipeggers would visit the Portage Avenue store; the store was closed on 17 October 1999, along with 36 other Eaton's stores. Eaton's had two buying offices located in Europe: 7 Warwick Lane, London - opened 1892 103 rue Reaumur, Paris - opened 1898 The success of Eaton's helped revolutionize department store retailing in North America. American retailers flocked to view the stores on Yonge Street and Portage Avenue, anxious to replicate Timothy Eaton's methods south of the border; until the 1950s, Eaton's promoted itself as the "largest retail organization in the British Empire". In 1905, The Globe wrote: "There is hardly a name in Canada, with the possible exception of the Prime Minister, so well known to the people at large as that of Mr. Timothy Eaton."
Timothy Eaton died in 1907, was succeeded by John Craig Eaton as President of the T. Eaton Co. Limited; the company's success continued under Timothy's heir. In 1925, Eaton's purchased the Goodwin's store in Montreal. By
Located on Albert Street, directly behind the Eaton's Main Store and Toronto's City Hall, the Eaton's Annex was a 10-storey building containing both retail and office space. By 1900, the Eaton's department store owned all of the lands within the city blocks bordered by Yonge Street, Queen Street West, Bay Street and Dundas Street, the land was occupied by the Eaton's Main Store, the Annex building and various Eaton's warehouses and mail order buildings; the Main Store and the Annex, were the only two buildings open to the public. In 1900, the two buildings were connected by an underground passageway open to both employees and shoppers, it was the first underground pathway in Toronto open to the public, is credited as a historic precursor to Toronto's current downtown PATH network. When it was first constructed in the 1890s, the Annex contained Eaton's housewares and furniture departments; when these departments were moved to the new College Street store in 1930, the focus of the Annex's retail offerings was shifted to lower-cost offerings.
While the Main Store catered to middle class budgets, the College Street store's offerings were more upscale, the Annex store was directed to Toronto's working classes. It offered many of the same departments and types of goods as Eaton's other two Toronto stores, but in cheaper varieties, with less extensive in-store displays and customer service; as such, the Annex represented one of the first instances in Canada where a traditional, full-line department store operated a separate discount outlet or chain. The Eaton's Annex and some surrounding warehouses were destroyed by fire on May 9, 1977; the fire was described as "the first of its kind in downtown Toronto since the Great Fire of 1904". Parts of the Annex survive as Trinity Square. A portion of the Bell Trinity Square office complex occupies the former Annex site; the same underground passage that linked the Annex and the Main Store now connects the Eaton Centre to the Bell Trinity Centre, is part of the PATH network. In honour of this store, a hill at the Caledon Ski Club, in Caledon Ontario, was named "Eaton's Annex" after the Eaton family who were original members of the private club.
Belisle, Donica. Consuming Producers: Retail Workers and Commodity Culture at Eaton's in Mid-Twentieth-Century Toronto, Masters Thesis, Department of History, Queen's University, 2001. Nasmith, George G. Timothy Eaton, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1923. Phenix, Eatonians: The Story of the Family Behind the Family, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 2003. Santink, Joy L. Timothy Eaton and the Rise of His Department Store, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990. Scribe, Golden Jubilee 1869-1919: A Book to Commemorate the Fiftieth Anniversary of the T. Eaton Co. Limited, Toronto: The T. Eaton Co. Limited, 1919
Eatonia is a small town in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada with a population of 449 people. The town's economy is based exclusively on agriculture. Eatonia is in southwest Saskatchewan at the crossroads of Highways 21 and 44 44 kilometers southwest of Kindersley and 72 kilometres from the provincial boundary with Alberta; the town is served by Eatonia Municipal Airport. Eatonia was founded in 1919 as a station on the Canadian National Railway and was named after Timothy Eaton, founder of the Eaton's department store chain and catalogue, to honour his son and heir, John Craig Eaton; the station was simply called "Eaton", but there was confusion with nearby Eston, so the name was changed to Eatonia in 1921. Eatonia was incorporated as a town in 1954. In 1955, the year of Saskatchewan's Golden Jubilee, Eatonia's train station was featured on the cover of the Eaton's catalogue, thus resulting in a classic local image finding its way into homes across the country; the former CN train station is now home to the Wheatland Regional Library.
The former station, along with a train caboose and a wood-frame house ordered from the Eaton's catalogue in 1917, comprise the Eatonia Heritage Park, a 0.6-hectare Municipal Heritage Property located at the south end of Main Street. The population of Eatonia dropped 5.3 % between the 2006 censuses. Eatonia is home to a kindergarten to Grade 12 public school, Eaton School, home to many successful volleyball and football teams throughout its history, it is located within the Sun West School Division. Official website Saskbiz community profile
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
The Carlu is an historic event space in Toronto, Canada. Opened in 1930 and known as the eponymous "Eaton's Seventh Floor", the venue was restored and reopened in 2003, renamed for its original architect; the Carlu is one of Toronto's best examples of Art Moderne architecture. The venue is owned by restaurant firm Bonacini. In 1930, the Eaton's department store chain, at the time Canada's dominant retailer, opened "Eaton's College Street", an imposing Art Deco store at the intersection of Yonge Street and College Street; the matriarch of the Eaton family, Lady Eaton, was a member of Eaton's board of directors, the Eaton's restaurants were one of her responsibilities. She retained the noted French architect Jacques Carlu to design the seventh floor of the edifice, to contain the 1300-seat Eaton Auditorium, the Round Room restaurant, lounges and a private dining room. All of the facilities were to be connected by a long foyer, designed in the style of the ocean liners of the day. Between 1931 and 1965, the theatre was home to the Eaton Operatic Society.
The newly opened Auditorium was used for radio broadcasts on CKGW during holidays and special events. During Christmastime, one could hear the Cassavant organ being played by Frederick C. Silvester or a May Day organ recital by Harold Frost, it played motion pictures accompanied by organ music, for example showing Snow White in April 1931 with organ music by Kathleen Stokes. With the opening of the Toronto Eaton Centre in 1977, Eaton's College Street was closed to make way for the new Eaton's flagship store at Yonge Street and Dundas Street; the store was sold to new owners, was rechristened College Park. Although the new owners had agreed to preserve the Seventh Floor, they determined that its preservation and restoration was not financially feasible, they applied for a demolition permit to convert the entire floor to office space. After a lengthy court battle with the City of Toronto, the Court of Appeal for Ontario ruled in 1986 that the 1975 designation of the building under the Ontario Heritage Act protected the Seventh Floor from demolition.
Despite several changes in building ownership, the efforts of local heritage advocates, the Seventh Floor was sealed off for 27 years and allowed to deteriorate. The Seventh Floor was restored, after years of neglect, was reopened in 2003 to much acclaim as "The Carlu" event venue; the restoration process began in 2001 with no tenant. But that year, new tenants Jeffry Roick and Mark Robert came into the picture with an increased budget. Scott Weir of ERA Architects and Hadi Khouzam of WZMH Architects led the restoration of the space; the raked floors were removed from the auditorium to return the space's original movable seating. Other modifications had to be made to the auditorium so that modern acoustical equipment could be used; the original Lalique fountain, which had long been believed lost, was restored to its place at the centre of the Round Room. The large kitchen in the Carlu was replaced with two smaller ones in different areas of the seventh floor; this made room for a new entertainment space to be added, the Sky Room.
The venue's new name was chosen to honour the architect that had designed the space. Upgrades were needed in the HVAC system; these updates were done without removing the original vents from the space. In 2008, The Clipper Rooms were renovated by HGTV designer Sarah Richardson. Today, the space acts as a special events venue. Concerts, galas, fashion shows and the presentation of the annual Polaris Music Prize are among the events that take place at the Carlu. Itself an Art Moderne masterpiece, the Eaton's Seventh Floor was at the heart of Toronto's cultural life for many years; the Auditorium played host to the major performers of its day, including Billie Holiday, Duke Ellington and Frank Sinatra. The first performance of the National Ballet of Canada was on the stage of the Eaton Auditorium. Canada's own Glenn Gould, fond of the Auditorium's excellent acoustics, used the hall for a number of his recordings; the Round Room was, as the name suggests, a circular room, with circular mouldings in the domed ceiling and recessed alcoves in the corners.
At the centre of the room stood a Lalique fountain, lit from below. Carlu was responsible for all aspects of the dining room's design, from the lighting fixtures to the Royal Worcester china, the stemware, the waitresses' black uniforms. Carlu's wife, designed the murals on the walls, depicting various scenes of pastoral life. For years, the Round Room was one of the most elegant places to dine in Toronto. Inside of the Carlu, monel, a steel-nickel alloy, was used for many accents; the monel can be found in the light fixtures, vents and the fountain. It helps to play up the sleek lines in the Art Moderne style. Marble paneling was used at both ends of the foyer; the colour palette for the Carlu was spread throughout most of the floor. The entire building at 444 Yonge St. is designated under Part IV of the Ontario Heritage Act since 1975. The City holds a Heritage Easement Agreement, registered on January 10, 2012 as Instrument #: AT2915699, on the property; the venue itself is listed as a National Historic Site of Canada since 1983.
Eaton's Ninth Floor Restaurant in Montreal Anderson and Mallinson, Lunch With Lady Eaton: Inside the Dining Rooms of a Nation, Toronto: ECW Press, 2004. Official website City of Toronto Archives - The Eaton News
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a