College of William & Mary
The College of William & Mary in Virginia is a public research university located in Williamsburg, United States. William & Mary educated U. S. Presidents Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, a young George Washington received his surveyors license through the College. W&M students founded the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society in 1776, the establishment of graduate programs in law and medicine in 1779 makes it one of the first universities in the United States. In addition to its program, W&M is home to several graduate programs. Named in honor of the reigning monarchs King William III and Queen Mary II, the original plans for the College date back to 1618 but were thwarted by the Indian Massacre of 1622, a change in government, events related to the English Civil War, and Bacons Rebellion. In 1695 before the town of Williamsburg existed, construction began on the College Building, now known as the Sir Christopher Wren Building and it is the oldest college building in America. The College is one of the countrys nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution, the Charter named James Blair as the Colleges first president.
William & Mary was founded as an Anglican institution, students were required to be members of the Church of England, and professors were required to declare adherence to the Thirty-Nine Articles. In 1693, the College was given a seat in the House of Burgesses and it was determined the College would be supported by taxes and export duties on furs. The College acquired a 330 acres parcel for the new school,8 miles from Jamestown, in 1694, the new school opened in temporary buildings. Williamsburg was granted a charter as a city in 1722 by the Crown. During this time, the College served as a law center and it educated future U. S. Presidents Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and John Tyler. The College has been called the Alma Mater of a Nation because of its ties to Americas founding fathers. A 17-year-old George Washington received his surveyors license through the College, William & Mary is famous for its firsts, the first U. S. institution with a Royal Charter, the first Greek-letter society, the first student honor code and the first law school in America.
The College became a school in 1906 and became coeducational in 1918. In 1928, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. chose the College Building as the first building to be returned to its 18th-century appearance as part of the iconic Colonial Williamsburg restoration. During the period of the American Revolution, freedom of religion was established in Virginia notably with the 1786 passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, in 1779 the college became the first American university with the establishment of the graduate schools in law and medicine. The College of William and Mary is home to the nations first collegiate secret society, popularly known as the Flat Hat Club, founded November 11,1750
Green River (Kentucky)
The Green River is a 384-mile-long tributary of the Ohio River that rises in Lincoln County in south-central Kentucky. Tributaries of the Green River include the Barren River, the Nolin River, the Pond River, the river was named after Nathanael Greene, a general of the American Revolutionary War. Following the Revolutionary War, many veterans staked claims along the Green River as payment for their military service, the river valley attracted a number of vagrants, earning it the dubious nickname Rogues Harbor. In 1842, the Green River was canalized, with a series of locks and dams being built to create a channel as far inland as Bowling Green. Four locks and dams were constructed on the Green River, and one lock and dam was built on the Barren River, a tributary that passed through Bowling Green. During the American Civil War, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan conducted daring raids through the Green River country, from which he reached into southern Indiana, in 1901, two additional locks and dams were opened on the Green River, which allowed river traffic to Mammoth Cave.
In 1941, Mammoth Cave National Park was established, and the two locks and dams closed in 1950. In 1965, Lock and Dam #4 at Woodbury failed, this was the dam that locked both the Green and Barren rivers, in 1969, the United States Army Corps of Engineers impounded a section of the river, forming 8, 200-acre Green River Lake. The lake is now the primary feature of Green River Lake State Park, there is still one Native American tribe living on the Green River, the Southern Cherokee Nation of Kentucky. In 1893 Governor John Y. Brown recognized the Southern Cherokee Nation as an Indian tribe, the Green River flows through Mammoth Cave National Park, located along river miles 190 to 205. The 384-mile-long Green River, an important transportation artery for the industry, is open to traffic up to the closed Lock. Muhlenberg County, once the largest coal-producing county in the nation, benefits greatly from access to the river, in 2002, more than 10 million short tons were shipped on the river, primarily sub-bituminous coal, petroleum coke, and aluminum ore.
The Green River is home to more than 150 fish species and this includes some of Kentuckys largest fish and some of the worlds rarest species of mussels. B. Cunningham wrote a series of 22 detective stories, all but one of which are set in a county through which the Green River flows and which feature Jess Roden, in 1969, Creedence Clearwater Revival released the album Green River. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Green River Green River
Climate is the statistics of weather, usually over a 30-year interval. Climate differs from weather, in that weather only describes the conditions of these variables in a given region. A regions climate is generated by the system, which has five components, hydrosphere, lithosphere. The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme was the Köppen climate classification, the Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region. Paleoclimatology is the study of ancient climates, Climate models are mathematical models of past and future climates. Climate change may occur long and short timescales from a variety of factors. For example, a 3°C change in mean annual temperature corresponds to a shift in isotherms of approximately 300–400 km in latitude or 500 m in elevation, species are expected to move upwards in elevation or towards the poles in latitude in response to shifting climate zones.
Climate is commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period, the standard averaging period is 30 years, but other periods may be used depending on the purpose. Climate includes statistics other than the average, such as the magnitudes of day-to-day or year-to-year variations, the classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization. These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. The World Meteorological Organization describes climate normals as reference points used by climatologists to compare current climatological trends to that of the past or what is considered normal, a Normal is defined as the arithmetic average of a climate element over a 30-year period. A30 year period is used, as it is enough to filter out any interannual variation or anomalies. The WMO originated from the International Meteorological Organization which set up a commission for climatology in 1929.
At its 1934 Wiesbaden meeting the commission designated the thirty-year period from 1901 to 1930 as the reference time frame for climatological standard normals. In 1982 the WMO agreed to update climate normals, and in these were completed on the basis of climate data from 1 January 1961 to 31 December 1990. The difference between climate and weather is usefully summarized by the popular phrase Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get. Over historical time spans there are a number of nearly constant variables that determine climate, including latitude, proportion of land to water and these change only over periods of millions of years due to processes such as plate tectonics
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
Factory tours, industrial heritage, creative art and crafts workshops are the object of cultural niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. Many tourist attractions are landmarks, tourist attractions are created to capitalise on legends such as a supposed UFO crash site near Roswell, New Mexico and the alleged Loch Ness monster sightings in Scotland. Ghost sightings make tourist attractions, ethnic communities may become tourist attractions, such as Chinatowns in the United States and the black British neighbourhood of Brixton in London, England. In the US, owners and marketers of attractions advertise tourist attractions on billboards along the side of highways and roadways, tourist attractions often provide free promotional brochures and flyers in information centres, fast food restaurants and motel rooms or lobbies, and rest area. Such places are known as tourist traps. Within cities such transport tourist attractions as rides by boats and buses are very popular, novelty attractions are not limited to the American Midwest, but are part of Midwestern culture.
It may contain one or more tourist attractions and possibly some tourist traps, siem Reap town for example is a popular tourist destination in Cambodia, mainly owed to its proximity to Angkor temples. A tropical island resort is an island or archipelago that depends on tourism as its source of revenue, according to the World Tourism Organization, •698 million people travelled to a foreign country in 2000, spending more US$478 billion. Lists of tourist attractions Attractions at DMOZ
A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against his or her will. Scholars use the generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour. However – and especially under slavery in broader senses of the word – slaves may have some rights and/or protections, Slavery began to exist before written history, in many cultures. A person could become a slave from the time of their birth, while slavery was institutionally recognized by most societies, it has now been outlawed in all recognized countries, the last being Mauritania in 2007. Nevertheless, there are still more slaves today than at any point in history. The most common form of the trade is now commonly referred to as human trafficking. Chattel slavery is still practiced by the Islamic State of Iraq.
An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo to strip a slain enemy, there is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than slave, should be used when describing the victims of slavery. Chattel slavery, called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought, although it dominated many societies in the past, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is very rare today. Even when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the system of any internationally recognized government. Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage is a form of labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, and their duration, debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their parents debt. It is the most widespread form of slavery today, debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia.
This may include institutions not commonly classified as slavery, such as serfdom, Human trafficking primarily involves women and children forced into prostitution. And is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India, Brazil, in 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. A forced marriage may be regarded as a form of slavery by one or more of the involved in the marriage
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in Philadelphia, United States. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, the university coat of arms features a dolphin on the red chief, adopted directly from the Franklin familys own coat of arms. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities and it was home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate school. With an endowment of $10.72 billion, Penn had the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, all of Penns schools exhibit very high research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Penns academic research budget was $851 million, over its history, the university has produced many distinguished alumni. S. House of Representatives,8 signers of the United States Declaration of Independence, in addition, some 30 Nobel laureates,169 Guggenheim Fellows, and 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, have been affiliated with Penn.
In addition, Penn has produced a significant number of Fortune 500 CEOs, in 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time and it was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, however, a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklins autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard and Mary, Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern.
The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklins group to assume their debts and, accordingly, on February 1,1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13,1751, the Academy of Philadelphia, using the hall at 4th and Arch Streets. A charity school was chartered July 13,1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original New Building donors, June 16,1755, the College of Philadelphia was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution, the institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Rev. William Smiths Loyalist tendencies, the result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the Legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new Board of Trustees
Jefferson County, Kentucky
Jefferson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 741,096 and it is the most populous county in Kentucky and is more than twice as large as the second most populous, Fayette. The county was formed in 1780 and named for future President Thomas Jefferson, in 2003, its government merged with that of its largest city and county seat, forming a new entity, the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government or Louisville Metro. Whenever possible, the government generally avoids any self-reference including the name Jefferson County and has even renamed the Jefferson County Courthouse as Metro Hall. Jefferson County is the anchor of the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, Jefferson County was organized in 1780 and one of the first three counties formed out of the original Kentucky County, which was still part of Virginia at the time. The county is named for Thomas Jefferson, who was governor of Virginia at the time, the last major American Indian raid in present-day Jefferson County was the Chenoweth Massacre on July 17,1789.
Prior to the 2003 merger, the head of government was the County Judge/Executive. The office is held by Queenie Averette. Local government is now led by the Mayor of Louisville Metro. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 398 square miles. The Ohio River forms its boundary with the state of Indiana. The highest point is South Park Hill, elevation 902 feet, the lowest point is 383 feet along the Ohio River just north of West Point, Kentucky. As of the census of 2000, there were 693,604 people,287,012 households, the population density was 1,801 per square mile. There were 305,835 housing units at a density of 794 per square mile. 1. 78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,30. 50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was out with 24. 30% under the age of 18,8. 90% from 18 to 24,30. 40% from 25 to 44,22. 80% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 91.60 males
United States Marine Hospital of Louisville
Of the seven hospitals built in the mid-19th century by the Marine Hospital Service for the benefit of sick seamen and other navigators on the western rivers and lakes. It is the one still standing, even after surviving two tornadoes. The building has been restored to match its appearance in 1899. The U. S. Marine Hospital opened in 1852, the patients at the Louisville Marine Hospital were usually victims of disease, temperature extremes, and mechanical deficiencies of the eras naval technology. During the American Civil War, along with Jefferson General Hospital, it formed the foundation of Louisville health care for wounded soldiers and it is believed that a third of the total patients were black. During World War I the hospital cared for many amputees injured in the war, during the 1930s, it served as housing for nurses and doctors of nearby hospitals. The city of Louisville purchased the building in 1950 for $25,000, in the late 1950s, it housed medical residents working in the newer hospital directly behind it, which replaced the Marine Hospital and today is known as Family Health Center Portland.
The building was vacant from 1976 until 2007 and it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997. In 2003, the National Trust for Historic Preservation placed the building on its Americas Most Endangered Places list, the hospital has now been returned to its 1899 appearance, the earliest reference of the buildings appearance that can be found. In 2003, the received a $375,000 Save Americas Treasures grant from the NTHP to repair its roof. On November 11,2005, rebuilding of the structure began, the smokestack, constructed in 1933, was demolished to help return the structure to its 1899 appearance. The octagonal cupola, which used to better view the passing river traffic during its heyday, was rebuilt. Small buildings that housed a boiler and a parking structure were razed to reflect the original design. The 28 sets of iron railings lining the buildings galleries were either restored or replaced by the same Covington. The hospital celebrated the completion of its exterior restoration phase with a house on June 16,2007 Several plans have been devised to use the structure.
During Paul E. Pattons term as Kentucky governor, the hospital was considered as a center for those entering Kentucky from the Sherman Minton Bridge. Traffic projections stopped that plan from being implemented, the basement, which formerly held boilers, is to be used as a 3, 450-square-foot multi-use ballroom and rented out for parties and other special events. The buildings ground floor is to be used as an interactive center featuring hospital history, the remaining two floors are slated for agencies and organizations specializing in improving community health within underserved urban communities