Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
County Donegal is a county of Ireland in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal in the south of the county. Donegal County Council Lifford the county town; the population was 159,192 at the 2016 census. It has been known as Tyrconnell, after the historic territory of the same name. In terms of size and area, it is the largest county in Ulster and the fourth-largest county in all of Ireland. Uniquely, County Donegal shares a small border with only one other county in the Republic of Ireland – County Leitrim; the greater part of its land border is shared with three counties of Northern Ireland: County Londonderry, County Tyrone and County Fermanagh. This geographic isolation from the rest of the Republic has led to Donegal people maintaining a distinct cultural identity and has been used to market the county with the slogan "Up here it's different". While Lifford is the county town, Letterkenny is by far the largest town in the county with a population of 19,588. Letterkenny and the nearby city of Derry form the main economic axis of the northwest of Ireland.
Indeed, what became the City of Derry was part of County Donegal up until 1610. There are eight historic baronies in the county: Banagh Boylagh Inishowen East Inishowen West Kilmacrennan Raphoe North Raphoe South Tirhugh The county may be informally divided into a number of traditional districts. There are two Gaeltacht districts in the west: The Rosses, centred on the town of Dungloe, Gweedore. Another Gaeltacht district is located in the north-west: Cloughaneely, centred on the town of Falcarragh; the most northerly part of the island of Ireland is the location for three peninsulas: Inishowen and Rosguill. The main population centre of Inishowen, Ireland's largest peninsula, is Buncrana. In the east of the county lies the Finn Valley; the Laggan district is centred on the town of Raphoe. According to the 1841 Census, County Donegal had a population of 296,000 people; as a result of famine and emigration, the population had reduced by 41,000 by 1851 and further reduced by 18,000 by 1861. By the time of the 1951 Census the population was only 44% of what it had been in 1841.
As of 2016, the county's population was 159,192. The county is, it has a indented coastline forming natural sea loughs, of which both Lough Swilly and Lough Foyle are the most notable. The Slieve League cliffs are the sixth-highest sea cliffs in Europe, while Malin Head is the most northerly point on the island of Ireland; the climate is temperate and dominated by the Gulf Stream, with warm, damp summers and mild wet winters. Two permanently inhabited islands and Tory Island, lie off the coast, along with a large number of islands with only transient inhabitants. Ireland's second longest river, the Erne, enters Donegal Bay near the town of Ballyshannon; the River Erne, along with other Donegal waterways, has been dammed to produce hydroelectric power. The River Foyle separates part of County Donegal from parts of both counties Tyrone. A survey of the macroscopic marine algae of County Donegal was published in 2003; the survey was compiled using the algal records held in the herbaria of the following institutions: the Ulster Museum, Belfast.
Records of flowering plants include Dactylorhiza purpurella Soó. The animals included in the county include the European badger. There are habitats for the rare corn crake in the county. At various times in its history, it has been known as County Tirconaill, County Tirconnell or County Tyrconnell; the former was used as its official name during 1922–1927. This is in reference to both the earldom that succeeded it. County Donegal was the home of the once mighty Clann Dálaigh, whose most well-known branch were the Clann Ó Domhnaill, better known in English as the O'Donnell dynasty; until around 1600, the O'Donnells were one of Ireland's richest and most powerful native Irish ruling families. Within Ulster, only the Uí Néill of modern County Tyrone were more powerful; the O'Donnells were Ulster's second most powerful clan or ruling-family from the early 13th century through to the start of the 17th century. For several centuries the O'Donnells ruled Tír Chonaill, a Gaelic kingdom in West Ulster that covered all of modern County Donegal.
The head of the O'Donnell family had the titles Rí Thír Chonaill. Based at Donegal Castle in Dún na nGall, the O'Donnell Kings of Tír Chonaill were traditionally inaugurated at Doon Rock near Kilmacrennan. O'Donnell royal or chiefly power was ended in what was the newly created County Donegal in September 1607, following the Flight of the Earls from near Rathmullan; the modern County Arms of Donegal was influenced by the design of the old O'Donnell royal arms. The County Arms is the official coat of arms of both County Donegal County Council; the modern County Donegal was shired by order of the English Crown in 1585. The English authori
Buncrana is a town in County Donegal, Ireland. It is beside Lough Swilly on the Inishowen peninsula, 23 kilometres northwest of Derry and 43 kilometres north of Letterkenny. In the 2016 census, the population was 6,785 making it the second most populous town in County Donegal, after Letterkenny, the largest in Inishowen. Buncrana is the historic home of the O'Doherty clan and developed around the defensive tower known as O'Doherty's Keep at the mouth of the River Crana; the town moved to its present location just south of the River Crana when George Vaughan built the main street in 1718. The town was a major centre for the textile industry in County Donegal from the 19th century until the mid-2000s. On the northern bank of the River Crana as it enters Lough Swilly sits the three-story O'Doherty's Keep, the only surviving part of an original 14th-century Norman castle; the first two levels of the keep were built after 1333. In 1601 the O'Doherty's Keep was described as being a small, two-story castle, inhabited by Conor McGarret O'Doherty.
In 1602 the third level was added and it was upgraded by Hugh Boy O'Doherty as an intended base for Spanish military aid that hoped to land at Inch. The keep was burned by Crown forces in 1608 in reprisal for the rebellion of Sir Cahir O'Doherty, who had sacked and razed the city of Derry. After Sir Cahir O'Doherty was killed at the Battle of Kilmacrennan, he was attaindered and his land seized; the keep was granted to Sir Arthur Chichester, who leased it to Englishman Henry Vaughan, where it was repaired and lived in by the Vaughan family until 1718. In 1718, Buncrana Castle was built by George Vaughan, it was one of the first big manor houses built in Inishowen, stone was taken from the bawn, or defensive wall, surrounding O'Doherty's Keep to build it, it was erected on the original site of Buncrana. Vaughan moved the town to its present location, where he founded the current main street and built the Castle Bridge across the River Crana leading to his Castle. During the 1798 Rebellion, Theobald Wolfe Tone was held in Buncrana Castle when he was captured after the British/French naval battle off the coast of Donegal, before being taken to Derry and subsequently to Dublin.
On 18 May 1812, Isaac Todd bought the entire town of Buncrana the townlands of Tullydish and Ballymacarry, at the Court of Chancery on behalf of the trustees of the Marquess of Donegall. His nephews inherited the castles, they became known as the Thornton-Todds; the castle remains as a private home today. In the forecourt there is a memorial rock in honour of Sir Cahir O'Doherty, a plaque dedicated to Wolfe Tone. One of the oldest remaining inhabited residences in Buncrana is a Georgian property called Westbrook House, situated at the entrance to Swan Park just north of the town center of Buncrana; the house was built in 1807 by Judge Wilson, who built the single-arch stone bridge leading to the house and the entrance to Swan Park. In October 1905, Buncrana was the first town in County Donegal to receive electricity, it was generated at Swan Mill which continued to provide electricity for the town until September 1954 when Buncrana was brought under the ESB Rural Electrification Scheme. On 30 July 1922, during the Irish Civil War, Buncrana was captured by the Free State forces from Republican forces without the loss of life.
The Free State forces held the railway station and telegraph offices and all the roads entering the town. At 4:00am a sentry stopped a car on the outskirts of the town and on discovering it contained the Republican commander, with five armed volunteers, arrested them. At around 7:00am the Republican forces' position was surrounded and were given fifteen minutes to surrender, they complied, were arrested and their weapons and ammunition seized. That day, 100 Free State troops commandeered a train at Buncrana station and proceeded to take Clonmany and other locations on the peninsula. Buncrana was the object of public attention in 1972, when after Operation Motorman it became the place of refuge for many Provisional Irish Republican Army members from Derry. In 1991, a local Sinn Féin councillor, Eddie Fullerton, was murdered by loyalists from Northern Ireland. In March 2016 Buncrana town came to public attention when five people of the same family died after their car slipped off Buncrana Pier into the waters of Lough Swilly.
Only a 4month old baby survived when the father, Sean McGrotty, passed his daughter through a window to a passer-by who swam out to help. On November 23, 2017 an inquest found that the driver died by'misadventure'. Post-mortem results showed that the driver was more than three times over the drink drive limit. Buncrana Town Council was the Local Authority for the town and provided an extensive range of services in the area; these services ranged from planning control, to the provision of social housing, to the upkeep and improvement of roads, maintenance of parks and public open spaces. The Town Council was abolished in June 2014 when the Local Government Reform Act 2014 was implemented, its functions were taken over by Donegal County Council in 2014. Buncrana is in the Inishowen Municipal District. Buncrana is part of the Donegal since 2016, it was part of the Donegal North-East constituency of Dáil Éireann. Buncrana is located on the eastern shore of Lough Swilly in north County Donegal; the main urban area of the town is situated between the Crana River to the north and the Mill River to the south.
The principle street follows a rough north-south r
William Rory Gallagher was an Irish blues and rock multi-instrumentalist and producer. Born in Ballyshannon, County Donegal, brought up in Cork, Gallagher recorded solo albums throughout the 1970s and 1980s, after forming the band Taste during the late 1960s, his albums have sold over 30 million copies worldwide. Gallagher received a liver transplant in 1995, but died of complications that year in London at the age of 47. Gallagher was born in Ballyshannon, County Donegal in 1948, his father Daniel was employed by the Irish Electricity Supply Board, who were constructing Cathaleen's Fall hydroelectric power station on the Erne River above the town. The family moved to Derry City, where his younger brother Dónal was born in 1949, his mother and the two boys moved to Cork, where the brothers were raised. Rory attended North Monastery School. Daniel Gallagher had played the accordion and sang with the Tír Chonaill Céilí Band while in Donegal; the Theatre in Ballyshannon where Monica once acted is now called the Rory Gallagher Theatre.
Both sons were musically encouraged to pursue music by their parents. At age nine, Gallagher received his first guitar from them, he built on his burgeoning ability on ukulele in teaching himself to play the guitar and perform at minor functions. After winning a cash prize in a talent contest when he was twelve, he bought his first guitar. Gallagher began performing in his adolescence with both his acoustic guitar, an electric guitar. However, it was a 1961 Fender Stratocaster, which he purchased three years for £100, that became his primary instrument and was most associated with him during his career. Gallagher was attracted to skiffle after hearing Lonnie Donegan on the radio. Donegan covered blues and folk performers from the United States, he relied on radio programs and television. The BBC would play some blues numbers, he found some song books for guitar, where he found the names of the actual composers of blues pieces. While still in school, playing songs by Buddy Holly and Eddie Cochran, he discovered his greatest influence in Muddy Waters.
He began experimenting with folk and rock music. Unable to find or afford record albums, Gallagher stayed up late to hear Radio Luxembourg and AFN where the radio brought him his only exposure to the actual songwriters and musicians whose music moved him most. Influences he discovered, cited as he progressed, included Woody Guthrie, Big Bill Broonzy, Lead Belly. Gallagher struck out after just an acoustic sound. Singing and using a brace for his harmonica, Gallagher taught himself to play slide guitar. Further, throughout the next few years of his musical development, Gallagher began learning to play alto saxophone, mandolin and the coral sitar with varying degrees of proficiency. By his mid-teens, he began experimenting with different blues styles. Gallagher began playing after school with Irish showbands. In 1963, he joined one named a sextet playing the popular hit songs of the day; the band toured Ireland and the United Kingdom, earning the money for the payments that were due on his Stratocaster guitar.
Gallagher began to influence the band's repertoire, beginning its transition from mainstream pop music, skirting along some of Chuck Berry's songs and by 1965, he had moulded Fontana into "The Impact", with a change in their line-up into an R&B group that played gigs in Ireland and Spain until disbanding in London. Gallagher left with drummer to perform as a trio in Hamburg, Germany. In 1966, Gallagher returned to Ireland and, experimenting with other musicians back home in Cork, decided to form his own band. Having completed a musical apprenticeship in the showbands, influenced by the increasing popularity of beat groups during the early 1960s, Gallagher formed "The Taste", renamed "Taste", a blues rock and R&B power trio, in 1966; the band was composed of Gallagher and two Cork musicians, Eric Kitteringham and Norman Damery. However, by 1968, they were replaced with two musicians from Belfast, featuring Gallagher on guitar and vocals, drummer John Wilson, bassist Richard McCracken. Performing extensively in the UK, the group played at the Marquee Club, supporting both Cream at their Royal Albert Hall farewell concert, the blues supergroup Blind Faith on a tour of North America.
Managed by Eddie Kennedy, the trio released the albums Taste and On The Boards, two live recordings, Live Taste and Live at the Isle of Wight. The latter appeared long after the band's break-up shortly after their appearance at the 1970 Isle of Wight Festival. After the break-up of Taste, Gallagher toured under his own name, hiring former Deep Joy bass player Gerry McAvoy to play on Gallagher's self-titled debut album, Rory Gallagher, it was the beginning of a twenty-year musical relationship between McAvoy. The 1970s were Gallagher's most prolific period, he produced ten albums in that decade, including two live albums, Live in Europe and Irish Tour'74. November 1971 saw the release of the album Deuce. In the same year he was voted Melody Maker's International Top Guitarist of the Year, ahead of Eric Clapton. However, despite a number of his albums from this period reaching the UK Albums Chart, Gallagher did not attain major star status. Gallagher played and recorded what he said was "in me all the time, not just something I turn on...".
Though he sold over thirty million albums worldwide, it was his marathon live performances that w
Mute Records Ltd. is a British independent record label owned and founded in 1978 by Daniel Miller. It has featured several prominent musical acts on its roster, such as Depeche Mode, Fad Gadget, Grinderman, Inspiral Carpets, New Order, Nitzer Ebb, Yeasayer, Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, M83. During 1978, Daniel Miller began recording music using synthesisers under the name The Normal, he recorded the tracks "T. V. O. D." and "Warm Leatherette", distributed them through Rough Trade Shops under the label name Mute Records. The label was formed just to release the one single. "T. V. O. D." / "Warm Leatherette" became. "Warm Leatherette" was covered by Grace Jones and Chicks on Speed as well as Rose McDowell. After meeting Robert Rental, Miller began playing live as Robert Rental & The Normal. In 1979 the band went on tour supporting the punk band Stiff Little Fingers, which had just released an album, being distributed by Rough Trade. In 1980, Miller released the single, "Kebab-Träume", by the German band Deutsch Amerikanische Freundschaft, who had moved to London.
The band's 1980 album, Die Kleinen und die Bösen, was the first album released by the new label. The album had the catalogue prefix "STUMM", a play on the record label's name, meaning "mute" in German; this prefix would continue to be used through most of the label's album catalogue. In 1980, Miller recorded and released the cover single, "Memphis Tennessee", under the name Silicon Teens; the band was Miller’s realisation of a dream Mute Records group, whose main instruments were synthesisers. In mid-1980, Mute Records released the Silicon Teens' album, titled Music For Parties. Around this time the artist Fad Gadget had begun recording new demos, including the track "Back To Nature"; this was released as a single in 1980, followed by the next single "Ricky's Hand" and the album Fireside Favourites recorded at Blackwing Studios. September 1980 saw the release of the double-holed, multi-speed 7" single by Non & Smegma, one of the first experimental noise releases from the label. Boyd Rice went on to release several more recordings with Mute Records.
After touring with Daniel Miller as Robert Rental & The Normal, Robert Rental released his only Mute Records single, "Double Heart", a rare, remaining trace of this late electronic music pioneer. Miller approached Depeche Mode in 1980, after seeing them perform in London, wanting them to record a single for his label. Emerging out of the British electronic pop scene, Depeche Mode asserted themselves as a radio-friendly pop group, had hits with their next three singles, including the UK top ten single, "Just Can't Get Enough", their loyalty to Mute was reciprocated by the label’s rapid expansion to cope with their success. In defiance of the major record labels predictions of failure, Depeche Mode became a successful charting band worldwide; the band's consistency was unbroken by the departure of principal songwriter Vince Clarke. Martin Gore took over the main songwriting role, opening the band up to different influences and sustaining their creativity as a band. Mute continued to support other experimental artists, such as NON, releasing an album of Boyd Rice's pre-NON recordings, titled Boyd Rice.
1982 began with the release of the 12-inch single, "Rise", by Boyd Rice, released under the name NON. Fad Gadget released his third album for the label, titled Under the Flag, influenced by the current Falklands War and the feeling of being British in the most unseemly of times; the album spawned the singles "For Whom the Bells Toll" and "Life on the Line". Mute Record's big commercial success of 1982 was the band Yazoo, the duo of Vince Clarke and Alison Moyet. After leaving Depeche Mode, Clarke had set up a studio in the Blackwing Studios complex, where he recorded the singles "Only You" and "Don’t Go"; that year, Mute licensed the single, "Fred Vom Jupiter", from the German record label Atatak. The track was recorded by Andreas Dorau and the schoolgirl Marinas. From Germany was the single, "Los Ninos Del Parque", by Liaisons Dangereuses released by Mute. Liaisons Dangereuses included Chrislo Hass, in the German band DAF. After returning from a world tour in 1983, Depeche Mode released the industrial-influenced hit single "Everything Counts".
Bruce Gilbert and Graham Lewis, of the band Wire, teamed up with Daniel Miller to form a project known as Duet Emmo, an anagram of Mute and Dome. They released an album and 12-inch single, both titled Or So It Seems. Miller secured the rights to the back catalogue of the experimental bands Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire and Richard H. KirkDuring 1983, the Australian band The Birthday Party transferred from 4AD to Mute Records; the band broke up after releasing their final 12-inch EP, "Mutiny". Birthday Party's singer, Nick Cave, stayed with Mute and released his debut single as Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds; the single was a cover of the song, "In the Ghetto", by Mac Davis made famous by Elvis Presley. Yazoo disbanded. Vince Clarke began working at Blackwing Studios under the name The Assembly; the project's first single, "Never Never", was a hit. D. A. F. Split up, in 1983, ex-member Robert Görl released the single "Mit Dir" on Mute, he recorded the album, Night Full of Tension, the following year, including the single "Darling Don’t Leave Me", featuring Annie Lennox.
In 1984, Depeche Mode had one of their biggest hits in the UK with the single "People Are People". Their album that year, Some Great
MerleFest is an annual "traditional plus" music festival held in Wilkesboro, North Carolina on the campus of Wilkes Community College. The festival, held the last weekend in April, was hosted by Grammy Award winner Doc Watson prior to his death and is named in memory and honor of his son, Eddy Merle Watson, who died in a farm tractor accident in 1985; the festival, founded in 1988, is the primary fundraising event for Wilkes Community College and attracts crowds exceeding 75,000 in number, making it one of the largest music festivals in the United States. It is estimated that the festival brings over $10 million in business and tourist revenue to Wilkes County and surrounding areas each year; the music is spread across 13 different stages and four days, which provides festival visitors with a wide variety of musical venues and styles to choose from. MerleFest offers a mix of traditional and contemporary roots music, a music blend that Doc himself named "traditional plus." It brings together Bluegrass, contemporary acoustic, folk, old-time music, jazz, Celtic, Americana and singer-songwriter music.
Artists can be enjoyed in on-stage jam sessions featuring unusual combinations of musicians, such as Bob Weir of the Grateful Dead singing with Sam Bush and Gillian Welch with the Waybacks. Other artists who have performed on MerleFest's 14 stages over the first 24 years have included Dolly Parton, Willie Nelson, Earl Scruggs, The Kruger Brothers, Carolina Chocolate Drops, John Prine, Alison Krauss and Union Station, Donna the Buffalo, Natalie MacMaster, Vassar Clements, Hot Tuna, Joe Smothers, Alan Jackson, Darius Rucker, David Grisman, Ricky Skaggs, Emmylou Harris, Jerry Douglas, Del McCoury, Billy Strings, Junior Brown, Mary Chapin Carpenter, Claire Lynch, Elvis Costello, Howard Armstrong, Randy Travis, Lyle Lovett, The Doobie Brothers, Robert Plant and the Band of Joy, Sharon Gilchrist, The Avett Brothers, Tony Rice, Francois Vola, Emory lester, Old Crow Medicine Show, Steve Martin and the Steep Canyon Rangers, Zac Brown Band, Dierks Bentley, Linda Ronstadt, Levon Helm, Taj Mahal, Bruce Hornsby, Cadillac Sky and Vince Gill.
It was founded by Doc Watson. List of bluegrass music festivals List of country music festivals List of folk festivals Official website