Dover, New Hampshire
Dover is a city in Strafford County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 29,987 at the 2010 census, the largest in the New Hampshire Seacoast region; the population was estimated at 31,398 in 2017. It is the county seat of Strafford County, home to Wentworth-Douglass Hospital, the Woodman Institute Museum, the Children's Museum of New Hampshire. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters; the same element is present in the town's Modern Welsh forms. The first known European to explore the region was Martin Pring from Bristol, England, in 1603. In 1623, William and Edward Hilton settled Cochecho Plantation, adopting its Abenaki name, making Dover the oldest permanent settlement in New Hampshire, seventh in the United States. One of the colony's four original townships, it included Durham, Newington, Lee and Rollinsford; the Hiltons' name survives at Hilton Park on Dover Point, where the brothers settled near the confluence of the Bellamy and Piscataqua rivers.
They were fishmongers sent from London by The Company of Laconia to establish a colony and fishery on the Piscataqua. In 1631, however, it contained only three houses. William Hilton built, he served as Deputy to the General Court. In 1633, Cochecho Plantation was bought by a group of English Puritans who planned to settle in New England, including Viscount Saye and Sele, Baron Brooke and John Pym, they promoted colonization in America, that year Hilton's Point received numerous immigrants, many from Bristol. They renamed the settlement Bristol. Atop the nearby hill they built a meetinghouse surrounded with a jail nearby; the town was called Dover in 1637 by Reverend George Burdett. It was named after Robert Dover, an English lawyer who resisted Puritanism. With the 1639 arrival of Thomas Larkham, however, it was renamed after Northam in Devon, where he had been preacher, but Lord Saye and Sele's group lost interest in their settlements, both here and at Saybrook, when their plan to establish a hereditary aristocracy in the colonies met disfavor in New England.
The plantation was sold in 1641 to Massachusetts and again named Dover. Settlers built fortified log houses called garrisons, inspiring Dover's nickname "The Garrison City." The population and business center shifted upriver from Dover Point to Cochecho Falls, its drop of 34 feet providing water power for industry On June 28, 1689, Dover suffered a devastating attack by Native Americans. It was revenge for an incident on September 7, 1676, when 400 Native Americans were duped by Major Richard Waldron into performing a "mock battle" near Cochecho Falls. After discharging their weapons, the Native American warriors were captured. Half were sent to Massachusetts for predations committed during King Philip's War either hanged or sold into slavery. Local Native Americans deemed innocent were released, but considered the deception a dishonorable breach of hospitality. Thirteen years passed; when colonists thought the episode forgotten, they struck. Fifty-two colonists, a quarter of the population, were either slain.
During Father Rale's War, in August and September 1723, there were Indian raids on Saco and Dover, New Hampshire. The following year Dover was raided again and Elizabeth Hanson wrote her captivity narrative. Located at the head of navigation, Cochecho Falls brought the Industrial Revolution to 19th-century Dover in a big way; the Dover Cotton Factory was incorporated in 1812 enlarged in 1823 to become the Dover Manufacturing Company. In 1827, the Cocheco Manufacturing Company was founded, which in 1829 purchased the Dover Manufacturing Company. Expansive brick mills, linked by railroad, were constructed downtown. Incorporated as a city in 1855, Dover for a time became a leading national producer of textiles; the mills were purchased in 1909 by the Pacific Mills of Lawrence, which closed the printery in 1913 but continued spinning and weaving. During the Great Depression, textile mills no longer dependent on New England water power began moving to southern states in search of cheaper operating conditions, or went out of business.
Dover's millyard shut in 1937 was bought at auction in 1940 by the city itself for $54,000. There were no other bids. Now called the Cocheco Falls Millworks, its tenants include technology and government services companies, plus a restaurant. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.0 square miles, of which 26.7 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water, comprising 7.96% of the city. Dover is drained by the Bellamy rivers. Long Hill, elevation greater than 300 feet above sea level and located 3 miles northwest of the city center, is the highest point in Dover. Garrison Hill, elevation 290 ft, is a prominent hill rising directly above the center city, with a park and lookout tower on top. Dover lies within the Piscataqua River watershed; the city is crossed by New Hampshire Route 4, New Hampshire Route 9, New Hampshire Route 16, New Hampshire Route 16B, New Hampshire Route 108, New Hampshire Route 155. It is bordered by the town of Newington to the south, Madbury to the southwest and Rochester to the northwest and Rollinsford to th
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world; the school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. Three years the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate. Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton; the school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period."The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board.
Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, it was styled Harvard University as Harvard College was thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular. Today Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, housing, student life, athletics – all undergraduate matters except instruction, the purview of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women.
About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying. Few transfers are accepted. Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration. Joint concentrations and special concentrations are possible. Most Harvard College concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus completed in four years, though students leaving high school with substantial college-level coursework may finish in three. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus. There are special degree programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music. Undergraduates must fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in eight designated fields: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding Culture and Belief Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning Ethical Reasoning Science of Living Systems Science of the Physical Universe Societies of the World United States in the WorldEach student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well."In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course.
The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015. The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, for 2018–2019 was $67,580. Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10 percent of their annual income. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions. Grants total 88 percent of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid provided by loans and work-study. Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a incohesive and administratively daunting university environment; each house is presided over by a senior-faculty dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being.
The faculty dean and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior Common Room—select graduate students and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the house, as do the faculty resident dean. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, Junior Common Room reflect
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a magistratus was one of the highest ranking government officers, possessed both judicial and executive powers. In other parts of the world, such as China, a magistrate was responsible for administration over a particular geographic area. Today, in some jurisdictions, a magistrate is a judicial officer who hears cases in a lower court, deals with more minor or preliminary matters. In other jurisdictions, magistrates may be volunteers without formal legal training who perform a judicial role with regard to minor matters. In ancient Rome, the word magistratus referred to one of the highest offices of state. Analogous offices in the local authorities, such as municipium, were subordinate only to the legislature of which they were members, ex officio a combination of judicial and executive power, constituting one jurisdiction. In Rome itself, the highest magistrates were members of the so-called cursus honorum -'career of honors'.
They held both judicial and executive power within their sphere of responsibility, had the power to issue ius honorarium, or magisterial law. The Consul was the highest Roman magistrate; the Praetor was the highest judge in matters of private law between individual citizens, while the Curule Aediles, who supervised public works in the city, exercised a limited civil jurisdiction in relation to the market. Roman magistrates were advised by jurists who were experts in the law; the term was maintained in most feudal successor states to the western Roman Empire. However, it was used in Germanic kingdoms in city-states, where the term magistrate was used as an abstract generic term denoting the highest office, regardless of the formal titles when, a council; the term "chief magistrate" applied to the highest official, in sovereign entities the head of state and/or head of government. Under the "civil law" systems of European countries, such as Belgium, France and the Netherlands, magistrat and magistraat are generic terms which comprise both prosecutors and judges, distinguished as the'standing' versus'sitting' magistrature, respectively.
In Portugal, besides being used in the scope of the judiciary to designate prosecutors and judges, the term magistrado was used to designate certain government officials, like the former civil governors of district. These were referred as "administrative magistrates" to distinguish them from the judiciary magistrates; the President of Portugal is considered the Supreme Magistrate of the Nation. In Finland, maistraatti is a state-appointed local administrative office whose responsibilities include keeping population information and public registers, acting as a public notary and conducting civil marriages. In Mexico's Federal Law System, a magistrado is a superior judge, hierarchically beneath the Supreme Court Justices; the magistrado reviews the cases seen by a judge in a second term if any of the parties disputes the verdict. For special cases, there are magistrados superiores who review the verdicts of special court and tribunal magistrates. In the courts of England and Wales, magistrates—also known as justices of the peace —are volunteers who hear prosecutions for and dispose of'summary offences' and some'triable-either-way offences' by making orders with regard to and placing additional requirements on offenders.
Magistrates/JPs are limited to issuing sentences of no longer than twelve months. Magistrates/JPs have other limitations in their sentencing authority with powers extending to fines, community orders which can include curfews, electronic tagging, requirements to perform unpaid work up to 300 hours, supervision for up to three years. In more serious cases, magistrates can send'either-way' offenders to the Crown Court for sentencing when the magistrate feels a penalty should be imposed, more severe than the magistrate is capable of sentencing. A wide range of other legal matters is within the remit of magistrates. In the past, magistrates have been responsible for granting licenses to sell alcohol, for instance, but this function is now exercised by local councils. Magistrates are responsible for granting search warrants to the police and other authorities. However, commission areas were replaced with Local Justice Areas by the Courts Act 2003, meaning magistrates no longer need to live within 15 miles.
Section 7 of the Courts Act 2003 states that "There shall be a commission of the peace for England and Wales—…b) addressed and not by name, to all such persons as may from time to time hold office as justices of the peace for England and Wales". Thus, every magistrate in England and Wales may act as a magistrate anywhere in Wales. There are two types of magistrates in England and Wales: justices of the peace and district judges who hold office as members of the professional judiciary. According to requirements, arou
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Hampton, New Hampshire
Hampton is a town in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 14,976 at the 2010 census. Located beside the Atlantic Ocean, Hampton is home to a summer tourist destination; the densely populated central part of the town, where 9,656 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Hampton census-designated place and is centered on the intersection of U. S. 1 and NH 27. First called the "Plantation of Winnacunnet", Hampton was one of four original New Hampshire townships chartered by the General Court of Massachusetts, which held authority over the colony. Winnacunnet is an Algonquian Abenaki word meaning "pleasant pines" and is the name of the town's high school, serving students from Hampton and the surrounding towns of Seabrook, North Hampton, Hampton Falls. In March 1635, Richard Dummer and John Spencer of the Byfield section of Newbury, came round in their shallop, coming ashore at the landing, were much impressed by the location. Dummer, a member of the General Court, got that body to lay its claim to the section and plan a plantation here.
The Massachusetts General Court of March 3, 1636, ordered that Dummer and Spencer be given power to "To presse men to build there a Bound house." The town was settled in 1638 by a group of parishioners led by Oxford University graduate Reverend Stephen Bachiler, who had preached at the settlement's namesake: Hampton, England. The town, incorporated in 1639, once included Seabrook, Danville, East Kingston, North Hampton and Hampton Falls. On the 18th of September 1679, the Acts of Privy Council records that Stephen Bachiler's son-in-law, "Christopher Hussey of Hampton, Esquire", was appointed by King Charles II to "govern the provence of New Hampshire" as a member of the newly established council of seven men. Among Hampton's earliest settlers was Thomas Leavitt, among the first settlers at Exeter, his descendant Thomas Leavitt, Esq. lived in Hampton Falls, was the leading Democratic politician in southern New Hampshire for many years. He made a noted early survey and plan of the town of Hampton in 1806.
James Leavitt, of the same family, occupied the home which had belonged to Gen. Jonathan Moulton. Members of the family ran Leavitts' Hampton Beach Hotel, a fixture in the area for generations. Construction of the railroad in the 1850s, as well as the Exeter and Hampton Trolley line, made Hampton's oceanfront a popular resort. Hampton Beach remains a tourist destination, offering shops, restaurants and summer seasonal housing. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 14.7 square miles, of which 12.9 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water, comprising 12.38% of the town. Hampton is drained by the Drakes rivers; the town lies within the New Hampshire Coastal watershed. The highest point in Hampton is Bride Hill, near the town line with Exeter; as of the census of 2010, there were 14,976 people, 6,868 households, 4,079 families residing in the town. There were 9,921 housing units, of which 3,053, or 30.8%, were vacant. 2,221 of the vacant units were for recreational uses.
The racial makeup of the town was 96.1% white, 0.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 0.5% some other race, 1.3% from two or more races. 1.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 6,868 households, 23.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were headed by married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.6% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.2% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16, the average family size was 2.77. In the town, 17.5% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.0% were from 18 to 24, 22.3% from 25 to 44, 35.1% from 45 to 64, 18.2% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.0 males. For the period 2011-2015, the estimated median annual income for a household was $76,836, the median income for a family was $98,642.
Male full-time workers had a median income of $65,519 versus $51,009 for females. The per capita income for the town was $45,189. 5.9% of the population and 4.7% of families were below the poverty line. 5.9% of the population under the age of 18 and 2.5% of those 65 or older were living in poverty. Hampton is part of School Administrative Unit 90, which covers the elementary and middle schools and SAU 21 which includes Winnacunnet High School, a regional high school serving Hampton and several surrounding communities. Benjamin James House Hampton Beach State Park Hampton Beach Casino Ballroom Bill Alfonso, professional wrestling personality Stephen Bachiler, English clergyman. S. Secretary of War Abraham Drake, Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and politician Jimmy Dunn, stand-up comedian and actor Christopher Hussey, English nobleman and one of the original founders of Nantucket, Massachusetts Thomas Leavitt, early settler Paul Maher Jr. author Stephen E. Merrill, 77th governor of New Hampshire Jonathan Moulton, Revolutionary War era brigadier general Jane Pierce, First Lady of the United States, wife of Franklin Pierce Trish Regan, business news broadcaster Tristram Shaw, U.
S. congressman Town of Hampton official website Hampton Beach State Park Hampton Historical Society Hampton Beach Casino Ballroo
Major Richard Waldron was an English-born merchant and government official who rose to prominence in early colonial Dover, New Hampshire. His presence spread to greater New neighboring Massachusetts, he was the second president of the colonial New Hampshire Royal Council after it was first separated from Massachusetts. Described as an "immensely able and ambitious" member of a well-off Puritan family, he left his English home and moved to what is now Dover, New Hampshire, he first came about 1635. He built mills on the Cochecho River, amassed local land holdings that endured in his family for over 170 years, controlled much of the local native trade, was prominent in local politics and as deputy to the Massachusetts General Court for twenty five years from 1654, he was speaker several times. When the first president of the colonial New Hampshire council, John Cutt, died council member Walderne became the acting president or governor until Edward Cranfield arrived from England. "By the 1670s the portion of Dover known as Cochecho had become something like Waldron's personal fiefdom, citizens in the other areas of settlement challenged his social authority."
Waldron was born in Alcester, England. One of many children of William Walderne and Catherine Raven, he was christened on 6 January 1615. Little is known of his early life; the name of his first wife is unknown. He married second Ann Scammon, he had several children. Because he was a prominent landholder, he was singled out for a lawsuit, part of a plan seeking to overturn all land titles in colonial New Hampshire in favor of the descendants of John Mason, an colonial governor and admiral, granted a land patent for the Province of New Hampshire by the British crown and planted the first British colonists there. In 1662, three Quaker missionaries, Ann Coleman, Mary Tompkins and Alice Ambrose, arrived in Dover from England. Within weeks, their ministry became the subject of a public petition by the Puritan townsfolk,'humbly craving relief against the spreading and the wicked errors of the Quakers among them'. Waldron, as the local crown magistrate, ordered them to be punished as vagabonds by being bound behind a cart and being made to walk over eighty miles in a bitter winter through ten neighboring townships.
Beginning in Dover, on arrival in each township, they were to be publicly stripped to the waist and whipped ten times. Major Robert Pike stopped the torture and released them in Salisbury, the third township in which they were mistreated. There, after urgently required medical assistance from Walter Barefoote, the women left for Maine; these three Quaker women are the subject of the poem How the Women Went from Dover by the 19th-century American Quaker poet, John Greenleaf Whittier. At the end of King Philip's War, a number of Indians fleeing from the Massachusetts Bay Colony militia took refuge with the Abenaki tribe living around Dover; the Massachusetts militia ordered Waldron to attack these natives and turn any refugee combatants over to them. Waldron believed he could capture the natives without a pitched battle by resorting to subterfuge and so, on September 7, 1676, he invited the natives—about 400 in total, half local and half refugees—to participate in a mock battle against the militia.
After the natives had fired their guns, aided by Charles Frost, took them prisoner. Waldron sent both the refugee combatants and those locals who violently objected to this forced breach of hospitality to Boston, where seven or eight were convicted of insurrection and executed; the rest were sold into slavery in "foreign parts" Barbados. The local Indians were released, but never forgave Waldron for the deception, which violated all the rules of honor and hospitality valued by both sides. Richard Waldron would be appointed Chief Justice for New Hampshire in 1683. During King William's War natives took revenge on Waldron for his actions during King Philip's War in the Cocheco Massacre of 1689. At the time local Pennacook women were allowed into the garrisoned homes of the Dover settlers when they requested shelter for the night; some settlers were concerned about the lack of vigilance and possible danger from this practice, but Waldron mocked their fears: "go plant your pumpkins" Their concern was justified, as on the night of 27 June 1689, native women staying peacefully overnight opened garrison house doors to waiting armed warriors.
One historian wrote, "In one bloody afternoon, a quarter of the colonists in what is now downtown Dover, NH were gone – 23 killed, 29 captured in a revenge attack by native warriors." The elderly Waldron, once disarmed, was singled out for special torture and mutilation: the Indians cut him across the belly with knives, each saying "I cross out my account," and his house burned. Charles Frost was ambushed by natives in 1697 during King William's War for his collaboration with Waldron during the pair's trickery in King Philip's War. Waldron is buried in the Cochecho Burying Ground, known as Waldron Cemetery, his son Richard, grandson Richard, great grandson Thomas Westbrook Waldron were successively members of the Royal Council for the Province of New Hampshire. The influence of this branch of the Waldron family in New Hampshire declined after the American Revolution, though Thomas Westbrook Waldron gave his qualified support to the new United States; this decline came despite the combining of families of influence within the Waldrons: President John Cutt's daughter Hannah married the second Richard Waldron and, after her death, Cutt's grandniece Elinor Vaughan married the second Richard Waldron.
The third Richard