Malta known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km south of Italy, 284 km east of Tunisia, 333 km north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of 316 km2, Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely populated country, its capital is Valletta, the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km.2 The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union. Malta has been inhabited since 5900 BC, its location in the centre of the Mediterranean has given it great strategic importance as a naval base, with a succession of powers having contested and ruled the islands, including the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, Greeks, Normans, Knights of St. John and British. Most of these foreign influences have left some sort of mark on the country's ancient culture. Malta became a British colony in 1815, serving as a way station for ships and the headquarters for the British Mediterranean Fleet.
It played an important role in the Allied war effort during the Second World War, was subsequently awarded the George Cross for its bravery in the face of an Axis siege, the George Cross appears on Malta's national flag. The British Parliament passed the Malta Independence Act in 1964, giving Malta independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Malta, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and queen; the country became a republic in 1974. It has been a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations since independence, joined the European Union in 2004. Malta has a long Christian legacy and its Archdiocese is claimed to be an apostolic see because Paul the Apostle was shipwrecked on "Melita", according to Acts of the Apostles, now taken to be Malta. While Catholicism is the official religion in Malta, Article 40 of the Constitution states that "all persons in Malta shall have full freedom of conscience and enjoy the free exercise of their respective mode of religious worship."Malta is a popular tourist destination with its warm climate, numerous recreational areas, architectural and historical monuments, including three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni and seven megalithic temples which are some of the oldest free-standing structures in the world.
The origin of the name Malta is uncertain, the modern-day variation is derived from the Maltese language. The most common etymology is that the word Malta is derived from the Greek word μέλι, meli, "honey"; the ancient Greeks called the island Μελίτη meaning "honey-sweet" for Malta's unique production of honey. The Romans called the island Melita, which can be considered either a latinisation of the Greek Μελίτη or the adaptation of the Doric Greek pronunciation of the same word Μελίτα; this spelling is found in the New Testament. Another conjecture suggests that the word Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth, "a haven", or'port' in reference to Malta's many bays and coves. Few other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary. Malta has been inhabited from around 5900 BC, since the arrival of settlers from the island of Sicily. A significant prehistoric Neolithic culture marked by Megalithic structures, which date back to c. 3600 BC, existed on the islands, as evidenced by the temples of Mnajdra and others.
The Phoenicians colonised Malta between 800 -- 700 BC, bringing their Semitic culture. They used the islands as an outpost from which they expanded sea explorations and trade in the Mediterranean until their successors, the Carthaginians, were ousted by the Romans in 216 BC with the help of the Maltese inhabitants, under whom Malta became a municipium. After a period of Byzantine rule and a probable sack by the Vandals, the islands were invaded by the Aghlabids in AD 870; the fate of the population after the Arab invasion is unclear but it seems the islands may have been depopulated and were to have been repopulated in the beginning of the second millennium by settlers from Arab-ruled Sicily who spoke Siculo-Arabic. The Muslim rule was ended by the Normans who conquered the island in 1091; the islands were re-Christianised by 1249. The islands were part of the Kingdom of Sicily until 1530, were controlled by the Capetian House of Anjou. In 1530 Charles I of Spain gave the Maltese islands to the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem in perpetual lease.
The French under Napoleon took hold of the Maltese islands in 1798, although with the aid of the British the Maltese were able to oust French control two years later. The inhabitants subsequently asked Britain to assume sovereignty over the islands under the conditions laid out in a Declaration of Rights, stating that "his Majesty has no right to cede these Islands to any power...if he chooses to withdraw his protection, abandon his sovereignty, the right of electing another sovereign, or of the governing of these Islands, belongs to us, the inhabitants and aborigines alone, without control." As part of the Treaty of Paris in 1814, Malta became a British colony rejecting an attempted integration with the United Kingdom in 1956. Malta became independent on 21 September 1964. Under its 1964 constitution
General Sir Baker Creed Russell was an Australian-born British Army officer who served with distinction in the Indian Mutiny, Anglo-Ashanti War, Anglo-Zulu War and Egyptian War. Baker Creed Russell was born in 1837 in Maitland, New South Wales, the son of the Hon. William Russell a major in the 73rd Regiment. Russell entered the British Army in 1855 as a cornet of the Carabiniers. Promoted to lieutenant on 1 August 1856, he was present at Meerut during the Indian Mutiny and took part in the pursuit of the Tantya Tope, he was promoted to captain on 18 February 1859. He subsequently commanded that regiment. Promoted to brevet major on 24 January 1865, he accompanied Sir Garnet Wolseley to the Gold Coast during the first Ashanti Expedition in 1873. Promoted to the substantive rank of major on 15 July 1878, he again served under Wolseley, this time in the Zulu campaign in 1879. For his successful leadership of the operations against Sekukuni, he was appointed a KCMG and aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria.
He was a member of the Wolseley ring and was promoted to lieutenant colonel on 29 September 1880. He commanded the 1st Cavalry Brigade during the Egyptian War in 1882, he led the midnight charge at Kassassin, was present at the battle of Tel el-Kebir and took part in the march to and occupation of Cairo. He was, for a short time, Inspecting Officer of Auxiliary Cavalry in 1886. Promoted to major-general on 1 April 1889, he became General Officer Commanding the Aldershot Cavalry Brigade in 1890, General Officer Commanding the North Western District, which had its headquarters in Chester, in 1895 and Commander-in-Chief Bengal Command in 1896. Promoted to lieutenant general on 20 January 1897, he went on to be General Officer Commanding Southern District, based in Portsmouth, in 1898. In this capacity he was conspicuous at Southampton Docks whenever troops were embarking for South Africa in the early stages of the Anglo-Boer War, he died on 25 November 1911 in Kent. Hew Strachan, The Politics of the British Army Byron Farwell, Queen Victoria's Little Wars Leigh Maxwell, The Ashanti Ring: Sir Garnet Wolseley's Campaigns 1870–1882 Thomas Pakenham, The Boer War.
CRB Barrett, History of The XIII Hussars, William Blackwood and Sons and London, 1911 Ian Castle & Raffaele Ruggeri,Zulu Wars — Volunteers and Auxiliaries, Osprey Publishing Ian Knight, The Zulu War 1879, Osprey Publishing Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Journals of Brigadier General Clarke's column and Colonel Baker-Russell's column, 26 July-17 Aug Baden Powell's First Commanding Officer Woodcut engraving entitled With Russell's Column: Wounded Soldiers of the Native Contingent
First and Second Battles of El Teb
The First and Second Battles of El Teb took place during the British Sudan Campaign where a force of Sudanese under Osman Digna won a victory over a 3500 strong Egyptian force under the command of General Valentine Baker, marching to relieve Tokar on the 4th. A second British force under Sir Gerald Graham arrived on the 29th, engaging and defeating Osman Digna with few casualties. Britain's involvement in the Sudan was a consequence of its support for the Khedive of Egypt following the repression of Urabi Pasha's revolt in 1882. Despite Egypt still being nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, the Khedive's rule was dependent on direct British support, given to ensure the security of the Suez Canal and the elimination of the Sudanese slave trade. However, the British government under Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone sought to stay out of affairs in Egyptian-governed Sudan, threatened by an uprising led by the Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad, who declared a Jihad, against the ‘Turks’, represented by the Egyptian troops.
The Mahdist forces enjoyed considerable success against Egyptian troops in 1882 and 1883, several towns garrisoned by Egyptian troops found themselves surrounded. In their haste to be rid of the Sudanese question, the British urged the Egyptians to evacuate their troops; the port of Suakin, on the Red Sea, could be supplied by ship and still held out. But further inland, the towns of Tokar and Sinkat were cut off. In February 1884, a 3,000 strong force was dispatched from Suez to Suakin to relieve the beleaguered garrisons; the command of this force was entrusted to Baker Pasha accompanied by other European officers. From the start the expedition was beset with problems; the greater part of the infantry was formed from Egyptian Gendarmerie Battalions who had enrolled on the condition they would serve only for civil service in Egypt. On the news they were being sent to Sudan, many of them deserted, the others grew dispirited and mutinous. On the 3 February, Baker moved his force by ship from Suakin on the coast near Tokar.
He set up a camp on the beach, set off the next day. The Egyptians, who were not used to marching in formation, advanced in a confused mass. At the halting place of El Teb, on the road to Tokar they were attacked by a Mahdist force 1,000 strong. Despite their superiority in numbers and weaponry, the troops became panic-stricken, fled after firing a single volley; the Mahdists caught up with them and inflicted huge losses, killing all the European officers who tried to resist. Baker, unable to rally his men, retreated to the camp with the few survivors and managed to protect it from the Mahdists. Of a force of 3,500 700 returned. After returning to Suakin, Baker tried to organize the defence of the city, but the Egyptian troops had grown distrustful of the British officers, refused to obey; this defeat sealed the fate of the garrisons: the Sinkat garrison sallied out to try to reach Suakin on foot. The Tokar garrison surrendered without a fight. In Britain, Baker's defeat incensed the imperialist faction, represented by Lord Wolseley, who demanded the intervention of British troops.
Reluctantly, the British government agreed and several units returning from India were diverted to Suakin. On the 21st, the force under the command of Sir Gerald Graham left via Trinkitat, it was composed of 4,500 men with 6 machine guns. On the 29th, they approached the main Mahdist position, on a hill near El Teb; this position consisted of various entrenchments and rifle pits. The Mahdists had several artillery pieces including Krupp guns captured from the Tokar garrison, some of whom had changed sides, were now fighting for the Mahdists; the British, forming into a square, circled the Mahdist entrenchments to outflank them, under cover of dense rifle and cannon fire. After a brief artillery duel, the Mahdist guns were silenced, the British advanced; the Mahdists hid in trenches to avoid incoming British rifle and artillery rounds rushed out in small groups of twenty to thirty warriors instead of the massive attack, expected. Another tactic was to pretend to lie dead on the battlefield as British cavalry charged through as the cavalry returned at a slower pace back through the ranks of the'dead', the Mahdists would rise up and slit the hamstrings of the horses proceed to kill the riders.
At the top of the hill, a village had been fortified by the Mahdists, here they resisted the most stubbornly. The British infantry had to clear the trenches with bayonets. During the battle, Captain Arthur Wilson of HMS Hecla joined the right half-battery, Naval Brigade, in place of a lieutenant, mortally wounded; as the troops closed on the enemy battery, the Dervish charged out on the detachment, dragging one of the guns, whereupon Wilson sprang to the front and engaged in single combat with some of the enemy, so protected the detachment until men of the 1st Battalion and Lancaster Regiment, came to his assistance. For this action he was awarded the Victoria Cross. Graham's force advanced to Tokar, encountering no further resistance. After the battle, most of the equipment lost by Baker's force was recovered; the British suffered only light casualties, the Mahdist fire being inaccurate. Baker Pasha, who accompanied the force, was wounded in the jaw; the Mahdists suffered from British firepower, losing 2,000 killed.
Upon Graham's return to Britain, he received the thanks of parliament and was made a Lieutenant General for distinguished service in the field. Captain Littledale had a narrow escape in a hand to hand conflict with an Arab, but no officers were killed; the Arab had been armed with a knife and Littledale
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, with a total population of 205,400 residents. The city of Portsmouth is nicknamed Pompey and is built on Portsea Island, a flat, low-lying island measuring 24 square kilometres in area, just off the south-east coast of Hampshire. Uniquely, Portsmouth is the only island city in the United Kingdom, is the only city whose population density exceeds that of London. Portsmouth is located 70 miles south-west of London and 19 miles south-east of Southampton. With the surrounding towns of Gosport, Fareham and Waterlooville, Portsmouth forms the eastern half of the South Hampshire metropolitan area, which includes Southampton and Eastleigh in the western half. Portsmouth's history can be traced back to Roman times. A significant naval port for centuries, Portsmouth has the world's oldest dry dock. In the sixteenth century, Portsmouth was England's first line of defence during the French invasion of 1545. By the early nineteenth century, the world's first mass production line was set up in Portsmouth Dockyard's Block Mills, making it the most industrialised site in the world and birthplace of the Industrial Revolution.
Portsmouth was the most fortified town in the world, was considered "the world's greatest naval port" at the height of the British Empire throughout Pax Britannica. Defences known as the Palmerston Forts were built around Portsmouth in 1859 in anticipation of another invasion from continental Europe. In 1926, Portsmouth was elevated in status from a town to a city; the motto "Heaven's Light Our Guide" was registered to the City of Portsmouth in 1929. During the Second World War, the city of Portsmouth was a pivotal embarkation point for the D-Day landings and was bombed extensively in the Portsmouth Blitz, which resulted in the deaths of 930 people. In 1982, a large proportion of the task force dispatched to liberate the Falkland Islands deployed from the city's naval base, her Majesty's Yacht Britannia left the city to oversee the transfer of Hong Kong in 1997, which marked for many the end of the empire. In 1997, Portsmouth became a Unitary Authority, with Portsmouth City Council gaining powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined, responsibilities held by Hampshire County Council.
Portsmouth is one of the world's best known ports. HMNB Portsmouth is considered to be the home of the Royal Navy and is home to two-thirds of the UK's surface fleet; the city is home to some famous ships, including HMS Warrior, the Tudor carrack Mary Rose and Horatio Nelson's flagship, HMS Victory. The former HMS Vernon naval shore establishment has been redeveloped as a retail park known as Gunwharf Quays. Portsmouth is among the few British cities with two cathedrals: the Anglican Cathedral of St Thomas and the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St John the Evangelist; the waterfront and Portsmouth Harbour are dominated by the Spinnaker Tower, one of the United Kingdom's tallest structures at 560 feet. Nearby Southsea is a seaside resort with a pier amusement medieval castle. Portsmouth F. C. the city's professional football club, play their home games at Fratton Park. The city has several mainline railway stations that connect to Brighton, London Victoria and London Waterloo amongst other lines in southern England.
Portsmouth International Port is a commercial cruise ship and ferry port for international destinations. The port is the second busiest in the United Kingdom after Dover, handling around three million passengers a year; the city had its own airport, Portsmouth Airport, until its closure in 1973. The University of Portsmouth enrols 23,000 students and is ranked among the world's best modern universities. Portsmouth is the birthplace of author Charles Dickens and engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel; the Romans built a fort, at nearby Portchester in the late third century. The city's Old English name "Portesmuða" is derived from port, meaning a haven, muða, the mouth of a large river or estuary; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has a warrior called Port and his two sons killing a noble Briton in Portsmouth in 501. Winston Churchill, in his A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, says that Port was a pirate and he founded Portsmouth in 501; the south coast was vulnerable to Danish Viking invasions during the 9th centuries.
In 787, it was assaulted and conquered by Danish pirates, during the reign of Æthelwulf, King of Wessex in 838, a Danish fleet landed between Portsmouth and Southampton and the surrounding area was plundered. In response, Æthelwulf sent Wulfherd and the governor of Dorsetshire to confront the Danes at Portsmouth, where most of their ships were docked, they were successful. In 1001, the Danes returned and pillaged Portsmouth and surrounding locations, threatening the English with extinction; the Danes were massacred by the survivors the following year and rebuilding began, although the town suffered further attacks until 1066. Portsmouth was not mentioned in the Domesday Survey of 1086, but Bocheland and Frodentone were; some sources maintain. When King Henry II died in 1189, his son Richard I, who had spent most of his life in France, arrived in Portsmouth before he was crowned in London; when Richard returned from captivity in Austria in May 1194, he summoned a fleet of 100 ships and an army to the port.
He granted the town a royal charter on 2 May, giving permission for an annual fifteen-day free market fair, weekly markets, a local court to deal with minor matters, exempted its inhabitants from paying an annual tax of £18. Richard granted the town the arm
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements; the knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order", he did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred. The Order consists of the Sovereign, the Great Master, three Classes of members: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. Prior to 1815, the order had Knight Companion, which no longer exists. Recipients of the Order are now senior military officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members.
The Order of the Bath is the fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick. In the Middle Ages, knighthood was conferred with elaborate ceremonies; these involved the knight-to-be taking a bath during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. He was put to bed to dry. Clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass retired to his bed to sleep until it was daylight, he was brought before the King, who after instructing two senior knights to buckle the spurs to the knight-elect's heels, fastened a belt around his waist struck him on the neck, thus making him a knight. It was this accolade, the essential act in creating a knight, a simpler ceremony developed, conferring knighthood by striking or touching the knight-to-be on the shoulder with a sword, or "dubbing" him, as is still done today.
In the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families. From the coronation of Henry IV in 1399 the full ceremonies were restricted to major royal occasions such as coronations, investitures of the Prince of Wales or Royal dukes, royal weddings, the knights so created became known as Knights of the Bath. Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the simpler form of ceremony; the last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661. From at least 1625, from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria juncta in uno, wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval; these were both subsequently adopted by the Order of the Bath. Their symbolism however is not clear. The'three joined in one' may be a reference to the kingdoms of England and either France or Ireland, which were held by English and British monarchs; this would correspond to the three crowns in the badge.
Another explanation of the motto is. Nicolas quotes a source who claims that prior to James I the motto was Tria numina juncta in uno, but from the reign of James I the word numina was dropped and the motto understood to mean Tria juncta in uno; the prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, England's highest heraldic officer. Sir Anthony Wagner, a recent holder of the office of Garter, wrote of Anstis's motivations: It was Martin Leake's opinion that the trouble and opposition Anstis met with in establishing himself as Garter so embittered him against the heralds that when at last in 1718 he succeeded, he made it his prime object to aggrandise himself and his office at their expense, it is clear at least that he set out to make himself indispensable to the Earl Marshal, not hard, their political principles being congruous and their friendship established, but to Sir Robert Walpole and the Whig ministry, which can by no means have been easy, considering his known attachment to the Pretender and the circumstances under which he came into office...
The main object of Anstis's next move, the revival or institution of the Order of the Bath was that which it in fact secured, of ingratiating him with the all-powerful Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. The use of honours in the early eighteenth century differed from the modern honours system in which hundreds, if not thousands, of people each year receive honours on the basis of deserving accomplishments; the only honours available at that time were hereditary peerages and baronetcies and the Order of the Garter, none of which were awarded in large numbers The political environment was significantly different from today: The Sovereign still exercised a power to be reckoned with in the eighteenth century. The Court remained the centre of the political w
Cheltenham College is a co-educational independent school, located in Cheltenham, England. One of the public schools of the Victorian period, it was opened in July 1841. A Church of England foundation, it is well known for its classical and sporting traditions, has 640 pupils. Two Cheltenham residents, G. S. Harcourt and J. S. Iredell, founded Cheltenham College in July 1841 to educate the sons of gentlemen, it opened in three houses along Bays Hill Terrace in the centre of the town. Within two years it had moved to its present site—with Boyne House as the first College Boarding House—and soon became known as Cheltenham College. Accepting both boarding and day boys, it was divided into Classical and Military sides until the mid-twentieth century; the 1893 book Great Public Schools by E. S. Skirving, S. R. James, Henry Churchill Maxwell Lyte contained a chapter on each of what they considered England's ten greatest public schools, it is now an independent fee paying school, governed by Cheltenham College Council.
A few girls were admitted in 1969 and in 1981 when the first girls' house opened, the Sixth Form became co educational. In 1998, girls were admitted to all other years, making the College co-educational. In 1865, a Junior Department was added to the main College buildings. In 1993 it opened its doors to girls and opened a pre-Prep department, for 3–7-year olds. In the First World War 702 Old Cheltonians were killed in the service of their country, a further 363 died in World War II. Cheltenham's military past is recognised by the fact that it is one of only three schools in England to have its own military colours. Queen Victoria School in Dunblane, Scotland has Colours; the names of those Old Cheltonians killed in World War I are recorded in the College Chapel, completed in 1896, which to a degree resembles King's College Chapel, Cambridge and is one of the chapels of an English public school. The names of those killed in the World War II are displayed on the memorial in the College's dining hall.
Cheltenham has 640 pupils between the ages of 13 and 18. The fees are upwards of £30,000 per annum, making it amongst the most expensive schools in the United Kingdom; the school is now co-educational and maintains a strong academic reputation, with the majority of pupils going to The Russell Group Universities, around 7% going on to Oxford and Cambridge universities. Both GCSE and A Level results are among the highest in Gloucestershire. There is a prep school, Cheltenham College Preparatory School, most of whose pupils go on to the senior school. Cheltenham has links with the Wynberg Boys' High School in Cape Town, South Africa—an all-boys boarding school coincidentally established in 1841, the same year as Cheltenham. Cheltenham College consists of a preparatory school and senior school and educates students from ages 3 to 18; the boarding programme is available to preparatory school students. Cheltenham has competing with larger single gender schools; the first inter-school rugby football match was played between Rugby School and Cheltenham College, Cheltenham beating Rugby.
Cheltenham reached the final of The National Schools 7s Festival four times in the last ten years, winning the competition in 1998, 2003 and 2004. Cheltenham's rugby XV was undefeated in the 2017 season. Of note, Eddie Butler, former Welsh and British Lions International Rugby player, now the main rugby commentator for the BBC, taught French at the school; the schools Director of Rugby is former Gloucester Rugby and England Rugby player Olly Morgan. The Boat Club was founded in 1841; the Boat House itself is located at the foot of Tewkesbury Abbey on the banks of the River Severn. Key events in the rowing calendar are. At the 2013 National School's Head of River, the 1st IV+ came first in their division. Cheltenham College plays Rackets where, at times, they have dominated the Queen's Club Public Schools Competition. Chris Stout won the Foster Cup at Queen's Club in December 2011; the current World Champion, Jamie Stout, is an Old Cheltonian as well. Cheltenham were National Schools Champions in 1997, 1998, 2004, & 2005 and Arena Champions in 2004, 2005 & 2006.
Cricket is one of the main sports, played in summer. Cheltenham College enjoys a longstanding tradition of cricket and is the home of the'Cheltenham Cricket Festival'. Gloucestershire County Cricket Club played its first game at the College cricket ground in 1872, making this the longest running cricket festival on an out-ground, in the world. There are eleven houses, two of which are day houses: Southwood for the boys and Queens for the girls. Ashmead, College Lawn and Westal are the girls' boarding houses; the boys reside in Boyne House, Hazelwell and Newick House. Leconfield hosts day students. Cheltenham College was used to film the majority of the school scenes in the popular 1968 British
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788; the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, have only had common ownership since 1967. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite: For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain, its news and its editorial comment have in general been coordinated, have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain.
To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution; the Times is the originator of the used Times Roman typeface developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern; the Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet; the Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006.
It has been used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning; the Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. Henry Johnson had invented the logography, a new typography, reputedly faster and more precise. Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce a daily advertising sheet; the first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because the word Universal was omitted from the name, Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed editorship to his son of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson. Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights in politics and amongst the City of London.
Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer'. The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence; the Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine, it enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people.
During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery. The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847; the paper continued as more or less independent, but from t