Maldon is a town and civil parish on the Blackwater estuary in Essex, England. It is starting point of the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation, it is most renowned for Maldon Sea Salt, produced in the area. The place-name Maldon is first attested in 913 in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, where it appears as Maeldun. Maldon's name comes from mǣl meaning'monument or cross' and dūn meaning'hill', so translates as'monument hill'. East Saxons settled the area in the 5th century and the area to the south is still known as the Dengie Peninsula after the Dæningas, it became a significant Saxon port with a quayside and artisan quarters. Evidence of imported pottery from this period has been found in archaeological digs. From 958 there was a royal mint issuing coins for early Norman kings, it was one of the only two towns in Essex, King Edward the Elder is thought to have lived here while combating the Danish settlers who had overrun North Essex and parts of East Anglia. A Viking raid was beaten off in 924, but in another raid in 991 the defenders were defeated in the Battle of Maldon and the Vikings received tribute but did not attempt to sack the town.
It became the subject of the celebrated Old English poem "The Battle of Maldon". The battle is commemorated by a window in St Mary's Church and by a statue on the quayside of the slain Saxon warrior Byrhtnoth. According to the Domesday Book there were 54 households and an estimated 180 townsmen in 1086; the town still had the mint and supplied a warhorse and warship for the king's service in return for its privileges of self-government. The town was awarded a charter by Henry II in 1171, stating the rights of the town as well as defining its borders and detailing its duty to provide a ship for the monarch "when necessary"; the town's All Saints' Church, unique in England in having a triangular tower, dates from around this period. While the precise building date is unknown, the church existed by 1180, the date of the foundation of nearby Beeleigh Abbey. A Charter of Richard I of December 1189 confirms "certain grants to Beeleigh Abbey, including the Church of Blessed Peter in Maldon and the Church of All Saints' in the same town".
St Mary's Church, on the Hythe Quay has a grade 1 listed Norman nave from 1130, though evidence exists of an earlier church on the site from at least a hundred years before. There were strong urban traditions, with two members elected to the Commons and three guilds which hosted lavish religious plays until they were suppressed by Puritans in 1576; until 1630, professional actors were invited to perform plays, which were stopped by Puritans. From 1570 to about 1800 a rival tradition of inviting prominent clergy to visit the town existed. In 1629 a series of grain riots took place, led by the wife of a local butcher. In the 17th century Thomas Plume started the Plume Library to house over 8,000 books and pamphlets printed between 1487 and his death in 1704; the Plume Library is to be found at St Peter's Church. Only the original tower survives, the rest of the building having been rebuilt by Thomas Plume to house his library and what was Maldon Grammar School. In the church of All Saints is a memorial window to George Washington, whose great-great grandfather, Lawrence Washington, is buried here.
Unveiled by an American diplomat on 5 July 1928, the window displays Saint Nicholas with the Mayflower, Saint George and Saint Joan of Arc in the centre. At the top are the arms of the Washington family, the arms of the USA, England and Wales. At the bottom are depictions of George Washington, the landing of the Mayflower, the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the Statue of Liberty. Maldon was chosen as one of the landing sites of a planned French invasion of Britain in 1744. However, the French invasion fleet was wrecked in storms, their forces never landed. Maldon is a town of circa 15000 people on the tidal River Chelmer by the Blackwater Estuary in Essex, it is on the A414 10 miles east of Chelmsford, 49 miles north east of Charing Cross, using the A13. Essex is a county built on London Clay, overlain with pockets of gravel deposited by riparian action, the lowest land is made up of river alluvium and salt marsh. At Maldon the railway cutting provided a reference section for geologists.
There are three landslips on the north-facing river cliff of the Blackwater at Maldon. The middle slip is called the West Maldon Landslip, caused by repeated rotational slips of the bedrock London Clay, trying to reach a stable angle. Hythe Quay at the confluence of the Chelmer and Blackwater, which flanks the northern edge of the town, was an important port, Cooks Yard remains significant for Thames barges; the River Blackwater, diverted into the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation, re-emerges into the Blackwater Estuary, through locks at the Heybridge Basin, the stream bed passes down Heybridge Creek. and this delinearates the border between Maldon Town and Heybridge Parish Council. Maldon's first railway link was a branch line to Witham opened in 1846. A second line linked Maldon with Woodham Ferrers on the Crouch Valley line between Southminster and Wickford line. Whilst Wickford is itself on the line between Shenfield and Southend, a short-lived spur line at Wickford gave direct access towards Southend.
Edward Arthur Fitch, writing in about 1895, states that from London's Liverpool Street station to Maldon East station via Witham there were eight trains on weekdays and three on Sundays and that via Wickf
The Musée Bourdelle is an art museum located at 18, rue Antoine Bourdelle, in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, France. It is open daily, except Mondays; the nearest Paris Métro stations are Montparnasse -- Bienvenüe. The museum preserves the studio of sculptor Antoine Bourdelle, provides an example of Parisian ateliers from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was Bourdelle's active studio from 1885-1929. In 1922 he began plans to turn his studio into a museum; the museum was inaugurated in 1949, expanded in 1961 by architect Henri Gautruche and again in 1992 by Christian de Portzamparc. Today the museum contains more than 500 works including marble and bronze statues, pastels, fresco sketches, Bourdelle's personal collection of works by artists including Eugène Carrière, Eugène Delacroix, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Adolphe Joseph Thomas Monticelli, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Auguste Rodin, it contains the original plaster casts of some of his finest works including 21 studies of Ludwig van Beethoven, as well as document archives and his copies of Greek and medieval works.
Since June 2012, museum's visitors follow a different path through the permanent collections: educational and attuned to the work, highlighting Bourdelle’s artistic evolution. Bourdelle Museum is one of the 14 City of Paris' Museums that have been incorporated since January 1st 2013 in the public institution Paris Musées. A second Bourdelle garden-museum, in Égreville, was established by his heirs in the late 1960s, it hosts another 56 of his sculptures. List of museums in Paris Pariserve description Frommers description Bourdelle Museum official website Paris Musées official website Media related to Antoine Bourdelle at Wikimedia Commons
The Reichenbach Falls are a waterfall cascade of seven steps on the stream called Rychenbach in the Bernese Oberland region of Switzerland. They drop over a total change of altitude of about 250 metres. At 110 metres, of which the Grand Reichenbach Fall, the upper one, is by far the largest one and one of the higher waterfalls in the Alps and among the forty highest in Switzerland; the Rychenbach loses 290 metres of height from the top of the falls to the valley floor of the Haslital. Today, a hydro-electric power company harnesses the flow of the Reichenbach Falls during certain times of year, reducing its flow. In popular literature, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle gave the Grand Reichenbach Fall as the location of the final physical altercation between his hero Sherlock Holmes and his greatest foe, the criminal Professor Moriarty in "The Final Problem"; the falls are located in the lower part of the Reichenbachtal, on the Rychenbach, a tributary of the Aare. They are some 1.5 km south of the town of Meiringen, 25 km east of Interlaken.
Politically, the falls are within the municipality of Schattenhalb in the canton of Bern. The falls are made accessible by the Reichenbach Funicular; the lower station is some 20 minutes walk, or a 6-minute bus ride, from Meiringen railway station on the Brünig railway line that links Interlaken and Lucerne. The town and the falls are known worldwide as the setting for a fictional event: it is the location where Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's hero, Sherlock Holmes, fights to the death with Professor Moriarty, at the end of "The Final Problem", first published in 1893. A memorial plate at the funicular station commemorates Holmes and there is a Sherlock Holmes museum in the nearby town of Meiringen. Out of many waterfalls in the Bernese Oberland, Reichenbach Falls seems to have made the greatest impression on Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, shown them on a Swiss holiday by his host Sir Henry Lunn, the founder of Lunn Poly. Sir Henry's grandson, Peter Lunn, recalled, "My grandfather said'Push him over the Reichenbach Falls' and Conan Doyle hadn’t heard of them, so he showed them to him."
So impressed was Doyle that he decided to let his hero die there. The actual ledge from which Moriarty fell is on the other side of the falls from the funicular; the ledge is marked by a plaque. The pathway on which the duel between Sherlock Holmes and Professor Moriarty occurs ends some hundred metres away from the falls; when Doyle viewed the falls, the path ended close to the falls, close enough to touch it, yet over the hundred years after his visit, the pathway has become unsafe and eroded away, the falls have receded further back into the gorge. The Reichenbach Falls are the subject of several early 19th-century paintings by the English Romantic landscape painter J. M. W. Turner; the indie band Ravens & Chimes named its debut album after the falls. Reichenbach Falls was the title of a 2008 BBC Four TV drama by James Mavor, based on an idea by Ian Rankin and set in Edinburgh. Numerous historical characters associated with the city, including Conan Doyle and his mentor Dr Joseph Bell, are mentioned in the story.
Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows, a 2011 film adaptation inspired by "The Final Problem" hosts the falls, although in this adaptation, a large castle has been built over them, replacing the pathway. The third episode from the 2012 second series of the BBC drama Sherlock, "The Reichenbach Fall", is a play on the waterfall's name; the special episode of Sherlock, "The Abominable Bride", broadcast on 1 January 2016, featured a re-creation of the showdown between Sherlock and Moriarty set in Victorian times, as depicted in the book. Reichenbach Funiclar Photos from the Sherlock Holmes Society of London "Reichenbach Falls", BBC Four Film & Drama
Meiringen is a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Besides the village of Meiringen, the municipality includes the settlements of Balm, Brünigen, Hausen, Sand, Unterbach, Unterheidon and Zaun. Meiringen is famous for the nearby Reichenbach Falls, a spectacular waterfall, the setting for the final showdown between Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's fictional detective Sherlock Holmes and his nemesis Professor Moriarty; the village is known for its claim to have been the place where the meringue was first created. The municipal coat of arms shows a black eagle in a yellow field Formerly the coat of arms of the entire Oberhasli Talschaft, this design continues the imperial coat of arms. Meiringen is located in the eastern Bernese Oberland region, in the Haslital on the upper reaches of the river Aare, upstream of Lake Brienz, it lies at the foot of several mountain passes, including the Brünig Pass to the valley of the Sarner Aa and hence central Switzerland, the Joch Pass to Engelberg, the Susten Pass to the upper valley of the Reuss, the Grimsel Pass to the valley of the Rhone and hence southern Switzerland, the Grosse Scheidegg Pass to Grindelwald.
On the right bank of the Aare, the municipality of Meiringen rises from an elevation of 600 m on the valley floor to the Brünig Pass at 1,008 m and beyond that to a point at 1,375 m on the slopes of the Wilerhorn. On the left bank it stretches up into the Alps and reaches an elevation of 3,191 m at the summit of the Wellhorn, it includes the village of Meiringen and the settlements of Sand, Eisenbolgen, Balm and Unterheidon in the valley, the village of Brünigen in the Brünig Pass and the hamlets of Prasti and Wylerli on the slopes above the valley. The municipality has an area, as of 2009, of 40.59 square kilometers. Of this area, 17.75 km2 or 43.7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 13.27 km2 or 32.7% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 3.04 km2 or 7.5% is settled, 0.53 km2 or 1.3% is either rivers or lakes and 6.09 km2 or 15.0% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 3.1% and transportation infrastructure made up 3.3%. Out of the forested land, 29.7% of the total land area is forested and 1.4% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees.
Of the agricultural land, 3.3% is used for growing crops and 17.8% is pastures and 22.5% is used for alpine pastures. All the water in the municipality streams. Of the unproductive areas, 5.6 % is unproductive 9.4 % is too rocky for vegetation. Meiringen is first mentioned in 1234 as Magiringin. Due to its strategic location at the foot of several alpine passes, the area around Meiringen was settled at least in the Early Middle Ages; the first village church was built in the 10th century. When it was destroyed in a flood the new church of St. Michael was built about 5 m above the old church; the current church of St. Michael dates from the 15th century and was renovated in 1683-84; the Restiturm castle was constructed in the 13th century, whilst the Wyghus fortress in the Brünig Pass was first mentioned in 1333, though it was destroyed later. Meiringen was always the political capital of the surrounding valley, it was the capital of the Imperial reichsfrei bailiwick of Hasli. In 1275 it formed an alliance with the city of Bern.
In 1311, Hasli was given to the house of Weissenburg by Henry VII. After an unsuccessful revolt in 1334, Hasli passed to the city of Bern as a subject territory in name but regained most of its earlier privileges. Under Bernese control it was the capital of the District of Oberhasli until 1798. Following the 1798 French invasion and the creation of the Helvetic Republic it was the capital of the district of Oberhasli in the Canton of Oberland and the capital of the District of Oberhasli in the canton of Bern; the village was the home of the Talschaft council and the regional court met at the cross street in front of the churchyard. Today it is still home to the Bernese District authorities, though many of the administrative offices and the district court are now in Interlaken. Meiringen was the only market town in the valley with a yearly fair starting in 1417. In 1490 this became a weekly market. Traders from the lowlands of Lombardy came here to purchase cattle and cheese. Located at the foot of Brunig, Grimsel and Joch passes, Meiringen was a hub in the trade from the lowlands through the passes.
Outside of Meiringen village the main occupation was agriculture or cattle farming until the 19th century. There were six Bäuert among the villages and hamlets in the valley. In the 1550s, a series of floods of the Aare destroyed the valley floor villages of Balm and Bürglen, both of which were abandoned; the old village of Unterheid was destroyed in 1762 when the Aare changed its course, though the village was rebuilt in a new location. In 1734 the Alpbach wall was built to protect against the river, though this problem was not solved until the 1866-80 Aare water correction project; the population growth after 1800 led to impoverishment and forced many to emigrate to America. Beginning in 1880, the growth of tourism brought new wealth into the valley. Increasing tourist traffic came over the roads that were opened over the Brünig, the Grimsel and the Susten passes; the Brünigbahn opened in 1888. Following fires in 1879
Goldsmiths, University of London
Goldsmiths, University of London, is a public research university in London, specialising in the arts, design and social sciences. It is a constituent college of the University of London, it was founded in 1891 as Goldsmiths' Technical and Recreative Institute by the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths in New Cross, London. It was renamed Goldsmiths' College; the word College was dropped from its branding in 2006, but Goldsmiths' College, with the apostrophe, remains the institution's formal legal name. Nearly 20% of students come from outside the UK, 52% of all undergraduates are mature students. Around a third of students at Goldsmiths are postgraduate students. In 1891, the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, one of the City of London Livery Companies, founded Goldsmiths' Technical and Recreative Institute; the Goldsmiths' Company was established in the 12th century as a medieval guild for goldsmiths and jewellers. The Livery Company dedicated the foundation of its new Institute to "the promotion of technical skill, knowledge and general well-being among men and women of the industrial and artisan classes".
The original Institute was based in New Cross at the former Royal Naval School building. In 1904, the Institute was merged with the University of London and was re-established as Goldsmiths' College.. At this point Goldsmiths was the largest teacher training institution in the country. Training functions were expanded to include refresher courses for teachers, the University Postgraduate Certificate in Education and an Art teacher's Certificate course; the College ran its own Nursery School. Shortly after the merger, in 1907, Goldsmiths added a new Arts building, designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield, at the back of the main building. During the Second World War it was decided to evacuate the faculty and students of the College to University College, Nottingham, a decision which proved wise both at the time and in hindsight, since the main building was struck by an incendiary bomb and gutted in 1940. During the 1960s Goldsmiths experienced a rapid expansion in student numbers, it is during this period that Goldsmiths began to establish its reputation in the arts and social science fields, as well as offering a number of new teacher training qualifications.
The original main building was expanded, the Lockwood Building, Whitehead Building, Education Building, Warmington Tower and St James's Hall were all built to accommodate the influx of new students. The university acquired a number of historic buildings in the surrounding area, including the splendid former Deptford Town Hall and Laurie Grove Baths buildings; the Richard Hoggart Building, Deptford Town Hall and the Laurie Grove Baths all retain Grade II listed building status. In 1988, Goldsmiths became a full College of the University of London and in 1990 received its Royal Charter. Among its wardens have been Richard Hoggart, Andrew Rutherford and Ben Pimlott; the current Warden is Pat Loughrey. In 2018, the former boiler house and public laundry of Laurie Grove Baths was refurbished and opened as Goldsmiths CCA. Goldsmiths is situated in New Cross, a populated area of south-east London with a considerable art and music scene; the area is served by London Overground trains at New Cross Gate.
The main building, the Richard Hoggart Building, was designed as a school by the architect John Shaw, Jr. The former Deptford Town Hall Building, designed by Henry Vaughan Lanchester and Edwin Alfred Rickards, acquired in 1998, is used for academic seminars and conferences. In addition to this Goldsmiths has built several more modern buildings to develop the campus, including the RIBA award-winning Rutherford Building completed in 1997, the Ben Pimlott Building designed by Will Alsop and completed in 2005, the Professor Stuart Hall Building, completed in 2010; the library, or the Rutherford Building, has three floors and gives students access to an extensive range of printed and electronic resources. The third-floor library is believed to house the largest collection of audio-visual material in the UK. Goldsmiths' students, like all other students in the University of London, have full access to the collections at Senate House Library at Bloomsbury in central London; the seven-storey Ben Pimlott Building on New Cross Road, complete with its distinctive "scribble in the sky" has become a signature of modern Goldsmiths.
It contains studio and teaching space for the Department of Art, as well as housing the Goldsmiths Digital Studios and the Centre for Cognition and Culture. The Professor Stuart Hall Building, situated next to the green, is home to the Media and Communications Department and the Institute for Creative and Cultural Entrepreneurship. Facilities include a 250-seat lecture theatre and teaching rooms, as well as a cafe with outdoor seating; the Department of Art at Goldsmiths is one of the leading fine art teaching and practice-based research centres in the world. The Head of Department is Dr Richard Noble. Notable alumni include Damien Hirst, Sarah Lucas, Steve McQueen, Gillian Wearing, Sabina Goldsmith and Graham Coxon; the university is a member of the Screen Studies Group, London. The Depart
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a representative democratic election, his government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress party from 1991 to 1997. A Xhosa, Mandela was born to the Thembu royal family in British South Africa, he studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943 and co-founding its Youth League in 1944. After the National Party's white-only government established apartheid, a system of racial segregation that privileged whites, he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow.
Mandela was appointed President of the ANC's Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People. He was arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the banned South African Communist Party. Although committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961 and led a sabotage campaign against the government, he was arrested and imprisoned in 1962, subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment for conspiring to overthrow the state following the Rivonia Trial. Mandela served 27 years in prison, split between Robben Island, Pollsmoor Prison, Victor Verster Prison. Amid growing domestic and international pressure, with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk led efforts to negotiate an end to apartheid, which resulted in the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory and became president.
Leading a broad coalition government which promulgated a new constitution, Mandela emphasised reconciliation between the country's racial groups and created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Economically, Mandela's administration retained its predecessor's liberal framework despite his own socialist beliefs introducing measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and served as Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999, he declined a second presidential term, in 1999 was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela became an elder statesman and focused on combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the charitable Nelson Mandela Foundation. Mandela was a controversial figure for much of his life. Although critics on the right denounced him as a communist terrorist and those on the far-left deemed him too eager to negotiate and reconcile with apartheid's supporters, he gained international acclaim for his activism.
Regarded as an icon of democracy and social justice, he received more than 250 honours—including the Nobel Peace Prize—and became the subject of a cult of personality. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is referred to by his Xhosa clan name and described as the "Father of the Nation". Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata part of South Africa's Cape Province. Given the forename Rolihlahla, a Xhosa term colloquially meaning "troublemaker", in years he became known by his clan name, Madiba, his patrilineal great-grandfather, was king of the Thembu people in the Transkeian Territories of South Africa's modern Eastern Cape province. One of Ngubengcuka's sons, named Mandela, was the source of his surname; because Mandela was the king's child by a wife of the Ixhiba clan, a so-called "Left-Hand House", the descendants of his cadet branch of the royal family were morganatic, ineligible to inherit the throne but recognised as hereditary royal councillors.
Nelson Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa Mandela, was a local chief and councillor to the monarch. In 1926, Gadla was sacked for corruption, but Nelson was told that his father had lost his job for standing up to the magistrate's unreasonable demands. A devotee of the god Qamata, Gadla was a polygamist with four wives, four sons and nine daughters, who lived in different villages. Nelson's mother was Gadla's third wife, Nosekeni Fanny, daughter of Nkedama of the Right Hand House and a member of the amaMpemvu clan of the Xhosa. Mandela stated that his early life was dominated by traditional Thembu custom and taboo, he grew up with two sisters in his mother's kraal in the village of Qunu, where he tended herds as a cattle-boy and spent much time outside with other boys. Both his parents were illiterate, but being a devout Christian, his mother sent him to a local Methodist school when he was about seven. Baptised a Methodist, Mandela was given the English forename of "Nelson" by his teacher.
When Mandela was about nine, his father came to stay at Qunu, where he died of an undiagnosed ailment which Mandela believed to be lung disease. Feeling "cut adrift", he said that he inherited his father's "proud rebelliousness" and "stubborn sense of fairness". Mandela's mother took him to the "Great Place" palace at Mqhekezw
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent