John Dowland was an English Renaissance composer and singer. He is best known today for his melancholy songs such as "Come, heavy sleep", "Come again", "Flow my tears", "I saw my Lady weepe" and "In darkness let me dwell", but his instrumental music has undergone a major revival, with the 20th century's early music revival, has been a continuing source of repertoire for lutenists and classical guitarists. Little is known of John Dowland's early life, but it is thought he was born in London. Irish historian W. H. Grattan Flood claimed that he was born in Dalkey, near Dublin, but no corroborating evidence has been found either for that or for Thomas Fuller's claim that he was born in Westminster. There is however one clear piece of evidence pointing to Dublin as his place of origin: he dedicated the song "From Silent Night" to'my loving countryman Mr. John Forster the younger, merchant of Dublin in Ireland'; the Forsters were a prominent Dublin family at the time, providing several Lord Mayors to the city.
In 1580 Dowland went to Paris, where he was in service to Sir Henry Cobham, the ambassador to the French court, his successor Sir Edward Stafford. He became a Roman Catholic at this time. In 1584, Dowland married. In 1588 he was admitted Mus. Bac. from Christ Church, Oxford. In 1594 a vacancy for a lutenist came up at the English court, but Dowland's application was unsuccessful – he claimed his religion led to his not being offered a post at Elizabeth I's Protestant court. However, his conversion was not publicised, being Catholic did not prevent some other important musicians from a court career. From 1598 Dowland worked at the court of Christian IV of Denmark, though he continued to publish in London. King Christian was interested in music and paid Dowland astronomical sums. Though Dowland was regarded by King Christian, he was not the ideal servant overstaying his leave when he went to England on publishing business or for other reasons. Dowland was returned to England. There are few compositions dating from the moment of his royal appointment until his death in London in 1626.
While the date of his death is not known, "Dowland's last payment from the court was on 20 January 1626, he was buried at St Ann's, London, on 20 February 1626."Two major influences on Dowland's music were the popular consort songs, the dance music of the day. Most of Dowland's music is for the lute, it includes several books of solo lute works, lute songs, part-songs with lute accompaniment, several pieces for viol consort with lute. The poet Richard Barnfield wrote that Dowland's "heavenly touch upon the lute doth ravish human sense." One of his better known works is the lute song "Flow my tears", the first verse of which runs: He wrote what is his best known instrumental work, Lachrimae, or Seaven Teares, Figured in Seaven Passionate Pavans, a set of seven pavanes for five viols and lute, each based on the theme derived from the lute song "Flow my tears". It became one of the best known collections of consort music in his time, his pavane, "Lachrymae antiquae", was popular in the seventeenth century, was arranged and used as a theme for variations by many composers.
He wrote a lute version of the popular ballad "My Lord Willoughby's Welcome Home". Dowland's music displays the melancholia, so fashionable in music at that time, he wrote a consort piece with the punning title "Semper Dowland, semper dolens", which may be said to sum up much of his work. Richard Barnfield, Dowland's contemporary, refers to him in poem VIII of The Passionate Pilgrim, a Shakespearean sonnet: Only one comprehensive monograph of Dowland's life and works is available in print; the fullest list is. P numbers are therefore sometimes used to designate individual pieces. Published by Thomas Est in 1592, The Whole Booke of Psalmes contained works by 10 composers, including 6 pieces by Dowland. Put me not to rebuke, O Lord All people that on earth do dwell My soul praise the Lord Lord to thee I make my moan Behold and have regard A Prayer for the Queens most excellent Maiestie The New Booke of Tabliture was published by William Barley in 1596, it contains seven solo lute pieces by Dowland.
Written for the professional choir of Westminster Abbey. The Lamentation of a sinner Domine ne in furore Miserere mei Deus The humble sute of a sinner The humble complaint of a sinner De profundis Domine exaudi Of uncertain attribution are: Ye righteous in the Lord An heart that's broken I shame at my unworthiness Dowland in London in 1597 published his First Booke of Songes or Ayres, a set of 21 lute-songs and one of the most influential collections in the history of the lute, it is set out in a way that allows performance by a soloist with lute accompaniment or by various other combinations of singers and instrumentalists. The lute-songs are listed below. After them, at the end of the collection, comes "My Lord Chamberlaine, His Galliard", a piece for two people to play on one lute. Vnquiet thoughts Who euer thinks or hopes of loue for loue My thoughts are wingd with hopes If my complaints could passions moue Can she excuse my wrongs with vertues cloake Now, O now I needs must part Deare if you change ile neuer chuse againe Burst forth my teares Go Cristal
Rape in the Philippines is considered a criminal offense. In Philippine jurisprudence, it is a heinous crime punishable by life imprisonment when committed against women. Rape of males is legally recognized as rape by sexual assault, penalized by imprisonment of six to twelve years; the Anti-Rape Law of 1997 defines the crime of rape as follows: Article 266-A. Rape: When And How Committed. - Rape is committed: 1) By a man who shall have carnal knowledge of a woman under any of the following circumstances: a) Through force, threat, or intimidation. 2) By any person who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 hereof, shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting his penis into another person’s mouth or anal orifice, or any instrument or object, into the genital or anal orifice of another person. Changes in 1997 expanded the definition of rape and reclassified that crime as a Crime against persons instead of, as grouping it with Crimes against Chastity; the amendment recognized the rape of males, both by other males and by females, as well as that both the victim and rapist may either be male or female.
Prior to the 1997 amendment of Revised Penal Code of 1930, male victims of rape were not acknowledged under Philippine law. Article 266-A of the law defines rape by "an act of sexual assault" by any person either by "inserting his penis into another person's mouth or anal orifice" or inserting "any instrument or object, into the genital or anal orifice of another person"; the 1997 amendment allowed the legal recognition of rape of males, both by other males and by females. However rape against males are only considered by law as rape by sexual assault, which carries a lesser penalty of six to 12 years as opposed to the same act against females which are penalized by life imprisonment; the María Clara doctrine is a relevant legal doctrine that observed by Philippine courts on abuse on women, including rape. It states that women Filipino women, "would not admit that they have been abused unless that abuse had happened." And that a women's natural instinct is to protect their honor. Though in 2018, a ruling which convicted two men for rape of a woman in Davao City was reversed by the Supreme Court's Third Division due to inconsistencies with the woman's statement in regards to her alleged rape and other evidences presented to the court.
However this did not mean the abandonment of the doctrine contrary to speculations by critics of the ruling. Statistics on the incidence of rape are based on available police records; these are inaccurate and not a true representation of the problem, for cultural and social stigmatisation associated with rape act as significant barriers to women reporting rape. Furthermore, women are more not to report rape if there is little support from their families, law enforcement agencies and the health sector. In the Philippines, The Asian Women's Resource Exchange, an Internet-based women's information service, reports that 794 rapes occurred in the Philippines in the first four months of 1997. During the first semester of 1999 alone, there were 2,393 children who fell prey to rape, attempted rape, acts of lasciviousness and prostitution; as of 2006, Rape continued to be a problem, with most cases going unreported. During the year, the PNP reported 685 rape cases There were reports of rape and sexual abuse of women in police or protective custody—often women from marginalized groups, such as suspected prostitutes, drug users, lower income individuals arrested for minor crimes..
The situation continued in 2007, with the number of reported rape cases increasing to 879. The following statistical data has been reported by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Women in the custody of law enforcement officials in the Philippines are vulnerable to torture, including rape and sexual abuse. Between 1995 and 2000 Amnesty International received reports of more than 30 incidents of rape or other sexual abuse of women or girls in custody; the organization fears. Rape of women detainees by police officers, jail guards or military officials always constitutes torture, it is both a physical violation and injury as well as a humiliating assault on a woman's mental and emotional integrity. Other forms of sexual abuse by law enforcement officials, including the threat of rape, verbal sexual abuse, mocking, designed to degrade and humiliate, may constitute torture or other forms of cruel and degrading treatment. According to Amnesty International's information, there has been only a small number of convictions of police officers for the rape of female detainees.
Prostitution in the cities of Olongapo and Angeles was prominent during the time of the U. S. military bases called Clark Air Base, respectively. Although the sex trade in the Philippines caters to the indigenous population, NGOs and religious groups sensationalize the problems of prostitution by drawing attention to the foreigner-oriented segment of this business. In Angeles, the control is split between Filipino, Korean and American bar operators, though in 1987, Australians had a financial interest in more than 60% of the 500 bars and 7,000 prostitutes in the cityPhilippines Senator Ramon Bong Revilla, Jr. on July 26, 2006, called for coordination with the Philippine National Po
The Hurum air disaster was an Aero Holland plane crash in Hurum southwest of Oslo, Norway when a Douglas DC-3, carrying Jewish children from Tunisia who were to transit through Norway while immigrating to Israel crashed as it was approaching Fornebu Airport on 20 November 1949, killing 34 people, including 27 children. In 1949, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee signed an agreement with the Norwegian Ministry of Welfare under which 200 places in a sanitarium for tuberculosis patients was to be evacuated so as to be made available for Jewish children from North Africa in the process of immigrating to the newly independent state of Israel. In April 1949, about 200 children from Morocco transited through the facility on their way to Israel, this was to be followed by a group of Tunisian Jewish children. In Tunisia, a protectorate of France, Youth Aliyah emissaries had arrived after Israeli independence in 1948, with the consent of the French authorities, selected children for immigration to Israel with the consent of their parents.
Most of these children were from poor families. On November 20, 1949, two DC-3 planes of the Aero Holland company took off from an airport near Tunis. One made it safely to its destination; the other plane, with the registration PH-TFA, stopped at Brussels-Zaventem Airport to repair the radio before setting off for Oslo. On board that plane were 28 children, most of them 8 to 12 years old, seven escorts and crew; as the DC-3 approached Oslo, the pilot encountered heavy fog, lowered the plane while still in mountainous terrain. Near Hurum, one of the plane's wings hit a tree; the plane continued another 60 meters and crashed into a mountain at 16:56. The force of the collision overturned the plane, blew most of the passengers out, ignited the fuel tanks, causing the front of the plane to burst into flames. Of the 35 people on board, 34 were killed; the only survivor was a 12-year-old boy. The boys's sister and two brothers were killed in the crash. At midnight, Norwegian radio announced that contact with the plane had been lost and asked for the public's help.
A search operation was initiated, on November 22, after 42 hours of searching, the wreckage and bodies were found. Allal was found, having stayed in the bitter cold on the site; the crash was the second deadliest air disaster in Norway at that time, exceeded only by the 35 deaths in the 1947 Kvitbjørn disaster. Public sympathy ran high, the secretary of the Norwegian Labor Party, Håkon Lie started a fundraiser to build a Norwegian village in Israel; the funds were used in helping build the moshav Yanuv. A memorial to the victims has been raised at the crash site, it is symbolically decorated with Stars of David. Parts of the wreckage are at the memorial. In Israel, a memorial to the victims was built in Yanuv. Friends of Israel in the Norwegian Labour Movement raised money for it to be built. Memorials exist in Netivot, Netanya, a kindergarten in Netanya is named for the children of Oslo. Aviation in Norway List of sole survivors of airline accidents or incidents ^ Norwegian report on Norway's relationship with Israel Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network Page about the memorial