Patrick James John "Pat" Eddery was an Irish flat racing jockey and horse trainer. He rode three winners of The Derby, was Champion Jockey on eleven occasions, he is co-holder of the record for most title championships as well as wins in the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe. He rode the winners of 4,632 British flat races, a figure exceeded only by Sir Gordon Richards. Eddery was born in Newbridge, County Kildare, less than 2 miles from the Curragh Racecourse, his birth was registered in Dublin, he was the fifth child of Jimmy Eddery, a jockey who rode Panaslipper to win the Irish Derby in 1955, Josephine. His brother, Paul went on to become a jockey, he attended the Patrician Brothers' Primary School in Newbridge and when the family moved to Blackrock, the Oatlands Primary School in Stillorgan. Since early childhood, Pat Eddery's most frequent dreams were to be the champion jockey and winning the Derby. Eddery began his career as an apprentice jockey in Ireland with the stable of Seamus McGrath. In 1967 he moved to England where he was apprenticed to Frenchie Nicholson and recorded his first success on Alvaro at Epsom Downs Racecourse on 24 April 1969 after riding more than one whole season without a single winner.
The same horse was to give Eddery 6 wins in succession during the 1969 season. While still riding as an apprentice he won the Wokingham Handicap and the Timeform Gold Cup in 1969, the Northumberland Plate in 1970 and the Goodwood Stakes in 1971, a year in which he won the title of Champion Apprentice Jockey. Before formally out of apprenticeship, Eddery won the Ascot Gold Cup in 1972 after the disqualification of Roc Roi. Nicknamed Polyfilla in his early career, Pat was described as a seal in water on horseback in for a long swim. Throughout his riding career he clinched 11 championship titles, two batches coming in four consecutive seasons, but for his joining the Vincent O'Brien stable in autumn 1980 that took him out of all main Saturday meetings in England, he would have recorded more champion titles, though he did became the Irish Champion in 1982. His last champion title in 1996 was his determination to regain what he had lost when the English racing season switched over in the early 1990s to multi-purpose track racing starting in November, a time when Eddery was customarily riding for other overseas retainers since the early 1970s.
Eddery's first championship title in 1974 saw the youngest English flat racing champion emerging after World War II, a record not since broken by subsequent champions. He was first voted the Jockey of the Year in 1974 by the Horserace Writers' Association, he finished his retainer with Peter Walwyn in 1980 after two seasons of aquine virus acutely affecting the Walwyn stables. He joined forces with the greatest racing conglomerate of that time – the Ballydoyle stables under Irish compatriot Vincent O'Brien; when in the mid-1980s the Arab owners began to dominate the British racing scene, Eddery was retained globally by the owner of Juddmonte stables, Arab prince Khalid Abdullah, a position he held until 1994, after which he rode as freelance jockey until his retirement from the saddle at the end of 2003. Eddery's riding style was not elegant by normal standards, owing to his habit of bouncing up and down in the saddle as he urged his mounts on at the final finishes, but was undeniably effective.
Frenchie Nicholson said that he regretted the fact that his protegee abandoned the "quiet, refined" style he had been taught but admitted that the young jockey stood out as being "in total harmony" with the horses he rode. Eddery rode for the Newmarket trainer Geoffrey Barling in 1972 before taking over as the stable jockey for Peter Walwyn that year. For Walwyn he won his first two classic races on Polygamy and Grundy and was Champion Jockey in four consecutive seasons from 1974 to 1977. While under retainer with Walwyn, he clinched his first title at the record young age of 22. In 1975 he rode Grundy to defeat Bustino for the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Diamond Stakes at Ascot Racecourse in what became known as Britain's "Race of the Century". Well known for riding champion horses like Sadler's Wells, etc. Eddery was famed for riding for big owners as well as champion trainers. Apart from the illustrious associations with Robert Sangster, Arab giant owners Prince Khalid bin Abdullah, Wafic Saïd and Maktoum al-Maktoum, he rode to winners in the Colony of Hong Kong on the first race horse to be owned by tycoon Li Ka Shing, called'Golden Victory' and trained by English trainer John Brown to whom Eddery rode for many seasons in winter in Hong Kong since November 10, 1973.
In the following decade, Eddery became associated with the Irish Ballydoyle stable of Vincent O'Brien and gained further classic success on Kings Lake, Golden Fleece, Assert and El Gran Senor. In 1986, on the choice of the horse's owner, he took over from Greville Starkey as the rider of Dancing Brave, he partnered Dancing Brave to victory in the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes and the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe and became the worldwide retained jockey of the colt's owner, Khalid Abdullah. While the press played up in the course of years the controversy between Starkey and Eddery, Eddery had been most reticent and underplayed the apparent falling out. Major winners in the Abdullah colours included Quest for Fame Warning and Toulon, he was Champion Jockey a further seven times in eleven years between 1986 and 1996. His epic battle for championship in 1987 with American Steve Cauthen was intense, with Cauthen winning the title with 197 and Eddery coming close at 195, but for an objection from the third horse after t
Marju was a Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. Marju was a dark bay or brown horse owned by Hamdan Al Maktoum, he was sired by Last Tycoon out of Flame of Tara. He was a half-brother to Group One winner Salsabil. Trained by John Dunlop, Marju raced 7 times during his career and was ridden by Willie Carson each time, he won 3 races including the Craven Stakes and the St. James's Palace Stakes, as well as finishing second to Generous in the 1991 Epsom Derby, he won a total prize money of £282,640. Retired to stud duty, Marju sired a number of stakes winners including the Soviet Song, My Emma, Sil Sila, Satono Crown, Viva Pataca and Indigenous, he is the damsire of Ramonti. Marju died at his owner's Derrinstown Stud in Ireland in October 2016. After his death, the last crop Japanese horse Satono Crown honored Hong Kong Vase
Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum is the Deputy Ruler of Dubai and the Minister of Finance and Industry of the United Arab Emirates. He is the second son of the late ruler Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum. Sheikh Hamdan received his early education in the Emirates attended Bell School of Languages, Cambridge, he and his brother, Sheikh Mohammed, control the state-owned Dubai Ports World along with the Dubai Holding Co. and its many subsidiary companies which have wide-ranging investments in hotels, apartment buildings and finance, healthcare facilities. Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum has been the head of the UAE's delegation at the International Monetary Fund and the OPEC Fund. Sheikh Hamdan was born on 25 December 1945, he was the second of four sons of a late ruler of Dubai. Sheikh Hamdan's formal schooling began in Dubai, he attended Al Madrasah Al-Ahlia, where he studied mathematics, basic sciences and Islamic studies. He went on to complete his further studies at the Bell School of Languages in Cambridge between 1967 and 1968.
In Britain, Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum developed an interest in thoroughbred racing. The years saw a great deal of development in the UAE. While Dubai and Abu Dhabi had begun the process of modernisation, it was far from complete; as Minister of Finance and Industry, Sheikh Hamdan oversaw such work, while he was charged with developing the economy and an industrial base. The UAE's rulers understood that the country could not afford to isolate its efforts in the petroleum sector, despite the fact that in 1971 the majority of federal government revenues were derived from this source. In Dubai, Sheikh Rashid placed his second son in charge of an array of key governmental industrial enterprises, including the Dubai Aluminium Company, Dubai Gas Company and Dubai Cable Company, among others. Sheikh Hamdan was the minister of finance and industry of the United Arab Emirates until his appointment as deputy ruler, he invited a delegation from the Islamic Research Academy on April 3, 1999 to discuss the launch of an effort and human investment in preparing an academic team of young scholars as specialists in Islamic Jerusalem Studies.
This resulted in the launch of several scholarships to reward distinguished young scholars, which lead to the establishment of the Al-Maktoum Institute in Dundee, Scotland with unique postgraduate programmes with the University of Aberdeen. Shaikh Hamdan is the benefactor and the Patron of the "Shaikh Hamdan Bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Award for Medical Excellence", an award instituted to reward excellence in the field of medical sciences with its comprehensive and exciting features to benefit competing researchers and medical institutions. Sheikh Hamdan has received numerous awards for his achievements, he is working on a project to make horse betting easier and faster through a concept designed by a South African business counterpart. The project was to be launched in mid-2010. Introduced to thoroughbred flat racing while a student in the United Kingdom, Sheikh Hamdan established his first racing stable there in 1981. Over the years he has invested in both racing and breeding and has acquired major operations in England and the United States.
The Dubai Arabian Horse Championship is held through the patronage of Sheikh Hamdan. Sheikh Hamdan's horse, Eastern Anthem, won the 2009 Dubai Sheema Classic. Sheikh Hamdan has supported UNESCO with the "Hamdan bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Prize for Outstanding Practice and Performance in Enhancing the Effectiveness of Teachers"
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum is the vice president and prime minister of the United Arab Emirates, ruler of the Emirate of Dubai. Since his accession in 2006, after the death of his brother Sheikh Maktoum, he has undertaken reforms in the UAE's government, starting with the UAE Federal Government Strategy in April 2007. In 2010 he launched the UAE vision 2021 with the aim of making the UAE'one of the best countries in the world' by 2021, he is responsible for the growth of Dubai into a global city, as well as the launch of a number of major enterprises including Emirates Airline, DP World, the Jumeirah Group. Many of these are held by Dubai Holding, a company with multi-diversified businesses and investments. Sheikh Mohammed has overseen the development of numerous projects in Dubai including the creation of a technology park and a free economic zone, Dubai Internet City, Dubai Media City, the Dubai International Finance Centre, the Palm Islands and the Burj Al Arab hotel, he drove the construction of Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world.
An equestrian, he is the founder of the Maktoum family-owned Godolphin racing stable and the owner of Darley, a thoroughbred breeding operation with operations in six countries. In 2012, he rode, he is a recognised poet in his native Arabic. He has a special relationship with Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the Crown Prince of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces, is seen as the de facto leader of the UAE. Sheikh Mohammed is the third of Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum's four sons, members of Dubai's ruling Al Maktoum family and descendants of the House of Al-Falasi, of which Sheikh Mohammed is the tribal leader, his mother was Sheikha Latifa bint Hamdan Al Nahyan, daughter of Sheikh Hamdan bin Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan the ruler of Abu Dhabi. From the age of four, he was tutored in Arabic and Islamic Studies. In 1955, he began his formal education at Al Ahmedia School. At the age of 10, he moved to Al Shaab School, two years went to Dubai Secondary School.
In 1966, with his cousin Mohammed bin Khalifa Al Maktoum, he attended the Bell Educational Trust's English Language School in the United Kingdom. He subsequently studied at the Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot, passing out with the sword of honour as the top Commonwealth student, he travelled to Italy to train as a pilot. As a young man, in January 1968, he was present when Sheikh Rashid and Sheikh Zayed first met in the desert between Dubai and Abu Dhabi at Argoub El Sedira to agree to the formation of a union of emirates following British notification of intent to withdraw from the Trucial States; when the new nation of the United Arab Emirates was founded on 2 December 1971, he became its first Minister of Defence. On his return from military training to Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed's father appointed him head of the Dubai Police Force and the Dubai Defence Force, to become part of the Union Defence Force. A period of uncertainty and instability followed the Union of the United Arab Emirates, including skirmishes between tribes over property straddling new borders.
On 24 January 1972, the exiled former ruler of the Emirate of Sharjah, Saqr bin Sultan Al Qasimi led an insurrectionist coup against the ruler, Khalid bin Mohammed Al Qasimi. Following a spirited firefight between the Union Defence Force and Saqr's forces - Egyptian mercenaries who had entered the UAE through Ras Al Khaimah - Sheikh Mohammed accepted Saqr's surrender. Sheikh Khalid had been killed in the action, leading to the accession of his brother Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi as ruler of Sharjah. Mohammed delivered Saqr to Sheikh Zayed. In 1973, Sheikh Mohammed was involved in protracted negotiations with the hijackers of JAL 404, led by Japanese Red Army member Osamu Maruouka, which landed in Dubai after being hijacked as it departed Schiphol. Although unsuccessful in obtaining the release of the hostages, he was more successful in a negotiation with the three hijackers of KLM 861, who released the balance of their hostages and handed over the plane in return for safe passage. Sheikh Mohammed has been responsible for the creation and growth of a number of businesses and economic assets of Dubai, with a number held by two companies under his ownership, Dubai World and Dubai Holding.
Dubai World was launched on 2 July 2006, as a holding company consolidating a number of assets including logistics company DP World, property developer Nakheel Properties, investment company Istithmar World. With more than 50,000 employees in over 100 cities around the globe, the group has real estate and other business investments in the United States, the United Kingdom, South Africa. Dubai Holding develops and manages hospitality, business parks, real estate, telecommunications through four operating units: Jumeirah Group, TECOM Investments, Dubai Properties Group and Emirates International Telecommunications; the company's investment group operating units include Dubai International Capital. He holds a controlling interest in property developer and event management, investment company Meraas Holding, developing a number of retail and themed developments in Dubai, including Legoland and a Bollywood movie theme park. Sheikh Mohammed was responsible for the launch of Emirates Airline, as well as heading the development of both Dubai International Airport and Dubai World Central - Al Maktoum International Airport.
He was al
The Derby Stakes the Investec Derby, popularly known as the Derby, is a Group 1 flat horse race in England open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies. It is run at Epsom Downs Racecourse in Surrey over a distance of one mile, four furlongs and 6 yards, on the first Saturday of June each year, it is Britain's richest horse race, the most prestigious of the five Classics. It is sometimes referred to as the "Blue Riband" of the turf; the race serves as the middle leg of the Triple Crown, preceded by the 2000 Guineas and followed by the St Leger. Owners try to have their horses win all three races any more, as it is hard on the horses; the name "Derby" has become synonymous with great races all over the world, as such has been borrowed many times, notably by the Kentucky Derby in the United States. The Derby run at Epsom is the original and in Great Britain is invariably referred to as "the Derby", it has a large worldwide TV audience. The Stanley family, Earls of Derby, had a long history of horse-racing, James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby, who gained the Lordship of Mann in 1627, instituted horse-racing on the Langness Peninsula on the Isle of Man, donating a cup for what became known as the "Manx Derby".
The Derby originated at a celebration following the first running of the Oaks Stakes in 1779. A new race was planned, it was decided that it should be named after either the host of the party, the 12th Earl of Derby, or one of his guests, Sir Charles Bunbury. According to legend the decision was made by the toss of a coin, but it is probable that Bunbury, the Steward of the Jockey Club, deferred to his host; the inaugural running of the Derby was held on Thursday 4 May 1780. It was won by a colt owned by Sir Charles Bunbury, who collected prize money of £ 1,065 15s; the first four runnings were contested over 1 mile, but this was amended to the current distance of 1½ miles in 1784. Lord Derby achieved his first success with a horse called Sir Peter Teazle; the starting point of the race was moved twice during the 19th century. The first move, suggested by Lord George Bentinck, was in 1848, the second was in 1872, it was discovered in 1991 that the exact length of the race was one mile, four furlongs and 10 yards.
The Derby was run on a Thursday in late May or early June, depending on when Easter occurred. In 1838 the race was moved to a Wednesday to fit in with the railways' timetables, but still followed the moveable feast of Easter. In the 20th century, the race was run on the first Wednesday in June from 1900 until 1995, not including 1915 to 1918, when it was on a Tuesday. During the Second World War, from 1942 until 1945 the race was run on a Saturday, as it was in the post-war years of 1947 to 1950 and again in 1953. In 1995 the day was changed from the first Wednesday in June to the first Saturday, since all the races have taken place on that day; the Derby has been run at Epsom in all years except during the world wars. From 1915 to 1918 and from 1940 to 1945, the Derby was run at Newmarket; these races are known as the'New Derby'. The Derby has inspired many similar events around the world. European variations include the Derby Italiano, the Deutsches Derby, the Irish Derby and the Prix du Jockey Club.
Several races in the United States include the "Derby" name, including the oldest, the Kentucky Derby. Other national equivalents include the Australian Derby, the New Zealand Derby, the Tokyo Yūshun. For many years the Derby was run on a Wednesday or a Thursday and on the day huge crowds would come from London, not only to see the race but to enjoy other entertainment. By the time that Charles Dickens visited Epsom Downs to view the race in the 1850s, entertainers such as musicians and conjurers plied their trades and entertained the crowds; the crowded meeting was the subject of a painting by William Powell Frith painted in the 1858 and titled The Derby Day. In the 1870s, the steam-driven rides were introduced, they were located at the Tattenham Corner end of the grounds and the fair was on for ten days and entertained hundreds of thousands. During the latter half of the 20th century, Derby Day became less popular and the race was moved from Wednesday to Saturday in 1995 the hope of reviving high attendance.
As the number of people attending the fair dwindled in the face of competition for attention and changing tastes, its length was reduced from 10 days to three or four. Investec became the sponsor of the Derby in 2009, the current sponsorship deal runs until 2022; the race was backed by Ever Ready and Vodafone. The 1952 drama film Derby Day, directed by Herbert Wilcox and starring Michael Wilding and Anna Neagle, is set around The Derby. Epsom Derby is referenced in the recent popular BBC television series Peaky Blinders, set in the 20th century. 1805: One of the horses was brought down by a spectator. 1825: Middleton never raced before or after winning the Derby. 1838: Amato never raced before or after winning the Derby. 1844: The original winner Running Rein was disqualified as he was an ineligible four-year-old horse named Maccabeus. 1881: Iroquois became the first American-bred to win a leg of the British triple crown. 1884: The race finished with a dead-heat between Harvester
Arundel is a market town and civil parish in a steep vale of the South Downs, West Sussex, England. The much-conserved town has Roman Catholic cathedral. Although smaller in population than most other parishes, Arundel has a museum and comes second behind much larger Chichester in its number of listed buildings in West Sussex; the River Arun runs through the eastern side of the town. Arundel was one of the boroughs reformed by the Municipal Reform Act 1835. From 1836-1889 the town had its own Borough police force with a strength of three. In 1974 it became part of the Arun district, is now a civil parish with a town council; the name was spelled Arundell. The modern spelling dates to the 18th century; the etymology of the name is derived from the name of River Arun, a British hydronym, combined with Anglo-Saxon dell. A popular etymology, reflected in the municipal coat of arms, connects the Norman French word for "swallow", aronde. An electoral ward of the same name exists; this ward stretches north to Houghton with a total population at the 2011 census of 4,298.
Arundel civil parish occupies an area somewhat larger than its built-up clusters, with the old town towards the north and the new to the south, separated by a main road. Arundel town is a major bridging point over the River Arun as it was the lowest road bridge until the opening of the Littlehampton swing bridge in 1908. Arundel Castle was built by the Normans to protect that vulnerable wooded plain to the north of the valley through the South Downs; the town grew up on the slope below the castle to the south. The river was called the Tarrant and was renamed after the town by antiquarians in a back-formation. Arundel includes meadows to the south but is clustered north of the A27 road, which narrowly avoids the town centre by a short and congested single carriageway bypass. Plans for a more extensive, HQDC bypass were debated intensely between 1980 and 2010 and a junction was built for it at Crossbush. In Spring 2018, Highways England published their preferred route for the new bypass. During 2018-19 there is a further period of consultation when views on a more detailed design for the four-mile dual carriageway will be sought.
Arundel railway station is on the Arun Valley Line. The Monarch's Way long-distance footpath passes through the town and crosses the river here, while just under five miles north and north-west of the town the route of the South Downs Way runs; the town itself lies outside the boundaries of the South Downs National Park. Arundel is home to seat of the Duke of Norfolk. On 6 July 2004, Arundel was granted Fairtrade Town status. People born in Arundel are known locally as Mullets, due to the presence of mullet in the River Arun. Arundel is home to one of the oldest Scout Groups in the world. 1st Arundel Scout Group was formed in 1908. Based in an HQ in Green Lane Close, it has active sections of Beaver Cub Scouts and Scouts. Arundel has a non-League football club Arundel F. C. which plays at Mill Road. The town has its own cricket ground at the castle cited as being one of the country's most picturesque, it hosts Sussex County Cricket Club for a number of games each season. Christopher Alexander, architect.
George Constable, local brewer and amateur artist, whose work is now in the Tate. He was a friend of John Constable. Derek Davis and painter Judy Geeson, actress. Cara Horgan, actress. Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel, part of the court of Queen Elizabeth I and a martyr for the Catholic faith, he was taken to the Tower of London with his dog in 1585 and died in 1595. His bones can be found in an altar at Arundel Cathedral. Amelia Frances Howard-Gibbon was lived at Arundel as a child, she is buried with her father and former town mayor Edward Howard Howard-Gibbon at Saint Nicholas Churchyard in Arundel. C. E. M. Joad and broadcaster, wrote many books at South Stoke Farm near Arundel. George MacDonald, pastor of Trinity Congregational Church, 1850. Francis Meynell, publisher. Liam Treadwell, jockey. Amberley Working Museum Arundel Museum Earls of Arundel Fitzalan Chapel List of places of worship in Arun Tortington Portsmouth and Arundel Canal South Marsh Mill, Arundel WWT Arundel An Arundel Tomb, a poem by Philip Larkin Town Council Arundel in the Domesday Book
Duke of Norfolk
The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl. The Duke of Norfolk is, the Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England; the seat of the Duke of Norfolk is Arundel Castle in Sussex, although the title refers to the county of Norfolk. The current duke is Edward 18th Duke of Norfolk; the dukes have been Catholic, a state of affairs known as recusancy in England. All past and present dukes have been descended from Edward I; the son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, was Henry Earl of Surrey. Before the Dukes of Norfolk, there were the Bigod Earls of Norfolk, starting with Roger Bigod from Normandy, their male line ended with Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, who died without an heir in 1307, so their titles and estates reverted to the crown. Edward II granted his brother, Thomas of Brotherton, the title of Earl of Norfolk in 1312, it passed to Thomas's daughter, to her grandson, Thomas Mowbray. When Richard II made Thomas Mowbray the Duke of Norfolk in 1397, he conferred upon him the estates and titles that had belonged to the Earls of Norfolk.
His elderly grandmother Margaret was still alive, so at the same time she was created Duchess of Norfolk for life. Mowbray died in exile in 1399, some months after his grandmother, his dukedom was repealed, his widow took the title of Countess of Norfolk. Between 1401 and 1476, the Mowbray family held the title and estates of the Duke of Norfolk. John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk, died without male issue in 1476, his only surviving child being the 3-year-old Anne Mowbray. At the age of 3, a marriage was arranged between Anne and Richard, Duke of York, the four-year-old son of Edward IV, she remained Richard's child bride until she died at the age of 8. In accordance with the marriage arrangements, Richard inherited the lands and wealth of the Mowbray family, he was made Duke of Norfolk. However, upon the death of Edward IV, the throne was seized by Edward's brother, Richard III. After Prince Richard was confined in June 1483 to the Tower of London, where his elder brother was lodged, both Richard and Edward were declared illegitimate.
They subsequently disappeared, the titles of both York and Norfolk were forfeited to the crown. This left John Howard, the son of Thomas Mowbray's elder daughter Margaret, as heir to the dukedom, his support for Richard III's usurpation secured his creation as 1st Duke of Norfolk in 1483, in the title's third creation. From this point to the present, the title has remained in the hands of the descendants of John Howard; the Catholic faith of the Howard dynasty resulted in conflict with the reigning monarch during and after the reign of Henry VIII. In 1546, Thomas Howard, the third Duke, fell out of favour with the dying Henry and was attainted on 27 January 1547. Imprisoned in the Tower of London, he narrowly escaped execution through Henry's death the following day, but remained imprisoned until the death of Edward VI and the accession of the Catholic Queen Mary to the English throne in 1553, upon which his lands and titles were restored to him. However, the Duke died the following year aged around 81, was succeeded by his grandson Thomas as the fourth Duke of Norfolk.
Following Mary's death in 1553 and the accession of her sister Elizabeth I, the Duke was imprisoned for scheming to marry Elizabeth's cousin Mary, Queen of Scots. After his release under house arrest in 1570 and subsequent participation in the Ridolfi plot to enthrone Mary and Catholicism in England, he was executed in 1572 for treason and his lands and titles again became forfeit. In 1660, the fourth Duke's great-great-grandson, the 23rd Earl of Arundel, was restored to the family lands and dukedom. Mentally infirm, the fifth Duke never married and died in 1677, he was succeeded by his younger brother Henry as the 6th Duke, through whom the 7th Duke, 8th Duke and 9th Duke of Norfolk were descended in the male-line. At the death of the 9th Duke, the title was inherited in 1777 by his heir male, Charles Howard, a grandson of Charles Howard of Greystoke, a younger brother of the 5th and 6th Dukes, he was succeeded by his son, whose lack of a legitimate male heir resulted in the title passing to Bernard Howard, a great-grandson of Bernard Howard of Glossop, the youngest brother of the 5th and 6th Dukes.
The title passed to his son in 1842, Henry Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk, the father of Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk, Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Glossop. The title passed through the line of the elder brother from 1856 until the death in 1975 of Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk without male issue, he was succeeded by his second cousin once removed, Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk, a great-grandson of the aforementioned 1st Baron Howard of Glossop. The current Duke of Norfolk is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, who succeeded his father, Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk, in 2002. In addition to the ducal title, the Dukes of Norfolk hold the hereditary position of Earl Marshal, which has the duty of organizing state occasions such as the coronation of the monarch and the state opening of Parliament. For the last five centuries, save some periods when it was under attainder, both the Dukedom and the Earl-Marshalship have been in the hands of the Howard family.
According to The House of Lords Act 1999, due to his duties as Earl Marshal, Norfolk is one of only two hereditary pee