A quarterback is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the team and line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is considered the leader of the offensive team. In modern American football, the quarterback is usually the leader of the offense, the quarterback touches the ball on almost every offensive play, and his successes and failures can have a significant impact on the fortunes of his team. Accordingly, the quarterback is among the most glorified and scrutinized positions in team sports, prior to each play, the quarterback will usually tell the rest of his team which play the team will run. After the team is lined up, the center will pass the ball back to the quarterback, usually on a running play, the quarterback will hand or pitch the ball backwards to a half back or full back. On a passing play, the quarterback is almost always the responsible for trying to throw the ball downfield to an eligible receiver downfield.
Depending on the scheme by his team, the quarterbacks role can vary. While quarterbacks in Canadian football need to be able to throw the ball often, in the NFL, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 19. In the CFL, the quarterback can wear any number from 0 to 49 and 70 to 99. Because of their numbering, quarterbacks are eligible receivers in the NCAA, NFHS, after a Super Bowl victory, the starting quarterback is the first player to be presented with the Vince Lombardi Trophy. The starting quarterback of the victorious Super Bowl team is chosen for the Im going to Disney World. Campaign, whether they are the Super Bowl MVP or not, examples include Joe Montana, Trent Dilfer, Dilfer was chosen even though teammate Ray Lewis was the MVP of Super Bowl XXXV, due to the bad publicity from Lewis murder trial the prior year. In addition to their role, quarterbacks are occasionally used in other roles. Most teams utilize a backup quarterback as their holder on placekicks, in the Wildcat, a formation where a halfback lines up behind the center and the quarterback lines up out wide, the quarterback can be used as a receiving target or a blocker.
A more rare use for a quarterback is to punt the ball himself, Denver Broncos quarterback John Elway was known to perform quick kicks occasionally, typically when the Broncos were facing a third-and-long situation. As Roger Staubachs back-up, Dallas Cowboys quarterback Danny White was the teams punter, ascending the starting role upon Staubachs retirement, White held his position as the teams punter for several seasons—a double duty he performed to All-American standard at Arizona State University. White had two touchdown receptions as a Dallas Cowboy, both from the halfback option, if quarterbacks are uncomfortable with the formation the defense is using, they may call an audible change to their play
1999 NFL season
The 1999 NFL season was the 80th regular season of the National Football League. The Cleveland Browns returned to the field for the first time since the 1995 season, the Tennessee Oilers changed its name to Tennessee Titans, and the league retired the name Oilers – a first in league history. The return of the Browns increased the number of teams to 31, under a new system, for ten weeks of the season, one team was scheduled a bye, for seven weeks of the season, three teams sat out. This format would continue for the two seasons until the Houston Texans joined the NFL in 2002 and returned the league to an even number of teams. The start of the 1999 NFL Season was pushed back one week and started the weekend after Labor Day, a change from the previous seasons. Due to the Y2K concerns, the NFL did not want to hold the round of the playoffs on Saturday January 1,2000. Week 17 games were held on January 2,2000, the bye week before the Super Bowl was removed to accommodate the one-week adjustment. The start of the season after Labor Day would become a fixture for future seasons.
The final spot in the NFC playoffs came down to a final day of the season. Both the Packers and Panthers were playing at 1,00 PM Eastern on January 2, the Packers beat the Arizona Cardinals 49–24, and the Panthers beat the New Orleans Saints 45–13. The Packers finished ahead of the Panthers by 11 points, the St. Louis Rams, who had a losing record for each of the past nine seasons, surprised the entire league by defeating the Tennessee Titans 23-16 in Super Bowl XXXIV at the Georgia Dome. Clipping is now illegal around the line of scrimmage just as it is on the rest of the field, a new instant replay system is adopted to aid officiating. The system mirrors a method used by the defunct USFL in 1985, In each game, each challenge will require the use of a teams timeout. If the challenge is successful, the timeout is restored, inside of two minutes of each half, and during all overtime periods, all reviews will be initiated by a Replay Assistant. The Replay Assistant has an number of reviews, regardless of how many timeouts each team has left.
And no timeout will be charged for any review by the Replay Assistant, all replay reviews will be conducted by the referee on a field-level monitor. A decision will be reversed only when there is visual evidence to overturn the call. The referee has 90 seconds to review the play, the officials will be notified of a replay request or challenge via a specialized electronic pager with a vibrating alert
Indoor Football League
The Indoor Football League is a professional indoor American football league created in 2008 out of the merger between the Intense Football League and United Indoor Football. For the 2015 season, the league had ten teams, the league is the second highest tier in indoor/arena football behind the Arena Football League. IFL players earn a minimum of US$250 per game played, the season is 16 games long, plus playoffs of two or more rounds. The merger which formed the new IFL was announced the day before the 2008 National Indoor Bowl Championship, the Sioux Falls Storm defeated the Louisiana Swashbucklers 54 to 42. Of the 17 teams involved in the two leagues,14 carried over to the new organizations 2009 season. An additional three teams came over from the CIFL and two teams began their life in the new IFL. In the United Bowl, the Billings Outlaws took the championship by defeating the RiverCity Rage by a score of 71 to 62 in the 2009 United Bowl. After losing two teams to attrition after the end of the 2009 season, and a third in January 2010, three of the new teams were expansion franchises.
Two moved over from the Southern Indoor Football League and Continental Indoor Football League, after playing nine games of the 2010 season the Alaska Wild suspended operations, leaving only 24 teams to finish the year. In the United Bowl, the Billings Outlaws took the championship by defeating the Sioux Falls Storm by a score of 43 to 34. Seven new teams were added to the IFL for the 2011 season, some of these were new expansion teams, and others moved to the IFL from the AIFA. The IFL lost nine teams during the offseason, bringing the number to twenty-two for 2011. In the United Bowl, the Sioux Falls Storm took the championship by defeating the Tri-Cities Fever by a score of 37-10. For the 2012 season, the IFL switched to a format with no divisions. The Wranglers brought attention to the league for offering a US$500,000 contract to unemployed wide receiver Terrell Owens to become the teams part-owner, eSPN3 carried Owenss debut game against the Wichita Wild. The front office of the league saw changes as well, as Commissioner Tommy Benizio resigned, the league appointed assistant commissioner, Robert Loving, as the interim Commissioner.
On January 21,2013, the announced that the owner of the Cheyenne Warriors died. The league added the Minnesota-based Bemidji Axemen to expand to 10 teams but the Chicago Slaughter were sold and changed leagues, in February 2014, the league announced that it would return to Montana in 2015 with the new Billings Wolves franchise
The Arizona Rattlers are a professional indoor American football team based in Phoenix, Arizona. They are currently members of the Indoor Football League, the Rattlers were founded in 1992 as an expansion team in the Arena Football League and were the third oldest active franchise in the AFL until their departure in 2016. They play their games at Talking Stick Resort Arena. The Rattlers are led by head coach Kevin Guy, since the teams establishment in 1992, the Rattlers have won ten division titles and have played in nine ArenaBowl Championship games, winning championships in 1994,1997,2012,2013 and 2014. In 1987, it was speculated that the Phoenix, Arizona, on September 11,1991, it was announced that Jerry Colangelo had been awarded an expansion franchise in the AFL in Phoenix. Colangelo, owner of the NBAs Phoenix Suns, first approached Frank Kush to coach his team, in October 1991, the team announced that former Dallas Cowboys quarterback Danny White would be the franchises first head coach.
In 1994, the Rattlers captured their first ArenaBowl championship, with a 36–31 victory over the Orlando Predators, in December 1999, Gene Nudo and Will Meris pursued the purchase of the Rattlers from Colangelo. In 2008, it was announced that Brett Bouchy would become the new owner of the Arizona Rattlers, in August 2009, numerous media outlets began reporting that the AFL was folding permanently and would file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. The league released a statement on August 4 to the effect that while the league was not folding, despite this, several of the leagues creditors filed papers to force a Chapter 7 liquidation if the league did not do so voluntarily. This request was granted on August 7, though converted to a Chapter 11 reorganization on August 26, in early 2010, it was announced that Arena Football 1 was granted the trademarks to the AFL brand and was renamed the Arena Football League. In 2011, after Brett Bouchy was able keep both the Arizona Rattlers and the Orlando Predators alive, he was forced to let go of ownership to one of the teams, on May 12,2011, Ron Shurts became the new majority owner of the Rattlers franchise.
In 2011, the Rattlers won 16 games in the regular season, in the playoffs, by winning the National Conference championship, they clinched a berth in ArenaBowl XXIV. They lost the game to the Jacksonville Sharks when Jacksonville quarterback Aaron Garcia threw a touchdown pass on the games final play. The Rattlers redeemed themselves the following season, winning ArenaBowl XXV over the Philadelphia Soul to win their first title in 15 years, in 2013, the Rattlers and Soul met again in ArenaBowl XXVI, with the Rattlers winning yet again, 48-39. This made them the first team since 1995 to win championships. In 2015, the Rattlers went 14-4 in the season and made it to the Conference Championships but lost to the San Jose Sabercats 70-67. This ended their streak of consecutive ArenaBowl appearances at four, on October 17,2016, the Rattlers announced it had left the AFL and joined the Indoor Football League for the 2017 season. They made their IFL debut on February 17,2017, at the defending six-time IFL Champions Sioux Falls Storm, the Arizona Rattlers introduced Ron Shurts as the team’s new majority owner on May 12,2011
A touchdown is a means of scoring in both American and Canadian football. Whether running, returning a kickoff or punt, or recovering a turnover, to score a touchdown, one team must take the football into the opposite end zone. The touchdown is scored the instant the ball crosses the plane of the line while in possession of a player whose team is trying to score in that end zone. The play is dead and the scores the moment the ball crosses the goal line in possession of a player. The slightest part of the ball being over the line is sufficient for a touchdown to score. However, only the ball counts, not a players helmet, touching one of the pylons at either end of the goal line with the ball constitutes breaking the plane as well. Touchdowns are usually scored by the offense by running or passing the ball, the defense can score a touchdown if they have recovered a fumble or made an interception and return it to the opposing end zone. Special teams can score a touchdown on a kickoff or punt return, in short, any play in which a player legally carries the ball across the goal line scores a touchdown, and the manner in which he gained possession is inconsequential. A touchdown is worth six points, the scoring team is awarded the opportunity for an extra point or a two-point conversion.
Afterwards, the team scored the touchdown kicks off to the opposing team. This rule was changed to the iteration in 1889. If the teammate could fair catch the ball, he could follow with a try for goal from the spot of the catch, the governing rule at the time read, A match shall be decided by a majority of touchdowns. A goal shall be equal to four touchdowns, but in the case of a tie, in 1881, the rules were modified so that a goal kicked from a touchdown took precedence over a goal kicked from the field in breaking ties. In 1882, four touchdowns were determined to take precedence over a goal kicked from the field, two safeties were equivalent to a touchdown. In 1883, points were introduced to football, and a touchdown counted as four points, a goal after a touchdown counted as four points. In 1889, the provision requiring the ball to actually be touched to the ground was removed, a touchdown was now scored by possessing the ball beyond the goal line. In 1897, the touchdown scored five points, and the goal after touchdown added another point, in 1900, the definition of touchdown was changed to include situations where the ball becomes dead on or above the goal line.
In 1912, the value of a touchdown was increased to six points, the end zone was added
The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League as a club of the American Football Conference North division. The Browns play their games at FirstEnergy Stadium, which opened in 1999, with administrative offices and training facilities in Berea. The Browns official colors are brown and white and they are unique among the 32 member franchises of the NFL in that they do not have a logo on their helmets and are the only team named after a specific person, original coach Paul Brown. The franchise was founded in 1945 by businessman Arthur B, McBride and coach Paul Brown as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference. The Browns dominated the AAFC, compiling a 47–4–3 record in the four active seasons. When the AAFC folded after the 1949 season, the Browns joined the National Football League along with the San Francisco 49ers, from 1965 to 1995, they made the playoffs 14 times, but did not win another championship or appear in the Super Bowl in that period.
In 1995, owner Art Modell, who had purchased the Browns in 1961, announced plans to move the team to Baltimore, Maryland. The Browns intellectual property, including name, training facility, and history, were kept in trust. A new team would be established by 1999 either by expansion or relocation, the Browns were announced as an expansion team in 1998 and resumed play in 1999. Since resuming operations in 1999, the Browns have struggled to find success and they have had only two winning seasons, one playoff appearance, and no playoff wins. The franchise has noted for a lack of stability with quarterbacks. To date, the Browns overall win-loss record since 1999 is 88–200, the Browns origins date to 1944, when taxicab magnate Arthur B. Mickey McBride secured the rights to a Cleveland franchise in the newly formed All-America Football Conference. S, early in 1945, McBride named 36-year-old Ohio State Buckeyes coach Paul Brown as the teams head coach and general manager and gave him a share in its profits.
The move surprised and upset Buckeye fans, who had hoped he would resume his successful run at the school after the war, the name of the team was at first left up to Paul Brown, who rejected calls for it to be christened the Browns. The franchise and the Cleveland Plain Dealer held a naming contest to publicize the team, in June 1945, a committee selected Panthers as the new teams name, named after a failed American Football League franchise in Cleveland which only lasted a single season in 1926. It is unclear whether Panthers was the highest vote-getter, or if it was second-highest behind Browns, the owner of the failed AFL Panthers franchise, General C. X. Zimmerman, indicated that he owned the name Cleveland Panthers, at this point, Paul Brown bowed to popular sentiment and agreed to the Browns name
ArenaBowl XVI was played between the San Jose SaberCats and Arizona Rattlers in San Jose, California on August 18,2002. Arizonas 14 points are the second-lowest in ArenaBowl history, just above the Chicago Bruisers 13 points in ArenaBowl II, with the SaberCats victory, Darren Arbet became the first African-American head coach in pro-football to win a championship in North America. For much of the 2002 season, the San Jose SaberCats were entertaining the possibility of an undefeated year and they defeated their Western Division rivals, the Arizona Rattlers, 52-51 in the season opener, and continued their success en route to a 12-0 start. Though it would prove to be San Joses only loss of the season, each team scored one more touchdown, and the SaberCats emerged with a 52-14 blowout victory. Wide receiver/defensive back Omarr Smith was named the Ironman of the Game, as he had four receptions and led a San Jose defense that forced three Rattler turnovers
The ArenaBowl is the Arena Football Leagues championship game. From 1987 to 2004, the ArenaBowl was hosted by either the team with the better regular-season record or the higher seeding in the playoffs, from ArenaBowl XIX in 2005 until ArenaBowl XXII in 2008, the game was played at a neutral site. When the AFL returned from a hiatus in 2010, the original format was used for this and the next season, for 2012 and 2013. In 2014, it was announced that the ArenaBowl would return to the format in which the team would host the game. The current ArenaBowl Champions are the Philadelphia Soul, who won their second ArenaBowl championship in 2016. The 2016 ArenaBowl was played on August 26 between the Philadelphia Soul and the Arizona Rattlers, the time in the past five years that these two teams have met in the ArenaBowl. * Neutral Site The Pittsburgh Gladiators relocated in 1991 to become the Tampa Bay Storm, the Nashville Kats relocated in 2002 to become the Georgia Force. The Kats were brought back as a team in 2005
The Colorado Crush were an arena football team based in Denver, Colorado. They began play as a 2003 Arena Football League as an expansion team, the Crush played in the Central Division of the American Conference until the Arena Football League suspended operations in 2009. They were last coached by Mike Dailey and owned by a coalition of Denver sports figures led by John Elway. Like the Dallas Desperados, the Crushs branding is partially based on NFL teams, on July 15,2015, the Crush name was acquired by the Indoor Football League franchise formerly known as the Colorado Ice as the trademark for the name expired in 2014 according to their ownership. The Crush competed in the Central Division of the American Conference, after a bad inaugural season in 2003, in which they finished 2-14, the Crush rebounded to go 11-5 and make the playoffs in their second year. On June 12,2005 they won ArenaBowl XIX in Las Vegas Thomas & Mack Center over the Georgia Force 51-48, in their fourth year the Crush ended up 11-5, with the American Conference Central title for the second year in a row.
In the Divisional Round however, the Crush lost in an upset to the fifth-seeded Chicago Rush 63-46, the teams mascot was an anthropomorphic bull named Crusher. According to team owner Tom Wigley, the trademark of the Crush name expired the year meaning that the original Crush ownership no longer had a say in the use of the name. On Sunday, June 12,2005, the Crush hosted the American Conference Championship game against their division rival, the Chicago Rush. Colorado had the late in the game 43-40 and Defensive Back Rashad Floyd managed to intercept a touchdown pass from Quarterback Matt DOrazio. Chicago would tie the game with kicker Keith Gisperts 17-yard field goal, on Friday, February 6,2004, in a Week 1 contest against the Las Vegas Gladiators, the Crush were still looking for their first home win in franchise history. With 12 points in 12 seconds, Colorado would win 43-42, on the AFLs 20 Greatest Highlights Countdown, this is at #15. On the AFLs 20 Greatest Highlights Countdown, this is at #12
The Cleveland Gladiators are an arena football team based in Cleveland, United States, who play in the Arena Football League as part of the AFL National Conference. The franchise was based in East Rutherford, New Jersey. The Gladiators have qualified for the eight times in their history. The New Jersey Red Dogs entered the Arena Football League in 1997, along with the Nashville Kats and the New York CityHawks. Their ownership group, which was led by New Jersey radio entrepreneur E. Burke Ross, included several players, such as Joe Morris, Carl Banks. The name Red Dogs reflected the sponsorship of the Miller Brewing Company, the Red Dogs played at Continental Airlines Arena in East Rutherford, New Jersey. The AFLs intention was to add only New Jersey and Nashville for 1997, well after the awarding of the Red Dogs and Kats franchises, the owners of Madison Square Garden in New York City requested a franchise of their own, and the league granted this request. And so the CityHawks began play in 1997 and this affected the Red Dogs, in that the league prevented the Red Dogs from advertising in New York.
While North Jersey itself is very populous in its own right, despite this setback, the Red Dogs management built a good team, which opened its history in memorable fashion. The Red Dogs were led by head coach John Hufnagel, who had been a quarterback, after his time with the Red Dogs, Hufnagel went on to be an offensive coach for several National Football League teams, including the New England Patriots and the New York Giants. He became the coach of the CFLs Stampeders for the 2008 season. Hufnagel brought in players with CFL experience to the Red Dogs, including QB Rickey Foggie. The teams other main receiver was Alvin Ashley, a player whose small size made him unlikely to play in the NFL but suited the more compact Arena game. The Red Dogs slumped late in their first season, losing 4 of their final 5 games to finish 9–5, the Red Dogs finished 8–6 in 1998, their second season, and won their first playoff game in Albany against the Firebirds. Hufnagel left the Red Dogs after the 1998 season for a job with the NFLs Cleveland Browns, and he was replaced by Frank Mattiace, a former defensive lineman for the New Jersey Generals of the USFL.
Star Larry Ray Willis was traded to the Milwaukee Mustangs Following those losses, the Red Dogs made a significant trade following the 1999 season, a trade they never got to benefit from. New Jersey sent Alvin Ashley to the Orlando Predators for wide receiver/defensive back Barry Wagner, soon after the trade, the league and its players agreed to a new collective bargaining agreement that resulted in several veteran players—including Wagner—gaining free agency. Wagner signed with the San Jose SaberCats, in 2000, the Red Dogs, without Wagner and offensive mainstay Chad Lindsey, fell to 4–10
Nevada Wolf Pack football
The Nevada Wolf Pack football program represents the University of Nevada, Reno in college football. The Wolf Pack competes in the Mountain West Conference at the Football Bowl Subdivision level of the NCAA Division I. The Wolf Packs home field is Mackay Stadium, located at the end of its campus in Reno. The new Mackay Stadium saw its first game 51 years ago on October 1,1966 with a capacity of 7,500 and has undergone several renovations. The stadium currently seats 30,000 and has played to crowds in excess, the elevation of its playing field is 4,610 feet above sea level. Nevada has had three individuals inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame and they are coach Chris Ault, running back Frank Hawkins and former coach Buck Shaw. Fullback Marion Motley is the only Nevada player to be inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame, three-time Super Bowl champion Charles Mann played for Nevada from 1979 to 1982 and was named Most Valuable Defensive Lineman in 1982. Mann was inducted into the Nevada Athletics Hall of Fame in 1995, another Nevada alumnus with a long career in the NFL was free safety Brock Marion.
He was selected in the round of the 1993 NFL Draft by the Dallas Cowboys where he played most of his career. Marion was selected to three Pro Bowls and one All-Pro team, Nevada has not fielded a Heisman Trophy winner, Stan Heath was fifth in Heisman voting in 1948 and Colin Kaepernick was eighth among 2010 candidates. Nevada footballs rich tradition has produced 40 All-Americans and 45 All-American selections, Nevadas only consensus All-American was Matt Clafton in 1991, which was Nevadas last year in the Division I-AA, the Wolf Pack is awaiting their first FBS consensus All-American. The Wolf Pack has produced two Academic All-Americans, David Heppe and Erick Streelman Nevadas football history began on October 24,1896, there was no football program from 1906–14, in 1918 and in 1951. The result was a debacle as Belmont relentlessly thrashed the hapless Sagebrushers by the tally of 70–0. But, the University of Nevada yearbook Artemesia would report five years later, two weeks and the Brushers met up with the Berkeley Second Eleven with much more favorable results (with NSU only giving up forty points.
Thus the initial chapter of the history of the University was one of defeat. From 1901 to 1903, Allen Steckle served as the football coach at the University of Nevada. In 1903, he was appointed to the position as the universitys Physical Director. In his three seasons as the coach, he compiled a 6–9–2 record
In American or Canadian football, an interception occurs when a forward pass is caught by a player of the opposing team. This leads to a change of possession during the play. Following the stoppage of play, if the interceptor retained possession of the ball, interceptions are predominantly made by the secondary or the linebackers, who are usually closest to the quarterbacks intended targets, the wide receivers, running backs, and tight ends. Less frequently, a defensive lineman may get an interception from a ball, a near sack, a shovel pass, or a screen pass. For example, on December 4,2016, the Kansas City Chiefs strong safety Eric Berry scored the winning points via a pick two in a 29-28 victory over the Atlanta Falcons. Berry achieved an ordinary pick six earlier in the same game, if the intercepting team can run out the clock, the intercepting player may down the ball immediately and not attempt to gain any yardage. This eliminates the chance of a fumble that could be recovered by the other team, there are player safety implications, when the ball is turned over, the play is now suddenly and unexpectedly moving in the opposite direction.
All of the players on offense are instantly susceptible to unexpected blocks, even if not attempting to stop the ball carrier, offensive players, particularly the quarterback, are often inexperienced tacklers and are at risk of injuring themselves while tackling the ball carrier. Only the interception of a pass is recorded statistically as an interception. The interception of a pass is recorded as a fumble by the passer. Lester Hayes of the Oakland Raiders was one of the National Football Leagues leaders at interceptions in the late 1970s and he was known for covering his chest and forearms with a copious amount of the adhesive Stickum to help him hold on to the ball. He continued to use the substance, which he called pick juice, paul Krause holds the record for most career interceptions, with 81, and is tied for third place for most interceptions by an NFL rookie in his first season, with 12. He played his first three years in the NFL from 1964 to 1967 with the Washington Redskins but was traded to the Minnesota Vikings, Krause played until 1979 and appeared in four Super Bowls with the Vikings.
He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1998, Rod Woodson played 16 seasons with Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Oakland, and holds the NFL record for most interception returns for touchdown in an NFL career with 12. Also, he holds the NFL record for most total defensive TD returns in a career with 13, who is third on the NFL all-time career interception list with 71, was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 2009. Sharper holds the NFL record for return yardage in a single season with 376 yards in 2009. He is tied with Rod Woodson for most total defensive TD returns career with 13, charles Woodson, formerly with the Green Bay Packers and Oakland Raiders has 65 career interceptions and tied Rod Woodson for most defensive touchdowns with 13. Woodson and Sharper are tied for all time in interceptions returned for touchdowns with 11