Edward IV of England
Edward IV was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was the first Yorkist King of England; the first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 to reign in peace until his sudden death. Before becoming king, he was Duke of Earl of March, Earl of Cambridge and Earl of Ulster. Edward of York was born at Rouen in Normandy, the second son of Richard, 3rd Duke of York, Cecily Neville, he was the eldest of the four sons. He bore the title Earl of March before his accession to the throne. Edward's father Richard, Duke of York, had been heir to King Henry VI until the birth of Henry's son Edward in 1453. Richard carried on a factional struggle with the king's Beaufort relatives, he established a dominant position after his victory at the First Battle of St Albans in 1455, in which his chief rival Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, was killed.
However, Henry's Queen, Margaret of Anjou, rebuilt a powerful faction to oppose the Yorkists over the following years. In 1459 Margaret moved against the Duke of York and his principal supporters—his brother-in-law Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, Salisbury's son Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, who rose in revolt; the Yorkist leaders fled from England after the collapse of their army in the confrontation at Ludford Bridge. The Duke of York took refuge in Ireland, while Edward went with the Nevilles to Calais where Warwick was governor. In 1460 Edward landed in Kent with Salisbury and Salisbury's brother William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, raised an army, occupied London. Edward and Fauconberg left Salisbury besieging the Tower of London and advanced against the king, with an army in the Midlands, defeated and captured him in the Battle of Northampton. York returned to England and was declared the king's heir by parliament, but Queen Margaret raised a fresh army against him, he was killed at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460, along with his second surviving son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, the Earl of Salisbury.
This left Edward, now Duke of York, at the head of the Yorkist faction. He defeated a Lancastrian army at Mortimer's Cross in Herefordshire on 2–3 February 1461, he united his forces with those of Warwick, whom Margaret's army had defeated at the Second Battle of St Albans, during which Henry VI had been rescued by his supporters. Edward's father had restricted his ambitions to becoming Henry's heir, but Edward now took the more radical step of proclaiming himself king in March 1461, he advanced against the Lancastrians, having his life saved on the battlefield by the Welsh Knight Sir David Ap Mathew. He defeated the Lancastrian army in the exceptionally bloody Battle of Towton in Yorkshire on 29 March 1461. Edward had broken the military strength of the Lancastrians, he returned to London for his coronation. King Edward IV named Sir David Ap Mathew Standard Bearer of England and allowed him to use "Towton" on the Mathew family crest. Lancastrian resistance continued in the north, but posed no serious threat to the new regime and was extinguished by Warwick's brother John Neville in the Battle of Hexham in 1464.
Henry VI had escaped into the Pennines, where he spent a year in hiding, but was caught and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Queen Margaret fled abroad with many of their leading supporters. Edward IV had deposed Henry VI, but there was little point in killing the ex-king as long as Henry's son remained alive, since this would have transferred the Lancastrian claim from a captive king to one, at liberty. At the age of nineteen, Edward exhibited remarkable military acumen, he had a notable physique and was described as handsome and affable. His height is estimated at 6 feet 4.5 inches, making him the tallest among all English and British monarchs to date. Most of England's leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict; the new regime, relied on the support of the Nevilles, who held vast estates and had been so instrumental in bringing Edward to the throne. However, the king became estranged from their leader the Earl of Warwick, due to his marriage.
Warwick, acting on Edward's behalf, made preliminary arrangements with King Louis XI of France for Edward to marry either Louis' daughter Anne or his sister-in-law Bona of Savoy. He was humiliated and enraged to discover that, while he was negotiating, Edward had secretly married Elizabeth Woodville, the widow of John Grey of Groby, on 1 May 1464. Edward's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville has been criticised as an impulsive action that did not add anything to the security of England or the York dynasty. A horrified Privy Council told him with unusual frankness, when he announced the marriage to them, "that he must know that she was no wife for a prince such as himself, for she was not the daughter of a duke or earl... but a simple knight." Christine Carpenter argues against the idea that it had any political motivation, that Edward's creation of a strong Yorkist nobility meant that he did not need the "lightweight connections" of the Woodvilles, whereas Wilkinson described the marriage as both a "love match, a cold and calculated political move".
J. R. Lander suggested in 1980 that the King was "infatuated," echoing P. M. Kendall's view that he was acting out of lust. Elizabeth's mother was Jacquetta of Luxembourg, wi
Battle of Ludford Bridge
The Battle of Ludford Bridge was a bloodless battle fought in the early years of the Wars of the Roses. It took place on 12 October 1459, resulted in a setback for the Yorkists. Although this seemed to be a triumph for the rival Lancastrians at the time, they had thrown away their advantage within six months. In the first pitched battle of the wars, the First Battle of St Albans in 1455, Richard of York, backed by his brother in law the Earl of Salisbury and Salisbury's son the Earl of Warwick, had eliminated most of his rivals at court, he reaffirmed his allegiance to the King, Henry of Lancaster and was reappointed Lord Protector, until February 1456. However, Henry's Queen, Margaret of Anjou, suspected that Richard intended to supplant her infant son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales and become King himself, she continually agitated against Richard and the Nevilles. She was supported by several nobles, many of them the sons of York's opponents who had died at St. Albans; the renewed outbreak of open warfare was precipitated by some high-handed actions by Warwick, who held the post of Captain of Calais.
Late in 1458, he had led ships from Calais in attacks on merchant ships from Lübeck and Spain, on obscure grounds of acknowledgement of English sovereignty in the Channel, to secure plunder to pay his garrison. Though these actions infuriated the royal court, they were popular among the merchants in London and Kent, as they removed competitors for English trade with Flanders; when Warwick was summoned to London to explain his actions before the King's council, there was violence between Warwick's retinue and the royal household. Warwick claimed that his life had been threatened, he returned to Calais with any charges unanswered. Margaret took this to be open defiance of Henry's authority, she had long before persuaded Henry to move the court from London to the Midlands, where her supporters had the most influence. They began mustering their forces, summoned a council to be held in Coventry on 24 June 1459. York and Warwick himself feared that they would be arrested for treason if they went to their opponents' heartland, refused to attend.
They were indicted for rebellion. The Yorkist forces began. York himself was at Ludlow in the Welsh Marches, Salisbury was at Middleham Castle in North Yorkshire and Warwick was at Calais; as Salisbury and Warwick marched to join the Duke of York, Margaret ordered a force under the Duke of Somerset to intercept Warwick and another under James Tuchet, 5th Baron Audley to intercept Salisbury. Warwick evaded Somerset, while Audley's forces were routed at the bloody Battle of Blore Heath. After this defeat, the forces available to Henry and Margaret outnumbered the Yorkist combined armies by two to one; the Yorkist army tried to move towards London, but found their path blocked by the Lancastrian army with King Henry himself nominally at its head, fell back to Worcester. Here, the Duke of York attended mass in the cathedral before sending written protestations of his loyalty to Henry; these were ignored. The Yorkists retreated towards Ludlow, before making a stand at a fortified position near Ludford, Shropshire on 12 October.
Their troops excavated a defensive ditch in a field on the opposite side of the River Teme from Ludlow, near the bridge which gave the battle its name. They constructed barricades of carts in which cannon were emplaced. However, morale was low, not least because the royal standard could be seen flying in the Lancastrian army, it was known that King Henry himself was present, in full armour. For much of his reign, Henry had been regarded as an ineffectual ruler, he had lapsed into madness for periods of several months at a time. Richard of York and his supporters had maintained that they were opposed only to Henry's "evil counsellors". Now they realised that their army would refuse to fight against an army which included Henry himself. Henry and the Duke of Buckingham, in command of the royal army, proclaimed the offer of a pardon to any who would change sides. Among the troops brought by Warwick from Calais were 600 men led by Andrew Trollope, an experienced soldier. During the night and his men and others from the Yorkist forces defected to the Lancastrians.
Faced with certain defeat, York and Warwick announced that they were returning to Ludlow for the night. They abandoned their armies and fled into Wales. At dawn on 13 October, the leaderless Yorkist troops knelt in submission before Henry, were pardoned. York had abandoned not only his troops but his wife Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, his two younger sons George and Richard and his youngest daughter Margaret. By popular account, they were found standing at the Ludlow Market Cross when the Lancastrians arrived, they were placed in wife of the Duke of Buckingham. The Lancastrian troops proceeded to plunder Ludlow, becoming drunk on looted wine and committing many outrages. York, with his second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, made his way to Ireland where he had been Lieutenant of Ireland, still had support from the Irish parliament. Salisbury and York's eldest son Edward, Earl of March went to South Wales, where Warwick had estates and supporters. There they took a ship intending to reach Ireland, but were blown across the Bristol Channel to the West Country where a supporter, Sir John Dynham, loaned them a boat which took them to Calais.
On 9 October, King Henry had appointed the Duke of Somerset to replace Warwick as Captain of Calais. However, Warwick was able to forestall him only by hours. Under his uncle, Lord Fauconberg, the garrison and city still supported him. King Henr
Sir Richard Arches, of Eythrope, in the parish of Waddesdon, was MP for Buckinghamshire in 1402. He was knighted before 1401, he was the son of Richard Arches of Eythrope, by his wife Lucy Abberbury, daughter of Sir Richard I Adderbury of Donnington Castle and Steeple Aston, twice MP for Oxfordshire. His family, whose name was Latinised to de Arcubus had been established in Buckinghamshire since at the latest 1309, held in that county the manors of Little Kimble, in the parish of Waddesdon the estates of Eythrope and Cranwell; the estate of Arches within the manor of East Hendred in Berkshire had long been held by a family, called Arches or D'Arches Their heir was the family of Eyston. John Arches of Arches was elected four-times as MP for Berkshire, in 1384, 1390, 1402 and 1404. A family relationship between the Arches families of Arches and Eythrope, which both bore the same canting arms of Gules, three arches argent, was suggested by Bertha Putnam in her work on Sir William Shareshull, but as was remarked upon by Woodger, her suggestion that Sir Richard Arches was the son of Ralph Arches, son of John Arches of East Hendred was physically impossible.
Between 1394 and 1395 he took part in the first military expedition to Ireland of King Richard II and was knighted soon afterwards. He was elected MP for Buckinghamshire in 1402, he was appointed a Commissioner of Array for Buckinghamshire in 1403 and served as a Justice of the Peace for Oxfordshire from 1410 to 1412. In July 1417 he embarked in King Henry V's army for the conquest of Normandy, serving in the retinue of Thomas Montagu, 4th Earl of Salisbury, he died in Normandy on 5 September 1417 killed in action. He married twice: Firstly, before 1410, to Joan Ardern, granddaughter and co-heiress of Sir Giles Ardern of Drayton, Oxfordshire, from whom she inherited the Oxfordshire manors of Horley and Wykeham; these thus became possessions of Sir Richard Arches. She was the widow of William Greville of Horley, younger son of the great Gloucestershire wool-merchant William Greville, of Chipping Campden, another of whose sons was the husband of Joan's sister Margaret Ardern. By Joan Ardern Richard Arches had the following two children: John Arches, aged 7 at his father's death, who died as a child shortly after his father, without issue, leaving his sister Joan his sole heiresses.
Joan Arches, who became a substantial heiress. She was a minor aged 7 at her father's death and in 1420 disposal of her marriage was granted to Thomas Chaucer and heir of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer and 14 times MP for Oxfordshire. Chaucer had acquired in 1415 most of the lands of Sir Richard Arches' uncle Sir Richard II Adderbury, twice MP for Oxfordshire, which included Donnington Castle and manor, Berkshire. In 1421 at the age of 11 she became heir to the lands of her half-brother Richard Greville, of Ilbury in Deddington, Oxfordshire, MP for Oxfordshire in 1420, her mother's son from her first marriage. Joan was married to Sir John Dinham of Devon, their son and heir was John Dinham, 1st Baron Dinham, KG. Secondly before May 1417, during the last year of his life, Arches married Joan Frome, daughter and co-heiress of John Frome of Buckingham and Woodlands, councillor to King Henry IV and 6 times MP for Dorset and once for Buckinghamshire, she was the widow of William Filliol, MP and after Arches' death she remarried before March 1420 Sir William Cheyne, Chief Justice of the King's Bench.
Joan died 1 July 1434. She left a will dated 31 March 1420. In Buckinghamshire: Oving Little Kimble, held from the honour of Wallingford. Eythrope, in the parish of Waddesdon, held from the honour of Wallingford; the Dinhams were said to have made this estate one of their seats. Cranwell, in the parish of Waddesdon, held from the honour of Wallingford. Cuddington. Recorded in the 14th century as held by Geoffrey D'Arches; this manor descended to the Dinhams through Sir Richard Arches' daughter Joan. Arches inherited, or purchased at reduced cost, five Oxfordshire manors from his childless uncle Sir Richard II Adderbury, of Donnington Castle, twice MP for Oxfordshire; these manors were Souldern, Steeple Aston, Sibford and Glympton. In addition he acquired, via his first wife's inheritance, possession of the Oxfordshire manors of Horley and Wykeham, his son and heir John Arches died as a child soon after his father's death, thus his heir became his daughter Joan Arches the wife of Sir John Dinham of Nutwell, Devon.
Their son and heir was John Dynham, 1st Baron Dynham, KG. The arms of Arches were quartered by Lord Dinham and by his heirs the Bourchier family, Earls of Bath. Woodger, L. S. biography of Sir Richard Arches, published in The History of Parliament: House of Commons 1386-1421, ed. J. S. Roskell, L. Clark, C. Rawcliffe, 1993 GEC Complete Peerage, Vol IV, p. 377
Richard III of England
Richard III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1483 until his death. He was the last king of the last of the Plantagenet dynasty, his defeat and death at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the protagonist of Richard III, one of William Shakespeare's history plays; when his brother Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edward's eldest son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. Arrangements were made for Edward's coronation on 22 June 1483. Before the king could be crowned, the marriage of his parents was declared bigamous and therefore invalid. Now illegitimate, their children were barred from inheriting the throne. On 25 June, an assembly of Lords and commoners endorsed a declaration to this effect and proclaimed Richard as the rightful king, he was crowned on 6 July 1483. The young princes and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York, were not seen in public after August and accusations circulated that they had been murdered on Richard's orders.
There were two major rebellions against Richard during his reign. In October 1483, an unsuccessful revolt was led by staunch allies of Edward IV and Richard's former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. In August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor landed in southern Wales with a contingent of French troops and marched through Pembrokeshire, recruiting soldiers. Henry's forces defeated Richard's army near the Leicestershire town of Market Bosworth. Richard was slain. Henry Tudor ascended the throne as Henry VII. Richard's corpse was buried without pomp, his original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the English Reformation, his remains were lost, as they were believed to have been thrown into the River Soar. In 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on the site occupied by Greyfriars Priory Church; the University of Leicester identified the skeleton found in the excavation as that of Richard III as a result of radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his appearance, comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with that of two matrilineal descendants of Richard III's eldest sister, Anne of York.
He was reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015. Richard was born on 2 October 1452 at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire, the twelfth of 13 children of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, his childhood coincided with the beginning of what has traditionally been labelled the'Wars of the Roses', a period of political instability and periodic open civil war in England during the second half of the fifteenth century, between the Yorkists, who supported Richard's father, opposed the regime of Henry VI and his wife, Margaret of Anjou, the Lancastrians, who were loyal to the crown. When his father and the Nevilles were forced to flee to Ludlow in 1459, Richard and his older brother, George were placed in the custody of the Duchess of Buckingham, the Archbishop of Canterbury; when his father and elder brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland, were killed at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460, Richard and George were sent by their mother to the Low Countries. They returned to England following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton.
They participated in the coronation of Richard's eldest brother as King Edward IV on 28 June 1461, when Richard was named Duke of Gloucester and made both a Knight of the Garter and a Knight of the Bath. Edward appointed him the sole Commissioner of Array for the Western Counties in 1464, when he was 11. By the age of 17, he had an independent command. Richard spent several years during his childhood at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale, under the tutelage of his cousin the Earl of Warwick known as the Kingmaker because of his role in the Wars of the Roses. Warwick supervised Richard's training as a knight: in the autumn of 1465 Edward IV granted Warwick £1000 for the expenses of his younger brother's tutelage. With some interruptions, Richard stayed at Middleham either from late 1461 until early 1465, when he was 12 or from 1465 until his coming of age in 1468, when he turned 16. While at Warwick's estate, it is that he met both Francis Lovell, who would be his firm supporter in his life, Warwick's younger daughter, his future wife Anne Neville.
It is possible that at this early stage Warwick was considering the king's brothers as strategic matches for his daughters and Anne: young aristocrats were sent to be raised in the households of their intended future partners, as had been the case for the young dukes' father, Richard of York. As the relationship between the king and Warwick became strained, Edward IV opposed the match. During Warwick's lifetime, George was the only royal brother to marry one of his daughters, the eldest, Isabel, on 12 July 1469, without the king's permission. George joined his father-in-law's revolt against the king, while Richard remained loyal to Edward though rumour coupled Richard's name with Anne Neville until August 1469. Richard and Edward were forced to flee to Burgundy in October 1470 after Warwick defected to the side of the former Lancastrian queen Margaret of Anjou. In 1468, Richard's sister Margaret had married Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, the brothers could expect a welcome there. Edward was restored to the throne in the spring 1471, following the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, both of which the eighteen-year-old Richard played a crucial role.
During his adolescence
Battle of Bosworth Field
The Battle of Bosworth Field was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians, their leader Henry Tudor, by his victory became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty. His opponent, Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it a defining moment of English and Welsh history. Richard's reign began in 1483. At the request of his brother Edward IV, Richard was acting as Lord Protector for his twelve-year-old son Edward V. Richard had Parliament declare Edward V illegitimate and ineligible for the throne, took it for himself. Richard lost popularity when the boy and his younger brother disappeared after he incarcerated them in the Tower of London, his support was further eroded by the popular belief that he was implicated in the death of his wife.
Across the English Channel in Brittany, Henry Tudor, a descendant of the diminished House of Lancaster, seized on Richard's difficulties so that he could challenge his claim to the throne. Henry's first attempt to invade England was frustrated by a storm in 1483, but on his second attempt he arrived unopposed on 7 August 1485 on the southwest coast of Wales. Marching inland, Henry gathered support. Richard intercepted Henry's army south of Market Bosworth in Leicestershire. Thomas, Lord Stanley, Sir William Stanley brought a force to the battlefield, but held back while they decided which side it would be more advantageous to support. Richard divided his army. One was assigned to the Duke of another to the Earl of Northumberland. Henry kept most of his force together and placed it under the command of the experienced Earl of Oxford. Richard's vanguard, commanded by Norfolk, attacked but struggled against Oxford's men, some of Norfolk's troops fled the field. Northumberland took no action when signalled to assist his king, so Richard gambled everything on a charge across the battlefield to kill Henry and end the fight.
Seeing the King's knights separated from his army, the Stanleys intervened. After the battle Henry was crowned king below an oak tree in nearby Stoke Golding, now a residential garden. Henry hired chroniclers to portray his reign favourably. From the 15th to the 18th centuries the battle was glamorised as a victory of good over evil; the climax of William Shakespeare's play Richard III provides a focal point for critics in film adaptations. The exact site of the battle is disputed because of the lack of conclusive data, memorials have been erected at different locations. In 1974 the Bosworth Battlefield Heritage Centre was built on a site that has since been challenged by several scholars and historians. In October 2009 a team of researchers, who had performed geological surveys and archaeological digs in the area from 2003, suggested a location two miles southwest of Ambion Hill. During the 15th century civil war raged across England as the Houses of York and Lancaster fought each other for the English throne.
In 1471 the Yorkists defeated their rivals in the battles of Tewkesbury. The Lancastrian King Henry VI and his only son, Edward of Lancaster, died in the aftermath of the Battle of Tewkesbury, their deaths left the House of Lancaster with no direct claimants to the throne. The Yorkist king, Edward IV, was in complete control of England, he attainted those who refused to submit to his rule, such as Jasper Tudor and his nephew Henry, naming them traitors and confiscating their lands. The Tudors tried to flee to France but strong winds forced them to land in Brittany, a semi-independent duchy, where they were taken into the custody of Duke Francis II. Henry's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, uncle of King Richard II and father of King Henry IV; the Beauforts were bastards, but Henry IV legitimised them on the condition that their descendants were not eligible to inherit the throne. Henry Tudor, the only remaining Lancastrian noble with a trace of the royal bloodline, had a weak claim to the throne, Edward regarded him as "a nobody".
The Duke of Brittany, viewed Henry as a valuable tool to bargain for England's aid in conflicts with France and kept the Tudors under his protection. Edward IV died 12 years after Tewkesbury on 9 April 1483, his 12-year-old elder son succeeded him as King Edward V. Edward V was too young to rule and a Royal Council was established to rule the country until the king's coming of age; some among the council were worried when it became apparent that the Woodvilles, relatives of Edward IV's widow Elizabeth, were plotting to use their control of the young king to dominate the council. Having offended many in their quest for wealth and power, the Woodville family was not popular. To frustrate the Woodvilles' ambitions, Lord Hastings and other members of the council turned to the new king's uncle—Richard, Duke of Gloucester, brother of Edward IV; the courtiers urged Gloucester to assume the role of Protector as had been requested by his now dead brother. On 29 April Gloucester, accompanied by a contingent of guards and Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, took Edward V into custody and arrested several prominent members of the Woodville family.
Eythrope is a hamlet and country house in the parish of Waddesdon, in Buckinghamshire, England. It is located to the south east of the main village of Waddesdon, it was bought in the 1870s by a branch of the Rothschild family, belongs to them to this day. Eythrope is Grade II listed on the National Heritage List for England, its gardens are grade II listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens; the hamlet name is Anglo Saxon in origin, means "island farm", referring to an island in the River Thame that flows by the hamlet. The medieval village of Eythrope is deserted and all that remains are some earthen banks and ditches on the eastern side of Eythrope Park. There was a manor house at this hamlet as early as 1309, it was extended in 1610 by Sir William Dormer. William Stanhope embellished Eythrope House around 1750. Stanhope employed Isaac Ware to build new follies in the garden and park. Two of these buildings survive: the grotto by the lake, the bridge over the River Thame; the house was demolished in 1810-11 by Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl of Chesterfield.
In 1875, the manor at Eythrope was bought by Alice de Rothschild. She was the sister and companion of Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild who owned the neighboring estate Waddesdon Manor; the new house at Eythrope was not built on the site of the old manor. While building was in progress Alice fell ill with rheumatic fever and was advised to avoid damp conditions at night; as Eythrope was next to the river Thame, the plans were altered. The house was built without bedrooms as a place to house her collections and entertain guests during the day. Alice chose one of the Rothschild family's favourite architects George Devey who had worked at nearby Ascott House, Aston Clinton House and in the villages belonging to the Mentmore Estate. Eythrope was something of a deviation from his usual approach, it is constructed in red brick with stone dressings. With its twisting chimneys and gables, it is a mixture of Devey's usual Jacobean style and the French Renaissance architecture of Waddesdon Manor; this is noticeable on the concave roof to the round tower, the gable on the garden facade which are reminiscent of Waddesdon.
Because of its small size the house was christened "The Pavilion" or the "Water Pavilion". As in other Rothschild homes, French paneling and furniture dressed the rooms. Alice collected Renaissance sculpture and maiolica ware. Around the house, Alice developed 30 hectares of ornamental and innovative gardens that rivaled the splendor of Waddesdon Manor, she created a large kitchen garden and added the Old English Tea House to the historic parkland. A large, long stable block, built in stone and half-timber, with references to Waddesdon Manor, as well as three picturesque lodges, were designed by W Taylor & Son of Bierton. House parties from Waddesdon Manor would drive the four miles for tea, taking a steam launch up the river to the tea house. In 1922 following Alice's death, The Pavilion was inherited by James Armand de Rothschild and his wife Dorothy. From 1922 to around 1939, they let it to the wife of Somerset Maugham who added bedrooms and bathrooms in a wing that collapsed. In the 1950s the Rothschilds decided to give Waddesdon Manor, which they had inherited, to the National Trust and move to the smaller pavilion.
The house was modernized. James de Rothschild died in 1957. Following the transfer of Waddesdon, his widow Dorothy moved to Eythrope. Dorothy de Rothschild died in 1988 and left the estate and Pavilion to her husband's great nephew Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild; the house is the last of the Buckinghamshire Rothschild houses to remain in Rothschild hands. It operates as a private home; the gardens continue to be developed and maintained, growing vegetables and flowers for the estate. The walled garden was designed by Mary Keen in 1990. Scenes from And Then There Were None by Agatha Christie, screened on BBC One from 26–28 December 2015, were filmed on the Estate roads and on the bridge at Eythrope. Rothschild properties in England Waddesdon Manor