Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
John Purroy Mitchel
John Purroy Mitchel was the 95th mayor of New York from 1914 to 1917. At age 34 he was the second-youngest ever. Mayor Mitchel is remembered for his short career as leader of Reform politics in New York as well as for his early death as a US Army Air Service officer in the last months of World War I. Mitchel's staunchly Catholic New York family had been founded by his paternal grandfather and namesake John Mitchel, an Ulster Presbyterian Young Irelander who became a renowned writer and leader in the Irish independence movement, as well as a staunch supporter of the Confederate States of America. Reformers praised him. Oswald Garrison Villard, the editor of The Nation, said he was "the ablest and best Mayor New York had." Former President Theodore Roosevelt, endorsing Mitchel's re-election bid in 1917, stated that he had "given us as nearly an ideal administration of the New York City government as I have seen in my lifetime." However his staunchest supporters admitted he was a poor politician, too aloof from the ordinary voters and too concerned with "scientific" urban management.
He still won in a landslide in 1913 but lost the Republican primary in 1917. John Purroy Mitchel was born on July 19, 1879 at Fordham, New York City to James Mitchel, a New York City fire marshal, Mary Purroy who worked as a schoolteacher until her marriage, his father James was a veteran of the Confederate States army and two of his uncles had been killed fighting for the Confederacy. His grandfather, Venezuelan-born Juan Bautista Purroy, was that country's consul in New York, which made Purroy the first Mayor of New York City of Latino descent; the Purroy family included leading politicians in The Bronx. He graduated from a Catholic secondary school at Fordham Preparatory School in the late 1890s, he obtained his bachelor's degree from Columbia College in 1899 and graduated from New York Law School in 1902 with honors. Mitchel pursued a career as a private attorney. In December 1906, Mitchel's career took flight when he was hired by family friend and New York City corporation counsel, William B.
Ellison to investigate the office of John F. Ahearn, borough president of Manhattan, for incompetence and inefficiency; as a result, Ahearn was dismissed as borough president of Manhattan. Mitchel began his career as assistant corporation counsel and became a member of the Commissioners of Accounts, from which he investigated city departments. Mitchel gained results and recognition for his thorough and professional investigations into various city departments and high-ranking officials. Mitchel, with the help of Henry Bruere and other staff members of the Bureau of Municipal Research turned the insignificant Commissioners of Accounts into an administration of importance; the young Mitchel's reputation as a reformer garnered him the support of the anti-Tammany forces. In 1909, Mitchel was elected president of the board of aldermen; as president of the board of aldermen, Mitchel was able to enact fiscal reforms. Mitchel cut improved accounting practices. Mitchel unsuccessfully fought for a municipal owned transit system and the city saw Mitchel vote against allowing the Interborough Rapid Transit and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit companies permission to extend their existing subway and elevated lines.
For a six-week period in 1910 after current Mayor William J. Gaynor was injured by a bullet wound, Mitchel served as acting mayor, his biggest accomplishment during his short tenure was the act of neutrality during a garment industry strike. As the mayoral election approached in 1913, the Citizens Municipal Committee of 107 set out to find a candidate that would give New York "a non-partisan and progressive government." They were assisted in this endeavor by the Fusion Executive Committee, led by Joseph M. Price of the City Club of New York. After nine ballots, Mitchel was nominated as a candidate for mayor. During his campaign, Mitchel focused on making City Hall a place of honesty, he focused on business as he promised New Yorkers that he would modernize the administrative and financial machinery and the processes of city government. At the age of 34, Mitchel was elected mayor on the Republican Party slate as he won an overwhelming victory, defeating Democratic candidate Edward E. McCall by 121,000 votes, thus becoming the second youngest mayor of New York City.
He was referred to as "The Boy Mayor of New York." Mitchel's administration introduced widespread reforms in the Police Department, which had long been corrupt and, cleaned up by Mitchel's Police Commissioner Arthur Woods. Woods was able to break up gangs and in his first year in office, he arrested more than 200 criminals. Woods launched an attack on robbery, prostitution and gambling. Woods transformed the police department into a crime-fighting machine. Mitchel aimed to get rid of corruption. Mitchel's administration set out to modernize New York City and its government. Mitchel was able to expand the city's regulatory activities, ran the police department more and efficiently and much like in 1910 he maintained impartiality during garment and transportation workers strikes in 1916. At 1:30 P. M. on April 17, 1914, Michael P. Mahoney fired a gun at the mayor as Mitchel was getting in his car to go to lunch; the bullet ricocheted off a pedestrian and hit Frank Lyon Polk, New York City's corporation counsel, in the chin.
Mitchel's early popularity was soon diminished due to his fiscal policies and vision of education. Mitchel was criticized for combining vocational and academic courses. Mitchel began to trim the siz
Lower East Side
The Lower East Side, sometimes abbreviated as LES, is a neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan located between the Bowery and the East River, Canal Street and Houston Street. Traditionally an immigrant, working class neighborhood, it began rapid gentrification in the mid-2000s, prompting the National Trust for Historic Preservation to place the neighborhood on their list of America's Most Endangered Places; the Lower East Side is part of Manhattan Community District 3 and its primary ZIP Code is 10002. It is patrolled by the 7th Precinct of the New York City Police Department; the Lower East Side is bounded by the Bowery to the west, East Houston Street to the north, the FDR Drive to the east and Canal Street to the south. The western boundary below Grand Street veers east off of the Bowery to Essex Street; the neighborhood is bordered in the south and west by Chinatown – which extends north to Grand Street, in the west by Nolita and in the north by the East Village.
The "Lower East Side" referred to the area alongside the East River from about the Manhattan Bridge and Canal Street up to 14th Street, bounded on the west by Broadway. It included areas known today as East Village, Alphabet City, Bowery, Little Italy, NoLIta. Parts of the East Village are still known as Loisaida, a Latino pronunciation of "Lower East Side". Politically, the neighborhood is located in 12th congressional districts, it is in 74th district. As was all of Manhattan Island, the area now known as the Lower East Side was occupied by members of the Lenape tribe, who were organized in bands which moved from place to place according to the seasons, fishing on the rivers in the summer, moving inland in the fall and winter to gather crops and hunt for food, their main trail took the route of Broadway. One encampment in the Lower East Side area, near Corlears Hook was called Naghtogack; the population of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was located below the current Fulton Street, while north of it were a number of small plantations and large farms called bouwerij at the time.
Around these farms were a number of enclaves of free or "half-free" Africans, which served as a buffer between the Dutch and the Native Americans. One of the largest of these was located along the modern Bowery between Prince Street and Astor Place; these black farmers were some of the earliest settlers of the area. During the 17th century, there was an overall consolidation of the boweries and farms into larger parcels, much of the Lower East side was part of the Delancy farm. James Delancey's pre-Revolutionary farm east of post road leading from the city survives in the names Delancey Street and Orchard Street. On the modern map of Manhattan, the Delancey farm is represented in the grid of streets from Division Street north to Houston Street. In response to the pressures of a growing city, Delancey began to survey streets in the southern part of the "West Farm" in the 1760s. A spacious projected Delancey Square—intended to cover the area within today's Eldridge, Essex and Broome Streets—was eliminated when the loyalist Delancey family's property was confiscated after the American Revolution.
The city Commissioners of Forfeiture eliminated the aristocratic planned square for a grid, effacing Delancey's vision of a New York laid out like the West End of London. The point of land on the East River now called Corlears Hook was called Corlaers Hook under Dutch and British rule, Crown Point during British occupation in the Revolution, it was named after the schoolmaster Jacobus van Corlaer, who settled on this "plantation" that in 1638 was called by a Europeanized version of its Lenape name, Nechtans or Nechtanc. Corlaer sold the plantation to Wilhelmus Hendrickse Beekman, founder of the Beekman family of New York. On February 25, 1643, volunteers from the New Amsterdam colony killed thirty Wiechquaesgecks at their encampment at Corlears Hook, as part of Kieft's War, in retaliation for ongoing conflicts between the colonists and the natives of the area, including their unwillingness to pay tribute, their refusal to turn over the killer of a colonist; the projection into the East River that retained Corlaer's name was an important landmark for navigators for 300 years.
On older maps and documents it is spelled Corlaers Hook, but since the early 19th century the spelling has been anglicized to Corlears. The rough unplanned settlement that developed at Corlaer's Hook under the British occupation of New York during the Revolution was separated from the densely populated city by rough hills of glacial till: "this region lay beyond the city proper, from which it was separated by high and rough hills", observers recalled in 1843; as early as 1816, Corlears Hook was notorious for streetwalkers, "a resort for the lewd and abandoned of both sexes", in 1821 its "streets abounding every night with preconcerted groups of thieves and prostitutes" were noted by the "Christian Herald". In the course of the 19th century they came to be called hookers. In the summer of cholera in New York, 1832, a two-storey wooden workshop was commandeered to serve as a makeshift cholera hospital. In 1833, Corlear's Hook was the location of some of the first tenements built in New York C
New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division
The Appellate Divisions of the Supreme Court of the State of New York are the intermediate appellate courts in New York State. There are one in each of the state's four Judicial Departments; each Appellate Division hears appeals from the superior courts in civil cases, the Supreme Court in criminal cases, the county courts in felony criminal cases in the Third and Fourth Judicial Departments. In addition, in civil cases it may hear appeals from the appellate terms of the Supreme Court when these courts have heard appeals from one of the lower trial courts. New York's rules of civil procedure allow for interlocutory appeals of right from nearly every order and decision of the trial court, meaning that most may be appealed to the appropriate appellate department while the case is still pending in the trial court. An Appellate Division may make decisions of law and fact with respect to its power to hear first appeals from state trial courts, including the Supreme Court and County Courts; these trial level courts exercise specific jurisdiction.
In contrast, both the New York Court of Appeals and the Appellate Division when it sits as a final appeals court with respect to appeals arising from decisions of the Appellate Terms in the First and Second Departments may only decide questions of law. The Appellate Division may adjudicate facts subject to specific constraints in the course of initial review of agency decisions under New York's CPLR Article 78, which provides for limited court review or agency and corporate decisions. Decisions of the Appellate Division department panels are binding on the lower courts in that department, on lower courts in other departments unless there is contrary authority from the Appellate Division of that department. If two different departments have made different rulings on the same issue the lower courts in each departmental area must follow the ruling made by the higher court for their particular department; this can sometimes result in the same law being applied differently in different departments.
When this occurs, the highest court in the state, the Court of Appeals, can remedy the situation by hearing the case and issuing a single ruling, binding on every court in the state. Every opinion and motion of the Appellate Division sent to the New York State Reporter of the New York State Law Reporting Bureau is required to be published in the Appellate Division Reports. Opinions of the appellate terms are published selectively in the Miscellaneous Reports; the First Department covers The Manhattan. Justice Rolando Acosta is this department's Presiding Justice as of May 22, 2017; the Second Department covers Queens, Staten Island, Long Island and Dutchess, Putnam and Westchester counties. This department is the largest in terms of population. Hon. Randall T. Eng, who served as this department's Presiding Justice until January 2018, was the first Asian-American judge to hold such a position in New York State. Hon. Alan Scheinkman is the current Presiding Justice; the Third Department includes an area extending from the territory of the Second Department north to New York's borders with Vermont and Quebec, includes the cities of Albany, Schenectady, Saratoga Springs, Binghamton.
This territory extends nearly as far west as Syracuse. Hon. Elizabeth A. Garry is the current Presiding Justice; the Fourth Department covers the remainder of the state, includes the cities of Buffalo and Syracuse. Hon. Gerald J. Whalen is the Presiding Justice; each department has a Character and Fitness Committee, whose members interview applicants in person for admission to the bar. Each department has a committee that investigates complaints of attorney misconduct and may issue reprimands or recommend censure, suspension, or disbarment to the Appellate Division; each case is in some instances four, justices of the Court. There is no procedure for the Court to sit en banc; some basic rules governing appeals are contained in Articles 55 and 57 of the New York Civil Practice Law and Rules. Each Department of the Appellate Division has its own individual set of rules governing more specific details of practice before that court. Prior to September 2018, unlike other states that have statewide rules of appellate procedure, there were no set of appellate rules shared by all four departments beyond those contained in the CPLR.
However, in June 2018, the Presiding Justices of the Appellate Division promulgated statewide Practice Rules of the Appellate Division, which became effective in September 2018 and are codified outside of the CPRL in 22 N. Y. C. R. R. Part 1250; the four Departments retain the ability to supplement and the uniform Rules by promulgating rules of their own. Decisions by an Appellate Division may be appealed to the state's highest court, the New York Court of Appeals. In some cases, an appeal lies of right, but in most cases, permission to appeal must be obtained, either from the Appellate Division itself or from the Court of Appeals. In civil cases, the Appellate Division panel or Court of Appeals votes on petitions for leave to appeal.
Saint Raymond's Cemetery (Bronx)
Saint Raymond's Cemetery is a Roman Catholic cemetery at 2600 Lafayette Avenue in the Throggs Neck and Schuylerville sections of the Bronx, New York City, United States. The cemetery is composed of two separate locations: the older section, the newer section, both east of the Hutchinson River Parkway; the Bronx–Whitestone Bridge is located adjacent to the cemetery's newer section, while the neighboring Throgs Neck Bridge can be seen from a distance. The cemetery is operated by the Archdiocese of New York, it is the only Catholic cemetery in the Bronx and is one of the busiest cemeteries in the United States with nearly 4,000 burials each year. The cemetery provides in-ground burials, in-ground crypt burials in the new Holy Cross section, Mausoleum burials and niches for cremains and burials in the base of the gigantic granite Cross located in the Holy Cross section. There is a special Garden of Innocents where still-born and young babies are laid to rest. A portion of the St. Peters section was set aside in 1964 for the burial of the Archdiocese's clergymen.
The cemetery land was the "Underhill Farm of Throgg's Neck." It was purchased and consecrated by the forward-thinking Rev. Michael B. McEvoy, pastor from 1875 to 1885 of St. Raymond's Church, who bought the land and utilized it for burial purposes as Saint Raymond's Cemetery. Through its connection to St. Raymond's Church, the cemetery was dedicated in honor of Saint Raymond of Penyafort, a 12th-century Catalan-Spanish saint. Shortly after his son's kidnapping in 1932, aviator Charles Lindbergh and John Condon met with the alleged kidnapper at St. Raymond's to deliver $50,000 in ransom money. Despite the payment, the child's body was found a few months later. Bruno Richard Hauptmann was executed the following year. Henry "Red" Allen, jazz trumpeter Kyrle Bellew, British stage-actor Private William Joseph Bray, Veterans Guard of Canada service member killed during World War II. James Austin Byrnes, Royal Air Force cadet killed during World War I. Joseph "The Baker" Catania, mobster Hector "Macho" Camacho, professional boxer Anjelica Castillo, notable murder victim known in the press as "Baby Hope" Michael Coleman, Irish fiddle player Vincent "Mad Dog" Coll, mobster Francis P. Duffy, Canadian-American soldier and chaplain Lesandro “Junior” Guzman-Feliz, notable gang violence victim.
Billie Holiday, jazz singer Dr. L. Sullivan Ives, founder of the Catholic Protectory of New York Jackie Landry Jackson, member of girl group The Chantels James Edward Kelly, artist James Kerrigan, Civil War Union Army officer. S. Congressman James Morrison, Irish-American fiddler and band leader La Lupe, salsa music singer Héctor Lavoe, salsa music musician George William Loft, businessman & politician Lillian Lorraine, vaudeville entertainer Frankie Lymon, singer Mary Mallon, notable asymptomatic carrier John E. McGeehan, former New York State Supreme Court judge Arthur H. Murphy first Democratic County Chairman in the Bronx Lois Nettleton, actress John J. Nolan, Civil War Medal of Honor recipient Christopher Nugent, Civil War Medal of Honor recipient Duncan T. O'Brien, politician Thomas H. O'Shea, Irish revolutionary and US labor organizer Benny "Kid" Paret, Cuban boxer Joseph Maria Pernicone, first Italian-born bishop in the Archdiocese of New York Steve Vibert Pouchie Latin Jazz maestro Frank G Rossetti, former New York State Senator Hilton Ruiz, musician/composer Anthony Salerno, mobster Merlin Santana, actor Cristina Santiago, LGBT activist.
Official website St. Raymond's Cemetery at Find A Grave
Isidore Dollinger was an American politician from New York. Dollinger was born on November 1903, in New York City, he graduated from New York University in 1925, from New York Law School in 1928. He was admitted to the bar in 1929, he was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1937, 1938, 1939–40, 1941–42 and 1943–44. He was a member of the New York State Senate from 1945 to 1948, sitting in the 165th and 166th New York State Legislatures. Dollinger was elected as a Democrat to the 81st, 82nd, 83rd, 84th, 85th and 86th United States Congresses, holding office from January 3, 1949, to December 31, 1959, when he resigned to take office as District Attorney of Bronx County, he was a Justice of New York Supreme Court from 1969 to 1973, an Official Referee of the Supreme Court from 1974 to 1975. He died on January 30, 2000, in White Plains, New York, was buried at Mount Hebron Cemetery in Flushing, Queens. List of Jewish members of the United States Congress United States Congress. "Isidore Dollinger".
Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website