The Raker Act was an act of the United States Congress that permitted building of the O'Shaughnessy Dam and flooding of Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park, California. It is named for its chief sponsor; the Act, passed by Congress in 1913 by the Wilson Administration, specified that because the source of the water and power was on public land, no private profit could be derived from the development. The plan for damming the valley was fought for years by John Muir. Construction of the dam was finished in 1923. There have been ongoing allegations; the Raker Act may be said to have its roots in an 1882 proposal by the San Francisco and Tuolumne Water Company of Sonora. This water company had proposed carrying Tuolumne River water to San Francisco from Jacksonville. At this time the rapid growth of the city of San Francisco was in danger of being limited by a lack of access to plentiful, reliable water supplies; the city needed a way to meet municipal water needs at a reasonable cost. The city wanted to escape the monopoly held by the Spring Valley Water Company.
The politicians in San Francisco came up with the idea to use the watershed in the Hetch Hetchy valley to supply their water needs and break the monopoly. This area was felt by proponents to be ideal for the creation of a reservoir because of its relative proximity to the city and its ample supply of water from the snows stored in the high mountains of the Sierra Nevada; the construction of a hydroelectric dam would supply the city with much need power. A major issue with converting the Hetch Hetchy Valley into a municipally owned reservoir was the fact that it was within the borders of the newly formed Yosemite National Park. Mayor James Phelan sent a request to Congress to have the land within the Hetch Hetchy available for purchase, which resulted in the 1901 Right of Way Act, which allowed the Secretary of the Interior to grant rights to governments to reserve public lands containing possible water supplies as long as it benefited the public and didn't adhere to private interests. After the passage of the Right of Way Act Mayor Phelan transferred his water rights to the Hetch Hetchy Valley to the city and county of San Francisco.
Both the city and county of San Francisco applied for a permit to develop their water project in the Hetch Hetchy valley. The Secretary of the Interior Ethan Hitchcock opposed the Right of Way act because he believed that Yosemite National Park should be left untouched and pristine, so he denied their permit. In 1906 San Francisco suffered from a catastrophic earthquake. About 500 city blocks were destroyed by the quake and subsequent fire, which spotlighted the city's need for more water. In the aftermath of the earthquake in 1906, the water purveyors and the city of San Francisco seized the opportunity to continue to push for a permit to use the Hetch Hetchy valley for their water needs. In 1908 Secretary of the Interior, James R. Garfield reversed the order given by the previous Secretary of the Interior Ethan Allen Hitchcock, which denied San Francisco a permit to buy the land in sought to acquire in Yosemite National Park, in a rehearing for the cities permit. Garfield had an opposing stance on conservation and believed that Hetch Hetchy was not unique and a lake in its place would be more appealing, plus the money generated from the hydroelectric power could pay for the initial cost of constructing the dam.
Garfield authorization of building water infrastructure in the Hetch Hetchy valley was not set in stone because future Secretaries of the Interior could reverse his decision, solidifying San Francisco's right to build water infrastructure in Yosemite would have to go through United States Congress. In late 1908 the citizens of San Francisco approved the allocation of $600,000 in bonds to be used to purchase land and water rights in the Hetch Hetchy valley to build a dam for a reservoir and aqueduct lines, they approved a $45,000,000 bond in 1910 to be issued for the construction of all the water infrastructure. Both Secretaries of the Interior under the Taft administration, Richard A. Ballinger and Walter Fisher opposed construction of water infrastructure in the Hetch Hetchy valley; the instead suggested that the city of San Francisco Build reservoirs at Lake Eleanor and Cherry Valley, which were considered to be less attractive and environmentally important than Hetch Hetchy Valley. This kept the project at bay.
The president of the American Society of Engineers in 1912, John R. Freeman submitted a plan, supported by the U. S. Advisory Board of Army Engineers, that determined the construction of water infrastructure in the Hetch Hetchy Valley would deliver a substantial amount of water at a fraction of the cost, compared to the proposed plan to use the Cherry Valley and Lake Eleanor. In 1913, Woodrow Wilson is elected president and suggests that the U. S. Congress reviews San Francisco's application to develop in Yosemite. On September 3, 1913, the House of Representatives passes HR7207, a bill submitted by John Raker that authorized the use of the Hetch Hetchy valley and Lake Eleanor as a water source for San Francisco; the Raker bill was passed in the U. S. Senate on December 2, 1913, signed by President Wilson on December 19; the bill was named the Raker act after John Raker. During the beginning stages of planning for the development in Yosemite National Park, the development of the Raker Act, there were a few parties that fought against San Francisco's water grab.
The main defenders conserving the Hetch Hetchy valley for re
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Redwood National and State Parks
The Redwood National and State Parks are a complex of several state and national parks located in the United States, along the coast of northern California. Comprising Redwood National Park and California's Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith, Prairie Creek Redwoods State Parks, the combined RNSP contain 139,000 acres, feature old-growth temperate rainforests. Located within Del Norte and Humboldt Counties, the four parks, protect 45% of all remaining coast redwood old-growth forests, totaling at least 38,982 acres; these trees are one of the most massive tree species on Earth. In addition to the redwood forests, the parks preserve other indigenous flora, grassland prairie, cultural resources, portions of rivers and other streams, 37 miles of pristine coastline. In 1850, old-growth redwood forest covered more than 2,000,000 acres of the California coast; the northern portion of that area inhabited by Native Americans, attracted many lumbermen and others turned gold miners when a minor gold rush brought them to the region.
Failing in efforts to strike it rich in gold, these men turned toward harvesting the giant trees for booming development in San Francisco and other places on the West Coast. After many decades of unrestricted clear-cut logging, serious efforts toward conservation began. By the 1920s the work of the Save the Redwoods League, founded in 1918 to preserve remaining old-growth redwoods, resulted in the establishment of Prairie Creek, Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Parks among others. Redwood National Park was created in 1968, by which time nearly 90% of the original redwood trees had been logged; the National Park Service and the California Department of Parks and Recreation administratively combined Redwood National Park with the three abutting Redwood State Parks in 1994 for the purpose of cooperative forest management and stabilization of forests and watersheds as a single unit. The ecosystem of the RNSP preserves a number of threatened animal species such as the tidewater goby, Chinook salmon, northern spotted owl, Steller's sea lion.
In recognition of the rare ecosystem and cultural history found in the parks, the United Nations designated them a World Heritage Site on September 5, 1980 and part of the California Coast Ranges International Biosphere Reserve on June 30, 1983. Modern day native groups such as the Yurok, Karok and Wiyot all have historical ties to the region, some Native American groups still live in the park area today. Archaeological study shows. An 1852 census determined that the Yurok were the most numerous, with 55 villages and an estimated population of 2,500, they used the abundant redwood, which with its linear grain was split into planks, as a building material for boats and small villages. For buildings, the planks would be erected side by side in a narrow trench, with the upper portions bound with leather strapping and held by notches cut into the supporting roof beams. Redwood boards were used to form a shallow sloping roof. Previous to Jedediah Smith in 1828, no other explorer of European descent is known to have investigated the inland region away from the immediate coast.
The discovery of gold along the Trinity River in 1850 led to a minor secondary rush in California. This brought miners into the area and many stayed on at the coast after failing to strike it rich; this led to conflicts wherein native peoples were placed under great strain, if not forcibly removed or massacred. By 1895, only one third of the Yurok in one group of villages remained; the miners logged redwoods for building. Over 2,000,000 acres of the California and southwestern coast of Oregon were old-growth redwood forest, but by 1910, extensive logging led conservationists and concerned citizens to begin seeking ways to preserve the remaining trees, which they saw being logged at an alarming rate. In 1911, U. S. Representative John E. Raker, of California, became the first politician to introduce legislation for the creation of a redwood national park. However, no further action was taken by Congress at that time. Preservation of the redwood stands in California is considered one of the most substantial conservation contributions of the Boone and Crockett Club.
The Save the Redwoods League was founded in 1918 by Boone and Crockett Club members Madison Grant, John C. Merriam, Henry Fairfield Osborn, future member, Frederick Russell Burnham; the initial purchases of land were made by club member Stephen William Kent. In 1921, Boone and Crockett Club member John C. Phillips donated $32,000 to purchase land and create the Raynal Bolling Memorial Grove in the Humboldt Redwoods State Park; this was timely as U. S. Route 101, which would soon provide nearly unfettered access to the trees, was under construction. Using matching funds provided by the County of Humboldt and by the State of California, the Save the Redwoods League] managed to protect areas of concentrated or multiple redwood groves and a few entire forests in the 1920s; as California created a state park system, beginning in 1927, three of the preserved redwood areas became Prairie Creek Redwoods, Del Norte Coast Redwoods, Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Parks. A fourth became Humboldt Redwoods State Park, by far the largest of the individual Redwood State Parks, but not in the Redwood National and State Park system.
Because of the
Knox County, Illinois
Knox County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 52,919, its county seat is Galesburg. Knox County comprises IL Micropolitan Statistical Area. Knox County was named in honor of the first US Secretary of War; the first "Knox County" in what today is Illinois was unrelated to the modern incarnation. In 1790, the land of the Indiana Territory, to become Illinois was divided into two counties: St. Clair and Knox; the latter included land in. When Knox County, was formed from this portion of the county in 1809, the Illinois portions were subdivided into counties that were given other names; the modern Knox County, was organized in 1825, from Fulton County, itself a portion of the original St. Clair County. Like its neighbor to the south, Fulton County, for its Spoon River Drive, Knox County is known for a similar scenic drive fall festival the first two weekends in October, the Knox County Drive. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 720 square miles, of which 716 square miles is land and 3.4 square miles is water.
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Galesburg have ranged from a low of 13 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in January 1982 and a record high of 102 °F was recorded in July 1983. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.41 inches in January to 4.37 inches in July. Henry County - north Stark County - east Peoria County - southeast Fulton County - south Warren County - west Mercer County - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 52,919 people, 21,535 households, 13,324 families residing in the county; the population density was 73.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 24,077 housing units at an average density of 33.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 87.5% white, 7.2% black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.9% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 23.1% were German, 14.9% were Irish, 11.7% were English, 11.6% were Swedish, 8.0% were American.
Of the 21,535 households, 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.1% were non-families, 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age was 42.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,545 and the median income for a family was $51,740. Males had a median income of $42,067 versus $25,380 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,908. About 10.9% of families and 15.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.7% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over. Abingdon Galesburg Knoxville Oneida Gilson Oak Run Knox County is divided into twenty-one townships: Knox County’s political history is typical of Yankee-settled Northern Illinois, it leaned Whig during its early elections – although giving a plurality to Franklin Pierce in 1852 – and become powerfully Republican following that party’s formation.
Although Knox did support Progressive Theodore Roosevelt against conservative incumbent President William Howard Taft in 1912, it was Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1932 landslide before Knox County again gave the Democratic Party so much as a plurality, it did not give a Democratic absolute majority until Lyndon B. Johnson gained such against the anti-Yankee, Southern-leaning Barry Goldwater in 1964. Since Knox County trended Democratic for the following four decades, so that Michael Dukakis in his losing 1988 campaign was to carry the county by the same margin as Johnson had done in 1964. During the 1990s and 2000s, Knox was a solidly Democratic county, voting Democratic by at least nine percentage points in every election from 1992 to 2012; the 2016 election, in the shadow of high unemployment in the “Rust Belt” saw a swing of over twenty percentage points to Donald Trump, who became the first Republican victor in the county since Ronald Reagan in 1984 when he came within 3,819 votes of cleansweeping all fifty states.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Knox County, Illinois Charles C. Chapman and Co. History of Knox County, Illinois: Together with Sketches of the Cities and Townships. Fred R. Jelliff, Annals of Knox County: Commemorating Centennial of Admission of Illinois as State of the Union in 1818. Galesburg, IL: Republican Register Printing, 1918. Portrait and Biographical Album of Knox County, Containing Full Page Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the County, Together with Portraits and Biographies of All the Governors of Illinois, of the Presidents of the United States: Also Containing a History of the County from Its Earliest Settlement Up to the Present Time. Chicago: Biographical Publishing Company, 1886. "Foxie's Knox Co. IL AHGP"
Your Honour and Your Honor redirect here. For a list of English honorifics, see Style. For other uses, see Your Honour A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges; the powers, method of appointment and training of judges vary across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and in an open court; the judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might be an examining magistrate; the ultimate task of a judge is to settle a legal dispute in a final and public manner, thus affirm the rule of law. Judges exercise significant governmental power, they can order police, military or judicial officials to execute searches, imprisonments, distrainments, seizures and similar actions.
However, judges supervise that trial procedures are followed, in order to ensure consistency and impartiality and avoid arbitrariness. The powers of a judge are checked by higher courts such as supreme courts. Before the trial, a pre-trial investigation collecting the facts has been conducted by police officials, such as police officers and coroners, prosecutors or public procurators; the court has three main trained court officials: the judge, the prosecutor and the defence attorney. The role of a judge varies between legal systems. In an adversarial system, as in effect in the U. S. and England, the judge functions as an impartial referee ensuring correct procedure, while the prosecution and the defense present their case to a jury selected from common citizens. The main factfinder is the jury, the judge will finalize sentencing. In smaller cases judges can issue summary judgments without proceeding to a jury trial. In an inquisitorial system, as in effect in continental Europe, there is no jury and the main factfinder is the judge, who will do the presiding and sentencing on his own.
As such, the judge is expected to apply the law directly, as in the French expression Le juge est la bouche de la loi. Furthermore, in some system investigation may be conducted by the judge, functioning as an examining magistrate. Judges may work alone in smaller cases, but in criminal and other significant cases, they work in a panel. In some civil law systems, this panel may include lay judges. Unlike professional judges, lay judges are not trained, but unlike jurors, lay judges are volunteers and may be politically appointed. Judges are assisted by law clerks and notaries in legal cases and by bailiffs or similar with security. There are professional judges. A volunteer judge, such as an English magistrate, is not required to have legal training and is unpaid. Whereas, a professional judge is required to be educated. S. this requires a degree of Juris Doctor. Furthermore, significant professional experience is required. S. judges are appointed from experienced attorneys. Judges are appointed by the head of state.
In some U. S. jurisdictions, judges are elected in a political election. Impartiality is considered important for rule of law. Thus, in many jurisdictions judges may be appointed for life, so that they cannot be removed by the executive. However, in non-democratic systems, the appointment of judges may be politicized and they receive instructions on how to judge, may be removed if their conduct doesn't please the political leadership. Judges must be able to research and process extensive lengths of documents and other case material, understand complex cases and possess a thorough understanding of the law and legal procedure, which requires excellent skills in logical reasoning and decision-making. Excellent writing skills are a necessity, given the finality and authority of the documents written. Judges work with people all the time. Judges are required to have good moral character, i.e. there must be no history of crime. Professional judges enjoy a high salary, in the U. S. the median salary of judges is $101,690 per annum, federal judges earn $208,000–$267,000 per annum.
A variety of traditions have become associated with the occupation. Gavels are used by judges in many countries, to the point that the gavel has become a symbol of a judge. In many parts of the world, judges sit on an elevated platform during trials. American judges wear black robes. American judges have ceremonial gavels, although American judges have court deputies or bailiffs and contempt of court power as their main devices to maintain decorum in the courtroom. However, in some of the Western United States, like California, judges did not always wear robes and instead wore everyday clothing. Today, some members of state supreme courts, such as the Maryland Court of Appeals wear distinct dress. In Italy and Portugal, both judges and lawyers wear particular black robes. In some countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges wear wigs; the long wig associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was par
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Alturas is a city in and the county seat of Modoc County, California. The population was 2,827 at the 2010 census. Alturas is located on the Pit River, east of the center of Modoc County, at an elevation of 4370 feet; as the county seat, the town is a home to regional government offices, including a California Highway Patrol office and a state Department of Motor Vehicles office. Alturas now occupies what was an Achumawi village known as Kosealekte or Kasalektawi; the city was known as Dorris Bridge, named after Pressley and James Dorris, who built a bridge across the Pit River at this location. The Dorris Bridge post office opened in 1871, renamed Dorrisville in 1874, in 1876, was renamed Alturas, Spanish for "heights"; the census of 1880 showed a population of 148. However, settlement continued over the next two decades, until the city was incorporated on September 16, 1901; because of its central location, Dorrisville became the county seat when Modoc County formed in 1874 though both Adin and Cedarville were larger towns.
On January 10, 1945, a balloon bomb was shot down 30 miles west of the town. Alturas straddles the North Fork of the Pit River, near its confluence with the South Fork in the north end of South Fork Valley, in the extreme northeastern corner of California at 41°29′14″N 120°32′33″W; the tall Warner Mountains lie to the east, the wetlands and wild rice fields of South Fork Valley to the south, the extensive Modoc Plateau to the north. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.4 square miles and 0.57% of it is covered by water. The climate in Alturas is thought of as being semi-arid. However, it has a dry-summer continental climate; the average January temperatures are a high of 41.6 °F and a low of 16.5 °F. The average July temperatures are a high of 88.2 °F and a low of 44.3 °F. There are an average of 36.2 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and an average of 203.8 days with lows of 32 °F or lower. The record high was 108 °F on July 8, 2007, the record low was −34 °F on December 9, 1972.
Freezing temperatures have occurred in every month of the year. Precipitation averages 12.43 inches annually. There are an average of 78 days with measurable precipitation; the wettest year was 1998 with 20.89 in and the driest year was 1976 with 6.54 in. The most precipitation in one month was 6.17 in in October 1962, the most in 24 hours 3.51 in on December 11, 1937. Snowfall averages 30.9 in per season. The most snowfall in a season was 85.5 in in 1952. The 2010 United States Census reported that Alturas had a population of 2,827; the population density was 1,154.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Alturas was 2,430 White, 15 African American, 81 Native American, 45 Asian, 7 Pacific Islander, 118 from other races, 131 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 347 persons; the Census reported that 2,814 people lived in households, none lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 13 were institutionalized. There were 1,238 households, out of which 391 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 507 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 181 had a female householder with no husband present, 65 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 102 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 9 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 403 households were made up of individuals and 160 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27. There were 753 families; the population was spread out with 702 people under the age of 18, 219 people aged 18 to 24, 672 people aged 25 to 44, 802 people aged 45 to 64, 432 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males. There were 1,407 housing units at an average density of 574.6 per square mile, of which 691 were owner-occupied, 547 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.8%. 1,563 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,251 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,892 people, 1,181 households, 753 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,316.3 people per square mile.
There were 1,367 housing units at an average density of 622.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.9% White, 0.3% Black or African American, 4.4% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.8% from other races, 3.7% from two or more races. 11.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,181 households out of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families. 32.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the ag