Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Terry Zwigoff is an American filmmaker whose work deals with misfits and themes of alienation. Zwigoff was born in Wisconsin, to a Jewish family of dairy farmers, he was raised in Chicago. Zwigoff moved to San Francisco in the 1970s and met cartoonist Robert Crumb, who shared his interest in pre-war American roots music. Zwigoff, who plays cello and mandolin, joined Crumb’s string band R. Crumb & His Cheap Suit Serenaders, with whom he recorded several records. Zwigoff's friendship with Crumb led to his involvement in the underground comix scene, he edited the one-shot Funny Aminals #1, the groundbreaking comic in which Art Spiegelman first introduced the characters and themes that would become Maus. In 1972 -- 1973, Zwigoff operated a small retailer and underground comix publisher. Golden Gate Publishing released three comics during this period, all of which featured Crumb's work: The People's Comics – all Crumb. Zwigoff began his film career making documentary films, starting with 1985's Louie Bluie, a one-hour documentary about the blues and string band musician Howard Armstrong.
Zwigoff had been inspired to locate and interview him after listening to a 30s recording, "State Street Rag", on which Armstrong played the mandolin. Zwigoff worked on a documentary about R. Crumb and his two brothers for nine years, during which Zwigoff said he was "averaging an income of about $200 a month and living with back pain so intense that I spent three years with a loaded gun on the pillow next to my bed, trying to get up the nerve to kill myself." He completed Crumb in 1994. Additionally, critic Gene Siskel named Crumb the best film of 1995 as did over ten other major film critics, it appeared on over 150 Ten Best Lists of important critics. When Crumb failed to receive an Oscar nomination, there was an outcry from the media which forced the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to revamp their documentary nomination process, dominated by the distributors of documentary films. Zwigoff’s first fiction feature film was the comedy-drama Ghost World, based on Daniel Clowes' graphic novel of the same name.
For this, Zwigoff and co-writer Clowes were nominated for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay and won the Independent Spirit Award. Ghost World was nominated for two Golden Globe Awards and two AFI awards. USA Today and The Washington Post called it the best film of the year. Ghost World appeared on over 150 Ten Best Lists. Zwigoff’s next film was the 2003 black comedy Bad Santa whose star, Billy Bob Thornton, was nominated for a Golden Globe award; the film grossed over $76 million worldwide. His latest feature film was Art School Confidential, whose best-known stars are John Malkovich, Jim Broadbent, Anjelica Huston. Art School Confidential was Zwigoff’s second collaboration with writer Daniel Clowes. Terry Zwigoff on IMDb Interview - Now Playing magazine Terry Zwigoff's Santa: He's Making a List And Checking His Escape Routes Twice - New York Times Interview
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research. Such prospective biomedical or behavioral research studies on human participants are designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions, including new treatments and known interventions that warrant further study and comparison. Clinical trials generate data on efficacy, they are conducted only after they have received health authority/ethics committee approval in the country where approval of the therapy is sought. These authorities are responsible for vetting the risk/benefit ratio of the trial – their approval does not mean that the therapy is'safe' or effective, only that the trial may be conducted. Depending on product type and development stage, investigators enroll volunteers or patients into small pilot studies, subsequently conduct progressively larger scale comparative studies. Clinical trials can vary in size and cost, they can involve a single research center or multiple centers, in one country or in multiple countries.
Clinical study design aims to ensure the scientific reproducibility of the results. Costs for clinical trials can range into the billions of dollars per approved drug; the sponsor may be a governmental organization or a pharmaceutical, biotechnology or medical device company. Certain functions necessary to the trial, such as monitoring and lab work, may be managed by an outsourced partner, such as a contract research organization or a central laboratory. Only 10 percent of all drugs started in human clinical trials become an approved drug; some clinical trials involve healthy subjects with no pre-existing medical conditions. Other clinical trials pertain to patients with specific health conditions who are willing to try an experimental treatment; when participants are healthy volunteers who receive financial incentives, the goals are different than when the participants are sick. During dosing periods, study subjects remain under supervision for one to 40 nights. Pilot experiments are conducted to gain insights for design of the clinical trial to follow.
There are two goals to testing medical treatments: to learn whether they work well enough, called "efficacy" or "effectiveness". Neither is an absolute criterion; the benefits must outweigh the risks. For example, many drugs to treat cancer have severe side effects that would not be acceptable for an over-the-counter pain medication, yet the cancer drugs have been approved since they are used under a physician's care, are used for a life-threatening condition. In the US, the elderly constitute 14 % of the population. People over 55 are excluded from trials because their greater health issues and drug use complicate data interpretation, because they have different physiological capacity than younger people. Children and people with unrelated medical conditions are frequently excluded. Pregnant women are excluded due to potential risks to the fetus; the sponsor designs the trial in coordination with a panel of expert clinical investigators, including what alternative or existing treatments to compare to the new drug and what type of patients might benefit.
If the sponsor cannot obtain enough test subjects at one location investigators at other locations are recruited to join the study. During the trial, investigators recruit subjects with the predetermined characteristics, administer the treatment and collect data on the subjects' health for a defined time period. Data include measurements such as vital signs, concentration of the study drug in the blood or tissues, changes to symptoms, whether improvement or worsening of the condition targeted by the study drug occurs; the researchers send the data to the trial sponsor, who analyzes the pooled data using statistical tests. Examples of clinical trial goals include assessing the safety and relative effectiveness of a medication or device: On a specific kind of patient, for example, a patient, diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease At varying dosages, for example, a 10 milligram dose instead of a 5 milligram dose For a new indication Evaluation for improved efficacy in treating a patient's condition as compared to the standard therapy for that condition Evaluation of the study drug or device relative to two or more approved/common interventions for that condition, for example, device A versus device B, or therapy A versus therapy B)While most clinical trials test one alternative to the novel intervention, some expand to three or four and may include a placebo.
Except for small, single-location trials, the design and objectives are specified in a document called a clinical trial protocol. The protocol is the trial's "operating manual" and ensures that all researchers perform the trial in the same way on similar subjects and that the data is comparable across all subjects; as a trial is designed to test hypotheses and rigorously monitor and assess outcomes, it can be seen as an application of the scientific method the experimental step. The most common clinical trials evaluate new pharmaceutical products, medical devices, psychological therapies, or other interventions. Clinical trials may be required before a national regulatory authority approves marketing of the innovation. To drugs, manufacturers of medical devices in the United States are required to conduct clinical trials for premarket appr
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Private Parts (book)
Private Parts is the first book written by American radio personality Howard Stern. Released on October 7, 1993 by Simon & Schuster, it is the fastest-selling book in the company's history, it was adapted into a film in 1997 starring Stern and his radio show staff as themselves. The early chapters are autobiographical, covering Stern's upbringing and early career, while chapters are more in the style of a memoir, covering recurring themes from his radio show such as sex and celebrities. Stern's choices for the title were I, Mein Kampf, Penis but were refused by the publisher, although Mein Kampf would be used as the title of the book's fifth chapter regarding the beginning of his career, they compromised with the title Private Parts, suggested by Stern's co-host Robin Quivers, which Stern liked as a sexual pun referring to the personal "private parts" of his life with a popular euphemism for genitalia. The book received mixed reviews from critics drawing comparisons to Lenny Bruce's How to Talk Dirty and Influence People.
Like Stern's radio show, it received a great deal of opposition due to its content. It is number 86 on the American Library Association's list of the "100 Most Frequently challenged books Between 1990 and 1999." A paperback edition was released in September 1994, where Pocket Books, a division of Simon & Schuster, printed a further 2.8 million copies. In late 1995, Stern published. Upon its release, Private Parts became the fastest-selling title in publisher Simon & Schuster's history; the sales were supported by Stern's book signing tour of various cities across the United States, with the largest crowd attendances ever. The success was in spite of mixed reviews and the refusal by several stores to carry the book over objections to its content; the Caldor chain of department stores modified the New York Times Best Seller list, displayed in stores to remove Private Parts from the top position, moving all subsequent books up one. The inclusion of the book in library lists was frequently challenged in subsequent years.
The book spent five weeks at the top of the non-fiction list from the weeks of October 9 to November 6, 1993 before being displaced by See, I Told You So by Rush Limbaugh. Private Parts spent a total of twenty weeks on the NY Times Best Seller list, hitting the number one spot after a week of its release. In the book's opening acknowledgements Stern thanks his co-author Larry "Ratso" Sloman as well as his staff and family; the first chapter is a story of a male listener of Stern's show masturbating while driving on his way to work to an interview of a woman about her first lesbian sexual encounter. Chapters two through six focus on Stern's family. Stern focuses on his birth, parents and family through marriage, he moves out to focus on his upbringing in Roosevelt, Long Island where he was one of few white boys in a predominantly black neighbourhood. Stern uses this chapter to relay his thoughts on the topics from the time the book was published such as Spike Lee and his film Malcolm X, Rodney King and the 1992 Los Angeles riots.
The fourth chapter deals with Stern's adolescent sexual development including his earliest sexual experiences. He details his sex life in college and the courtship of his eventual marriage to his wife Alison; the fifth and sixth chapters deal with Stern's career in radio from childhood interest through his rise to prominence. Stern cites an early interest in radio from the age of five, his father's assistance and encouragement in growing his early career, his days in college radio are detailed followed by his earliest jobs at radio stations along the East Coast of the United States. He details his career at radio stations WWWW in Detroit, Michigan, WWDC in Washington, D. C. and WNBC in New York City. Stern's conflict with management at various radio stations are relayed, including a rather detailed conflict with WNBC Program Director Kevin Metheny. Chapters seven through eighteen move through a variety of topics beginning with his celebrity interviews; this includes individuals such as Sandi Korn, Bob Hope, Jessica Hahn, Richard Simmons, Sylvester Stallone and his family.
The book moves into Stern's views on various groups the French, the Germans, "everybody else". The book details the Fartman character including the origins, his appearance on the 1992 MTV Video Music Awards; this is followed up by a listing of various regulars on his show referred to as the Wack Pack. Celebrities are revisited as Stern details those who irritate him, such as Oprah Winfrey, Arsenio Hall, Madonna. Stern follows this up by revisiting his various sexual topics with stories of strippers, nudity and more lesbian sexual encounters. Stern returns to the familiar topic of celebrities, this time detailing feuds he has had with people such as the musical group Bon Jovi, Sam Kinison, Magic Johnson, a physical altercation with Elaine Boosler at the Grammy Awards. Stern revisits homosexuality once again, this detail his musings on gay men, he goes into comedy as he lists various comedians of the day and gives his opinion, including show regulars Kinison and Andrew Dice Clay. Lesbianism is revisited for the last time.
The seventeenth chapter details his interviews conducted by staff members Gary Dell'Abate and "Stuttering John" Melendez. The last chapter is reserved for Stern's critics and their efforts to have his show prohibited, his response to them. An afterword is written by two psychologists who analyze Stern'
Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine
Rusk Rehabilitation is the world's first and among the largest university-affiliated academic centers devoted to inpatient/outpatient care and training in rehabilitation medicine for both adults and pediatric patients. The system is part of the NYU Langone Medical Center and operated under the auspices of the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the New York University School of Medicine; the Rusk Institute is named in honor of Howard A. Rusk; the Rusk Institute has been voted the best rehabilitation hospital in New York and among the top ten in the country since 1989, when U. S. News & World Report introduced its annual "Best Hospitals" rankings. Steven Flanagan is the current Chairman of Rehabilitation Medicine and Medical Director of The Rusk Institute. Dr. Howard A. Rusk founded the Institute for Rehabilitation Medicine in 1948, his experience treating wounded soldiers during World War II led him to develop the Institute around the philosophy that the patients are to be cared for as an entire person, not only the physical disability or illness.
In 1984, the Institute was renamed so in his honor. Rusk is based out of its wing of the NYU Langone Main Campus, but additionally provides rehabilitation services at three other main locations and nearly a dozen other satellite locations: Langone Orthopedic Hospital at 301 East 17th Street Ambulatory Care Center at 240 East 38th Street Langone Orthopedic Center at 333 East 38th Street The New York Foundation Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine official website