Hay-on-Wye abbreviated to just "Hay", is a small market town and community in the historic county of Brecknockshire in Wales administered as part of the unitary authority of Powys. With over twenty bookshops, it is described as "the town of books", is both the National Book Town of Wales and the site of the annual Hay Literary Festival; the settlement's name is first referred to between 1135 and 1147 as "Haya". By the 16th century it was called "Hay", the use of the river as a suffix is a addition. In 1215, a Welsh name, "Gelli" was recorded, "Gelli gandrell" in 1614; the English language name, "Hay", is derived from Old English "hæg" meaning a "fenced area" and a noun used in late Saxon and Norman times for an enclosure in a forest. The Welsh word celli has a range of meanings including wooded areas of various extents; the town lies on the south-east bank of the River Wye and is within the north-easternmost tip of the Brecon Beacons National Park, just north of the Black Mountains. The town is just on the Welsh side of the border with Herefordshire, here defined by the Dulas Brook.
Where the brook joins the River Wye just north of the town, the border continues northwards along the river. The Wye was the boundary between the former counties and districts of Radnorshire and Brecknockshire; the adjacent village of Cusop lies on the English side of the Dulas Brook. The nearest city is county town of Herefordshire, some 22 miles to the east; the Royal Mail depot in Hay is a sub-office of Hereford, therefore although in Wales has an English postal address, being part of the HR3 postcode. Hay-on-Wye is a Welsh community with a Town Council, its boundary follows the English border/Dulas Brook from the River Wye southeastwards for just over a kilometre, turns south-west to a point just south of Oakfield house, thence north to Greenpit Farm and north westwards, enclosing the Hay Showground and meeting the National Park boundary near the B4350, Brecon Road. From this point, it follows the National Park boundary to the River Wye and the river back to the Dulas Brook; the Town Council consists of Deputy Mayor and eight councillors.
Hay participates in the election of a councillor to Powys County Council as part of a larger county division. The B4350 runs through the town and the B4351 links it with the main A438 from Brecon to Hereford, on the far side of the River Wye; the town was served at Hay-on-Wye railway station by the train services known as the "Canney Creeper", which closed in 1963 under the Beeching Axe. Hay-on-Wye is a destination for bibliophiles in the United Kingdom, still with two dozen bookshops, many selling specialist and second-hand books, although the number has declined in recent years, many becoming general antique shops and similar. Since 1988, Hay-on-Wye has been the venue for a literary festival, now sponsored by The Daily Telegraph newspaper, which draws a claimed 80,000 visitors over ten days at the beginning of June to see and hear big literary names from all over the world. First held in 2010, HowTheLightGetsIn is a philosophy and music festival, held yearly in Hay at the same time as the Hay festival.
Billed as "The World's Largest Philosophy and Music Festival", it attracts over 35,000 visitors to its programme of 450 events of music and philosophy. In 2015 the festival was held from the 21st to the 31st of May. Acts included Mike Skinner, Simon Blackburn, Jamie Woon, Lawrence Krauss, Natalie Bennett and the IAI School, aimed at 16- to 18-year-olds, presented by New College of the Humanities. Hay Golf Club was founded in 1903; the club continued on its nine-hole course until the onset of World War 2. The town's football club is called Hay St. Mary's, they play in the Spar Mid Wales League First Division. Hay was named one of the best places to live in Wales in 2017. Hay-on-Wye, like Builth Wells, has two Norman castles within a short distance of each other, it seems that Hay was first fortified by William Fitz Osbern during his penetration of south-east Wales in the summer of 1070, when he defeated three Welsh kings. The history of the site continues through the lordships of the de Neufmarchés, confirmed at the Battle of Brecon in 1093, the Gloucester/Hereford families until 1165, when the district of Brycheiniog passed into the hands of the de Braose dynasty of Marcher Lords.
In 1230 Hay Castle passed to the de Bohuns and the local history, including the battle near Hay in 1231, is continued through the Mortimer Wars of the 1260s and the battle near Brecon in 1266 down to the death of Earl Humphrey de Bohun in 1298. Lying close to St Mary's Church on the western edge of Hay-on-Wye is a small but well-preserved motte; the site overlooks a gorge and small stream, locally known as The Loggin Brook, that flows into the River Wye, undoubtedly one reason for the construction of a motte and bailey castle there. A levelled platform under the car park to the north east may have once have housed the castle's bailey; this little fortress was the work of William Revel, a knight of Bernard de Neufmarché, referred to as Bernard Newmarch, may have been the seat for the manor or commote of Melinog. Other than this, the motte has no further recorded history; the main fortress within Hay-on-Wye was situated on the great site commanding the town and river under the current ruins of the castle and mansion.
This was undoubtedly the'castello de haia' handed to Miles of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford, in 1121 with Sibyl de Neufmarché, the daughter of Bernard de Neufmarché. It is most lik
King's College, Cambridge
King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. Formally The King's College of Our Lady and Saint Nicholas in Cambridge, the college lies beside the River Cam and faces out onto King's Parade in the centre of the city. King's was founded in 1441 by Henry VI. However, the King's plans for the college were disrupted by the Wars of the Roses and resultant scarcity of funds, his eventual deposition. Little progress was made on the project until in 1508 Henry VII began to take an interest in the college, most as a political move to legitimise his new position; the building of the college's chapel, begun in 1446, was finished in 1544 during the reign of Henry VIII. King's College Chapel, Cambridge is regarded as one of the greatest examples of late Gothic English architecture, it has the world's largest fan vault, the chapel's stained-glass windows and wooden chancel screen are considered some of the finest from their era. The building is seen as emblematic of Cambridge.
The chapel's choir, composed of male students at King's and choristers from the nearby King's College School, is one of the most accomplished and renowned in the world. Every year on Christmas Eve the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols is broadcast from the chapel to millions of listeners worldwide. On 12 February 1441 King Henry VI issued letters patent founding a college at Cambridge for a rector and twelve poor scholars; this college was to be named upon whose saint day Henry had been born. The first stone of the college's Old Court was laid by the King on Passion Sunday, 2 April 1441, on a site which lies directly north of the modern college and, a garden belonging to Trinity Hall. William Millington, a fellow of Clare College was installed as the rector. Henry directed the publication of the college's first governing statutes in 1443, his original modest plan for the college was abandoned, provision was instead made for a community of seventy fellows and scholars headed by a provost. Henry had belatedly learned of William of Wykeham's 1379 twin foundation of New College and Winchester College, wanted his own achievements to surpass those of Wykeham.
The King had in fact founded Eton College on 11 October 1440, but up until 1443 King's and Eton had been unconnected. However, that year the relationship between the two was remodelled upon Wykeham's successful institutions and the original sizes of the colleges scaled up to surpass Wykeham's. A second royal charter which re-founded the now much larger King's College was issued on 12 July 1443. On 1 September 1444, the Provosts of King's and Eton, the Wardens of Winchester and New College formally signed the Amicabilis Concordia in which they bound their colleges to support one another and financially. Members of King's were to be recruited from Eton; each year, the provost and two fellows travelled to Eton to impartially elect the worthiest boys to fill any vacancies at the college, always maintaining the total number of scholars and fellows at seventy. Membership of King's was a vocation for life. Scholars were eligible for election to the fellowship after three years of probation, irrespective of whether they had achieved a degree or not.
In fact, undergraduates at King's – unlike those from other colleges – did not have to pass university examinations to achieve their BA degree and instead had only to satisfy the college. Every fellow was to study theology, save for two who were to study astronomy, two civil law, four canon law, two medicine. In 1445 a Papal Bull from Eugenius IV exempted college members from parish duties, in 1457 an agreement between the provost and chancellor of the university limited the chancellor's authority and gave the college full jurisdiction over internal matters; the original plans for Old Court were too small to comfortably accommodate the larger college community of the second foundation, so in 1443 Henry began to purchase the land upon which the modern college now sits. The gateway and south range of Old Court had been built, but the rest was completed in a temporary fashion to serve until the new court was ready. However, the new college site would itself be left unfinished and the "temporary" Old Court buildings, arranged to accommodate seventy, served as the permanent residential fabric of the college until the beginning of the 19th century.
Henry's grand design for the new college buildings survives in the 1448 Founder's Will which describes his vision in detail. The new college site was to be centred on a great courtyard, bordered on all sides by adjoining buildings: a chapel to the north. Behind the hall and buttery was to be another courtyard, behind the library a cloistered cemetery including a magnificent bell tower; the first stone of the chapel was laid by the King on St James' Day, 25 July 1446. However, within a decade Henry's engagement in the Wars of the Roses meant that funds began to dry up. By the time of Henry's deposition in 1461, the chapel walls had been raised 60 ft high at the east end but only 8 ft at the west. Work proceeded sporadically until a generation in 1508 when the Founder's nephew Henry VII was prevailed upon to finish the shell o
The Starmus International Festival is an international gathering focused on celebrating astronomy, space exploration, music and allied sciences such as biology and chemistry. It was founded by Garik Israelian, an astronomer at the Institute for Astrophysics in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain; the Festival has featured Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstrong, Richard Dawkins, Stephen Hawking, Alexei Leonov, Jim Lovell, Brian May, Jill Tarter, Kip Thorne, Rick Wakeman among others. In 2007 Brian May, founding guitarist of the rock band Queen, completed his PhD dissertation, left unfinished in 1974 when Queen began to achieve significant success. May’s work focused on zodiacal dust in the solar system, he had studied at Tenerife earlier through Imperial College in London, resumed work there more than 30 years later. In 2007, his new co-advisor was Garik Israelian, the two struck up a friendship, Israelian being a musician; this led to the founding of the Starmus Festival — the name paying homage to stars and music — and the stage was set for the first Festival, which would occur four years later.
The festival has occurred in 2014 and 2016 in Tenerife, Spain. The fourth Starmus festival was held in Trondheim, Norway from June 18 to 23, 2017, under the title'Life And The Universe'; the festival is described as an event where "the greatest minds in space exploration, astronomy and planetary science get together for a week of incredible talks, sharing of information, appreciation of the knowledge we have of space and the universe." The first Starmus Festival took place June 20–25, 2011, on Tenerife, La Palma, Canary Islands. The primary site of the event was the Ritz-Carlton Abama Hotel in Tenerife; the theme was “50 Years of Man in Space,” and featured as speakers a blend of astronaut-explorers, biologists and artists. The Festival presented the rare opportunity for delegates, as the attendees were called, to share time, speak with, share refreshments, converse with the speakers. Events began in the afternoon through the early evening, so that delegates had plenty of time to enjoy the volcanic beauty of the islands, which featured beaches, geological wonders, — on La Palma — the largest optical telescope in the world, the 14.2-m Gran Telescopio Canarias, as well as other instruments.
About 300 people attended Starmus I. The talks were many: Neil Armstrong talked about Starmus and our future on Earth. Further exploring themes of space exploration, Cosmonaut Viktor Gorbatko recalled early Soviet missions. Covering themes of life in the universe, Nobel Prize winning chemist Jack Szostak outlined the origin of life on Earth. Astrophysics and cosmology received straight coverage in a variety of talks, as with descriptions of supernovae and gamma ray bursts by astrophysicist Adam Burrows. Talks involving technology were given, as with technologist Rich Goldman’s description of the relationship between space exploration and technology. Several talks focused on the new era of spacefarers, with cosmonaut Sergei Zhukov’s presentation on the future of Russian space exploration; the event highlighted a “108 Minute Round Table Discussion” with several of the speakers, seated underneath the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias, in homage to the length of the first space mission, flown by Yuri Gagarin.
Starmus I featured a spectacular concert event featuring Edgar Froese and Tangerine Dream, along with Brian May who joined the concert for several songs. The show was recorded. An astrophotography competition was opened for astronomy enthusiasts, Alex Cherney won the prize, on the Gran Telescopio Canarias to make an image with the world’s largest optical telescope. In 2014, Canopus Publishing Ltd. produced a book consisting of the transcripts of the Starmus talks, numerous illustrations, other materials. Titled “Starmus: 50 Years of Man in Space,” the volume featured a foreword by Stephen Hawking. Editors in Chief Garik Israelian and Brian May were assisted in the book’s production by Executive Editor David J. Eicher and by Editorial Director Robin Rees; the volume was dedicated to Alexei Leonov and to Neil Armstrong, who died a year after the Festival took place but before the book was released. The second Starmus Festival occurred September 22–27, 2014, again on Tenerife, La Palma, Canary Islands.
This time the theme was “Beginnings: The Making of the
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, produced by the quantum excitation of the Higgs field, one of the fields in particle physics theory. It is named after physicist Peter Higgs, who in 1964, along with five other scientists, proposed the mechanism which suggested the existence of such a particle, its existence was confirmed in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations based on collisions in the LHC at CERN. On December 10, 2013, two of the physicists, Peter Higgs and François Englert, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their theoretical predictions. Although Higgs's name has come to be associated with this theory, several researchers between about 1960 and 1972 independently developed different parts of it. In mainstream media the Higgs boson has been called the "God particle", from a 1993 book on the topic, although the nickname is disliked by many physicists, including Higgs himself, who regard it as sensationalism. Physicists explain the properties of forces between elementary particles in terms of the Standard Model – a accepted framework for understanding everything in the known universe, other than gravity.
In this model, the fundamental forces in nature arise from properties of our universe called gauge invariance and symmetries. The forces are transmitted by particles known as gauge bosons. In the Standard Model, the Higgs particle is a boson with spin zero, no electric charge and no colour charge, it is very unstable, decaying into other particles immediately. The Higgs field is a scalar field, with two neutral and two electrically charged components that form a complex doublet of the weak isospin SU symmetry; the Higgs field has a "Mexican hat-shaped" potential. In its ground state, this causes the field to have a nonzero value everywhere, as a result, below a high energy it breaks the weak isospin symmetry of the electroweak interaction; when this happens, three components of the Higgs field are "absorbed" by the SU and U gauge bosons to become the longitudinal components of the now-massive W and Z bosons of the weak force. The remaining electrically neutral component either manifests as a Higgs particle, or may couple separately to other particles known as fermions, causing these to acquire mass as well.
Field theories had been used with great success in understanding the electromagnetic field and the strong force, but by around 1960 all attempts to create a gauge invariant theory for the weak force had failed, with gauge theories thereby starting to fall into disrepute as a result. The problem was that the symmetry requirements in gauge theory predicted that both electromagnetism's gauge boson and the weak force's gauge bosons should have zero mass. Although the photon is indeed massless, experiments show; this meant that either gauge invariance was an incorrect approach, or something else – unknown – was giving these particles their mass, but all attempts to suggest a theory able to solve this problem just seemed to create new theoretical issues. In the late 1950s, physicists had "no idea" how to resolve these issues, which were significant obstacles to developing a full-fledged theory for particle physics. By the early 1960s, physicists had realised that a given symmetry law might not always be followed under certain conditions, at least in some areas of physics.
This was recognised in the late 1950s by Yoichiro Nambu. Symmetry breaking can lead to unexpected results. In 1962 physicist Philip Anderson – an expert in superconductivity – wrote a paper that considered symmetry breaking in particle physics, suggested that symmetry breaking might be the missing piece needed to solve the problems of gauge invariance in particle physics. If electroweak symmetry was somehow being broken, it might explain why electromagnetism's boson is massless, yet the weak force bosons have mass, solve the problems. Shortly afterwards, in 1963, this was shown to be theoretically possible, at least for some limited cases. Following the 1962 and 1963 papers, three groups of researchers independently published the 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers with similar conclusions: that the conditions for electroweak symmetry would be "broken" if an unusual type of field existed throughout the universe, indeed, some fundamental particles would acquire mass; the field required for this to happen became known as the Higgs field and the mechanism by which it led to symmetry breaking, known as the Higgs mechanism.
A key feature of the necessary field is that it would take less energy for the field to have a non-zero value than a zero value, unlike all other known fields, the Higgs field has a non-zero value everywhere. It was the first proposal capable of showing how the weak force gauge bosons could have mass despite their governing symmetry, within a gauge invariant theory. Although these ideas did not gain much initial support or attention, by 1972 they had been developed into a comprehensive theory and proved capable of giving "sensible" results that described particles known at the time, which, with exceptional accuracy, predicted several other particles discovered during the following years. During the 1970s these theories became the Standard Mod
The President and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society", it is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation and public engagement; the society is governed by its Council, chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the society, who are themselves elected by existing Fellows; as of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS, with up to 52 new fellows appointed each year.
There are royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS. The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who took up the post on 30 November 2015. Since 1967, the society has been based at 6–9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London, used by the Embassy of Germany, London; the Invisible College has been described as a precursor group to the Royal Society of London, consisting of a number of natural philosophers around Robert Boyle. The concept of "invisible college" is mentioned in German Rosicrucian pamphlets in the early 17th century. Ben Jonson in England referenced the idea, related in meaning to Francis Bacon's House of Solomon, in a masque The Fortunate Isles and Their Union from 1624/5; the term accrued currency for the exchanges of correspondence within the Republic of Letters. In letters in 1646 and 1647, Boyle refers to "our invisible college" or "our philosophical college".
The society's common theme was to acquire knowledge through experimental investigation. Three dated letters are the basic documentary evidence: Boyle sent them to Isaac Marcombes, Francis Tallents who at that point was a fellow of Magdalene College and London-based Samuel Hartlib; the Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the "new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from 1645 onwards. A group known as "The Philosophical Society of Oxford" was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library. After the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College, it is held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society. Another view of the founding, held at the time, was that it was due to the influence of French scientists and the Montmor Academy in 1657, reports of which were sent back to England by English scientists attending.
This view was held by Jean-Baptiste du Hamel, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and Melchisédech Thévenot at the time and has some grounding in that Henry Oldenburg, the society's first secretary, had attended the Montmor Academy meeting. Robert Hooke, disputed this, writing that: makes Mr Oldenburg to have been the instrument, who inspired the English with a desire to imitate the French, in having Philosophical Clubs, or Meetings. I will not say, that Mr Oldenburg did rather inspire the French to follow the English, or, at least, did help them, hinder us. But'tis well known who were the principal men that began and promoted that design, both in this city and in Oxford, and not only these Philosophic Meetings were. On 28 November 1660, the 1660 committee of 12 announced the formation of a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning", which would meet weekly to discuss science and run experiments. At the second meeting, Sir Robert Moray announced that the King approved of the gatherings, a royal charter was signed on 15 July 1662 which created the "Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker serving as the first president.
A second royal charter was signed on 23 April 1663, with the king noted as the founder and with the name of "the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge". This initial royal favour has continued and, since every monarch has been the patron of the society; the society's early meetings included experiments performed first by Hooke and by Denis Papin, appointed in 1684. These experiments varied in their subject area, were both important in some cases and trivial in others; the society published an English translation of Essays of Natural Experiments Made in the Accademia del Cimento, under the Protection of the Most Serene Prince Leopold of Tuscany in 1684, an Italian book documenting experiments at the Accademia del Cimento. Although meeting at Gresham College, the Society temporarily moved to Arundel House in 1666 after the Great Fire of London, which did not harm Gresham but did lead to its appropriation by the Lord Mayor; the Society r
Highgate School, formally Sir Roger Cholmeley's School at Highgate, is a British co-educational independent day school, founded in 1565 in Highgate, England. It educates over 1,400 pupils in three sections – Highgate Pre-Preparatory School, Highgate Junior School and the Senior School – which together comprise the Highgate Foundation; as part of its wider work the charity was from 2010 a founding partner of the London Academy of Excellence and it is now the principal education sponsor of an associated Academy, the London Academy of Excellence Tottenham, which opened in September 2017. The principal business sponsor is Tottenham Hotspur FC; the charity funds the Chrysalis Partnership, a scheme supporting 26 state schools in six London boroughs. The Foundation is governed in accordance with a Charity Commission Scheme dated 1 September 2005, its governing body consists of 16 members. The Visitor is Her Majesty the Queen; the Head is assisted by Principals of the pre-prep and junior schools, by deputy heads and a Bursar, in managing the Foundation.
The school is one of the twelve schools of the Eton Group. The school was founded in 1565 by a Royal Charter of Elizabeth I whose letters patent, sealed on 29 January, authorised Sir Roger Cholmeley to establish the ‘’’Free Grammar School of Sir Roger Cholmeley, Knight at Highgate’’’. Cholmeley, a former Chief Justice and local landowner, decided to found a charitable school “for the good education and instruction of boys and young men” in Highgate and the local parishes. On 27 April 1565 he was granted by Edmund Grindal, the Bishop of London, some land on the site of the old gatehouse to the Bishop's park and hermit's chapel. A new chapel and buildings for the school and the local curate, expected to be the teacher, were built; the chapel served as a chapel of ease for Highgate residents. However, by the early nineteenth century a dispute arose because the charity was spending more money, the curate more time, on the local chapel than on the pupils. A House of Commons commission visited in 1819 and found the Master, the Rev Samuel Mence, was paying a sexton to teach the boys.
In a long and bitter action brought in the High Court against the Trustees it was contended that this was contrary to its founding charitable deed. Lord Chancellor Eldon, in his 1827 judgment, finding "the charity is for the sustenance and maintenance of a free Grammar school"; the trustees were forced to comply and a separate local church for Highgate, St Michael's, was built in South Grove after a successful local appeal. Mence struggled on at the school until 1838. An expansion of the school occurred under the next headmaster Rev Dr John Bradley Dyne between 1838–1874. Under Dyne, by the 1870s the school had dropped free provision for local parish boys and alongside the day places boarding was encouraged for boys from the upper and upper middle classes. In the period up to this time the school was known as the Free Grammar School at Highgate, the Highgate Grammar School, or the Cholmeley School. Like other public schools, Highgate followed Dr Arnold at Rugby School in introducing the house system.
Like other public schools, Dyne mercilessly flogged the pupils with a birch rod. In the 1860s land was acquired in Bishopswood Road, which provided extensive sports fields and on which several boarding houses and private residences were built. During this period the current chapel and main buildings were erected, designed by Reginald Blomfield. A fragment of the older school building, a gateway with a rusted bell mechanism above between the porter's lodge and the main school building, remained intact until 2006 when the bell was refurbished and the old entrance itself rebuilt in a more modern style; the senior school continues to occupy today the island site in Highgate Village on which it was founded. During the Second World War the school's buildings were commandeered by the British government and the school was evacuated to Westward Ho! in Devon, returning to Highgate in 1943. The poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge was buried in his grandson an Old Cholmeleian. However, in 1965 after a row with the council there was a ceremonial disinterring of Coleridge at which the Poet Laureate John Masefield spoke and the remains were reburied at St Michael's parish church just a few hundred yards away.
Highgate School has the oldest Public School freemasons' lodge, Cholmeley Lodge No 1731, formed in 1878, part of the Public Schools Lodges Council. Until the school had two blocks of Eton Fives courts, one structure with ten courts. Boarding and weekly boarding at Highgate declined in the years up to the early 1990s when the last boarders left. In 1993 one of the former houses was converted to create the coeducational pre-preparatory school. In 2001 the school announced its intention to become co-educational ending over four hundred years of single sex education, girls joined the Senior and Junior schools from 2004. According to the Good Schools Guide "Its decision to go co-ed has helped to put its popularity and academic standards on upward trajectories". In April 2006 the Mills Centre for Art and Technology was opened, incorporating an area commemorating former director of art Sir Kyffin Williams. In J