In the United Kingdom, representative peers were those peers elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to sit in the British House of Lords. Until 1999, all members of the Peerage of England held the right to sit in the House of Lords. All peers who were created after 1707 as Peers of Great Britain and after 1801 as Peers of the United Kingdom held the same right to sit in the House of Lords. Representative peers were introduced in 1707, when the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland were united into the Kingdom of Great Britain. At the time there were 168 English and 154 Scottish peers; the English peers feared that the House of Lords would be swamped by the Scottish element, the election of a small number of representative peers to represent Scotland was negotiated. A similar arrangement was adopted when the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merged into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in January 1801. Scotland was allowed to elect sixteen representative peers.
Those chosen by Scotland sat for the life of one Parliament, following each dissolution new Scottish peers were elected. In contrast, Irish representative peers sat for life. Elections for Irish peers ceased when the Irish Free State came into existence as a Dominion in December 1922. However, already-elected Irish peers continued to be entitled to sit until their death. Elections for Scottish peers ended in 1963, when all Scottish peers obtained the right to sit in the House of Lords. Under the House of Lords Act 1999, a new form of representative peer was introduced to allow some hereditary peers to stay in the House of Lords. Under articles XXII and XXIII of the Act of Union 1707, Scottish peers were entitled to elect sixteen representative peers to the House of Lords; each served for one Parliament or a maximum of seven years, but could be re-elected during future Parliaments. Upon the summons of a new Parliament, the Sovereign would issue a proclamation summoning Scottish peers to the Palace of Holyroodhouse.
The elections were held in the Great Gallery, a large room decorated by eighty-nine of Jacob de Wet's portraits of Scottish monarchs, from Fergus Mór to Charles II. The Lord Clerk Register would read out the Peerage Roll; the Roll was re–read, with each peer responding by publicly announcing his votes and the return being sent to the clerk of the crown at London. The same procedure was used; the block voting system was used, with each peer casting as many votes as there were seats to be filled. The system, permitted the party with the greatest number of peers the Conservatives, to procure a disproportionate number of seats, with opposing parties sometimes being left unrepresented; the Lord Clerk Register was responsible for tallying the votes. The return issued by the Lord Clerk Register was sufficient evidence to admit the representative peers to Parliament; the position and rights of Scottish peers in relation to the House of Lords remained unclear during most of the eighteenth century. In 1711, The 4th Duke of Hamilton, a peer of Scotland, was made Duke of Brandon in the Peerage of Great Britain.
When he sought to sit in the House of Lords, he was denied admittance, the Lords ruling that a peer of Scotland could not sit in the House of Lords unless he was a representative peer if he held a British peerage dignity. They reasoned that the Act of Union 1707 had established the number of Scots peers in the House of Lords at no more and no less than sixteen. In 1782, the House of Lords reversed the decision, holding that the Crown could admit anyone it pleases to the House of Lords, whether a Scottish peer or not, subject only to qualifications such as being of full age. Under the Peerage Act 1963, all Scottish peers procured the right to sit in the House of Lords, the system of electing representative peers was abolished. Scottish as well as British and English hereditary peers lost their automatic right to sit in the Upper House with the passage of the House of Lords Act 1999. During the debate on the House of Lords Bill, a question arose as to whether the proposal would violate the Treaty of Union.
In suggesting that the Bill did indeed violate the Articles of Union, it was submitted that, prior to Union, the Estates of Parliament, Scotland's old, pre-Union parliament, was entitled to impose conditions, that one fundamental condition was a guarantee of representation of Scotland in both Houses of Parliament at Westminster. It was implied, that the Peerage Act 1963 did not violate the requirement of Scottish representation, set out in the Article XXII of the Treaty of Union, by allowing all Scottish peers to sit in the House of Lords: as long as a minimum of sixteen seats were reserved for Scotland, the principles of the Article would be upheld, it was further argued that the only way to rescind the requirement of Article XXII would be to dissolve the Union between England and Scotland, which the House of Lords Bill did not seek to do. Counsel for the Government held a different view, it was noted that the Peerage Act 1963 explicitly repealed the portions of the Articles of Union relating to elections of representative peers, that no parliamentary commentators had raised doubts as to the validity of those repeals.
As Article XXII had been, or at least purportedly, there was nothing specific in the Treaty that the bill transgressed. It was further asserted by the Government that Article XXII could be repealed because it had not been entrenched. Examples of entrenched provisions are numerous: Englan
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
General Sir Frederick Adam was a Scottish major-general at the Battle of Waterloo, in command of the 3rd Brigade. He was the fourth son of William Adam of Blair Adam and his wife Eleanora, the daughter of Charles Elphinstone, 10th Lord Elphinstone, he was a Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands, who built Mon Repos and other important landmarks in that Protectorate. At the age of fourteen in 1795, Frederick Adam entered the British Army, he trained at the artillery school at the Royal Woolwich. In the same year he was commissioned as a first lieutenant and in 1796 he was promoted to second lieutenant, he took part in the campaigns in the Netherlands and Egypt under Sir Ralph Abercromby, he was promoted to the rank of major in 1803 and a lieutenant colonel in 1804. From 1806 to 1811 he was stationed on Sicily. Between 1812 and 1813 he was in Spain fighting in the Peninsular War, where he was wounded at Alicante. On 12 April 1813, while commanding the Light Brigade in John Murray's expeditionary force, Adam led a brilliant rearguard action against the corps of Marshal Louis-Gabriel Suchet at Biar.
The following day, his 2/27th Foot battalion inflicted 350 casualties on Suchet's 121st Line Regiment during the Battle of Castalla. He was wounded again in an action at Ordal on 13 September 1813. On 18 June 1815, Adam commanded the 3rd British Brigade in Henry Clinton's 2nd Division at the Battle of Waterloo. At the crisis of the battle, Adam's 1/52nd Foot performed a left-wheel to enfilade the flank of the French Imperial Guard's main attack while the British Guards engaged the head of the column. Under fire from two directions, the French guardsmen put up a brief resistance fled. After their unsuccessful attack on the British centre, the Guard rallied to their reserves of three regiments, just south of La Haye Sainte for a last stand against the British, but a charge from Adam's brigade threw them into a state of confusion and those which were left retreated towards La Belle Alliance. It was during this stand; the French Imperial Guard made a last stand in squares on either side of the La Belle Alliance.
General Adam's Brigade charged the square, formed on rising ground to the right of La Belle Alliance and again threw them into a state of confusion. The other square was attacked by the Prussians; the French retreated away from the battle field towards France. The French artillery, everything else belonging to them, fell into the hands of the British and Prussians. From 1817 to 1824, Adam continued his career in the army. Between 1824 and 1832 he was a popular Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands, his commissioning of the construction of public buildings on Corfu was appreciated by the local population. From 25 October 1832, to 4 March 1837, he was Governor of Madras and, in 1846, he was promoted to general. Incomplete list of military commands: 1813 - commanded Anglo-Allied Light Brigade at Biar and Castalla. 1813 - commanded Anglo-Allied Advanced Guard at Ordal. 1815 - commanded 3rd British Brigade at Waterloo. 1829 - 1835 Colonel of 73rd Perthshire Regiment of Foot. 1835 - Colonel of 57th Foot who were stationed in India.
1843 - Colonel 21st Fusiliers. Keegan, John; the Face of Battle. Vintage, 1977. Smith, Digby; the Napoleonic Wars Data Book. Greenhill, 1998
Ketti is a small town nestled in a large valley of the same name. It is located in The Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu State, South India and is a Revenue Village of Coonoor Taluk. Upper Ketti is another village called Yellanahalli, located on the main Coonoor to Ooty road. Most of the population are manual labourers. Agriculture, rearing livestock, masonry constitute the majority of the work done by the individuals in this place. In addition to this, they take up jobs in the surrounding industrial establishments, such as the Needle Industries, the mushroom factory, Ambica tea factory, Mini flower garden near Palada bus stop and the various educational institutions; the valley is the last major valley en route to Ooty along the Ooty-Coonoor highway. However, due to the extensive development of the valley in the recent years, the fauna present here has dwindled to a select few; the people present here are Badaga and Tamils with certain immigrants from other parts of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Sri Lankan Tamils.
The chief language spoken here is Badaga and Tamil, although many people understand English and Kannada. Religion practised here is Hinduism. However, strong influences remain of the Christian missionaries who lived here during the early 1900s. Ketti is accessible by road; the mountain train. As of 2001 India census, Ketti had a population of 24,465. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Ketti has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 83%, female literacy is 68%. In Ketti, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. However, in the past decade, it has seen a noticeable spurt of development. Most of these developments are due to the establishment of the CSI College of Engineering, an engineering institution falling under the auspices of the Anna University, Chennai, it services all the towns and hattis in the entire valley. The nearby town of Santhoor has a post office; the State Bank of India operates a Ketti valley branch, situated near the CSI College of Engineering.
The Laidlaw Memorial School and Junior College, Ketti The CSI College of Engineering Ketti which received 82 cm on 8 November 2009 is the record holder for highest rainfall registered in 24 hours in Tamil Nadu. Lovedale Yellanahalli, Ooty
Solapur is a city located in the south-western region of the Indian state of Maharashtra, close to its border with Karnataka. Solapur is located on major Highway, rail routes between Mumbai, Pune and Hyderabad, with a branch line to the cities of Bijapur and Gadag in the neighbouring state of Karnataka.& Solapur Is well connected through Airlines way.& Also Solapur international Airport is under construction. It is classified as a 1 Tier and B-1class city by House Rent Allowance classification by the Government of India, it is the 5th biggest city in Maharashtra and the 49th most populous city in India and 43rd largest urban agglomeration. Solapur leads Maharashtra in production of Indian beedi. Solapuri Chadars and towels are famous in India and at a global level, however there has been a significant decline in their exports due to quality reasons. "Solapuri chadars" are the famous and first product in Maharashtra to get a Geographical Indication tag It has been a leading centre for cotton mills and power looms in Maharashtra.
Solapur had Asia's largest spinning mill. The National Research Centre on Pomegranate of India is located in Solapur. and pomegranate farming is done on a large scale in Solapur District. The Science Centre in Kegaon is the third largest and prominent scientific association in Maharashtra; the Raichur-Solapur Power Transmission line of 765 kV power capacity suffices the power grid accessing need of the southern states of Karanataka and Andhra Pradesh. The first waste-to-energy electricity plant in Maharashtra is situated in Solapur; the Gramadevata of the city is Shri Shivyogi Siddheshwar. The "Nandidhwaj" procession on the Hindu festival of Makar Sankranti and on account of it an annual fair locally known as Gadda Yatra attracts large crowds and is associated with the marriage of Lord Siddheshwar. In 1992, the Solapur Municipal Corporation extended its area up to 300 square kilometres by merging its suburbs; the Solapur District was ruled by various dynasties such as Andhrabhratyas, Rashtrakutas and Bahamanis.'Solapur' spelled in (Marathi: सोलापूर is believed to be derived from the combination of two words: Sola / सोळा in Marathi means "sixteen" and "Pura / पुर" means "village".
The present city of Solapur was considered to be spread over sixteen villages viz. Aadilpur, Chapaldev, Jamdarwadi, Khadarpur, Muhammadpur, Sandalpur, Solapur, Sonallagi and Vaidakwadi and all these villages are now merged with Solapur Municipal Corporation, it is evident from the inscriptions of Shivayogi Lord Siddheshwar of the time of the Kalachuristis of Kalyani, that the town was called'Sonnalage' which came to be pronounced as'Sonnalagi'. The town was known as Sonnalagi up to the times of Yadavas. A Sanskrit inscription dated Śakē 1238, after the downfall of the Yadavas found at Kamati in Mohol shows that the town was known as Sonalipur. One of the inscriptions found in Solapur fort shows that the town was called Sonalpur while another inscription on the well in the fort shows that it was known as Sandalpur. Subsequently, the British rulers pronounced Solapur as Sholapur and hence the name of the district; the present Solapur district was part of Ahmednagar and Satara districts. In 1838 it became the Sub-district of Ahmednagar.
It included Barshi, Madha, Indi and Muddebihal Sub-divisions. In 1864 this Sub-district was abolished. In 1871 this district was reformed joining the Sub-divisions viz. Solapur, Mohol and Karmala and two Subdivisions of Satara district viz. Pandharpur, Sangola and in 1875 Malshiras Sub-division was attached. After the State reorganisation in 1956 Solapur was included in Bombay State and it became a full-fledged district of Maharashtra State in 1960; the municipal corporation building was built by Rao Saheb Mallappa Warad. He was one of the first to bring the farming tractor to India, it was his wish that the building should be used for some public purpose and thus the building was made the municipal council. The building is called Indra Bhawan which means'Abode of Indra'. Mallappa Warad was one of the ten members of'Chamber of Merchants' under Queen Victoria; the Solapur Municipal Council was the first municipal council to hoist the indian national flag on the Municipal Council building in 1930.
Taking the spirit of Dandi March from Mahatma Gandhi, the freedom fighters of Solapur hoisted the National Flag on 6 April 1930 on the Municipal Council building. This was the unique incidence of such kind throughout the country. During the Indian independence movement, the people of Solapur enjoyed full freedom on 9–11 May 1930. However, this resulted in the executions of Mallappa Dhanshetti, Abdul Rasool Qurban Hussein, Jagannath Bhagwan Shinde and Shrikisan Laxminarayan Sarada, who were hanged on 12 January 1931, in the prison at Pune; this resulted in the city becoming recognized as "The City of Hutatmas" "The City of Martyrs". There is one of the oldest Ganesh temples, Ajoba Ganpati temple, which started celebrating the Ganesh festival in 1885; the inscriptions of chief deity of Solapur Shivyogi Shri. Siddheshwar of the time of the Kalachuri suggest that the town was called "Sonnalage" which came to be pronounced as "Sonnalagi". A Sanskrit inscription dated Shake 1238, after the downfall of the Yadavas found at Kamati in Mohol shows that the town was known as Sonalipur.
One of the inscriptions found in Solapur fort shows. It was the main commercial hub of an important trading city; the town was
William IV of the United Kingdom
William IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837. The third son of George III, William succeeded his elder brother George IV, becoming the last king and penultimate monarch of Britain's House of Hanover. William served in the Royal Navy in his youth, spending time in North America and the Caribbean, was nicknamed the "Sailor King". In 1789, he was created Duke of St Andrews. In 1827, he was appointed as Britain's first Lord High Admiral since 1709; as his two older brothers died without leaving legitimate issue, he inherited the throne when he was 64 years old. His reign saw several reforms: the poor law was updated, child labour restricted, slavery abolished in nearly all of the British Empire, the British electoral system refashioned by the Reform Act 1832. Although William did not engage in politics as much as his brother or his father, he was the last monarch to appoint a prime minister contrary to the will of Parliament.
Through his brother Adolphus, the Viceroy of Hanover, he granted his German kingdom a short-lived liberal constitution. At the time of his death William had no surviving legitimate children, but he was survived by eight of the ten illegitimate children he had by the actress Dorothea Jordan, with whom he cohabited for twenty years. Late in life, he married and remained faithful to the young princess who would become Queen Adelaide. William was succeeded in the United Kingdom by his niece Victoria and in Hanover by his brother Ernest Augustus. William was born in the early hours of the morning on 21 August 1765 at Buckingham House, the third child and son of King George III and Queen Charlotte, he had two elder brothers and Frederick, was not expected to inherit the Crown. He was baptised in the Great Council Chamber of St James's Palace on 20 September 1765, his godparents were his paternal uncles, the Duke of Gloucester and Prince Henry, his paternal aunt, Princess Augusta hereditary duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
He spent most of his early life in Richmond and at Kew Palace, where he was educated by private tutors. At the age of thirteen, he joined the Royal Navy as a midshipman, was present at the Battle of Cape St Vincent in 1780, his experiences in the navy seem to have been little different from those of other midshipmen, though in contrast to other sailors he was accompanied on board ships by a tutor. He did his share of the cooking and got arrested with his shipmates after a drunken brawl in Gibraltar, he served in New York during the American War of Independence, making him the only member of the British royal family to visit America up to and through the American Revolution. While William was in America, George Washington approved a plot to kidnap him, writing: "The spirit of enterprise so conspicuous in your plan for surprising in their quarters and bringing off the Prince William Henry and Admiral Digby merits applause. I am persuaded, that it is unnecessary to caution you against offering insult or indignity to the persons of the Prince or Admiral..."
The plot did not come to fruition. In September 1781, William held court at the Manhattan home of Governor Robertson. In attendance were Mayor David Mathews, Admiral Digby, General Delancey, he became captain of HMS Pegasus the following year. In late 1786, he was stationed in the West Indies under Horatio Nelson, who wrote of William: "In his professional line, he is superior to two-thirds, I am sure, of the list; the two were great friends, dined together nightly. At Nelson's wedding, William insisted on giving the bride away, he was given command of the frigate HMS Andromeda in 1788, was promoted to rear-admiral in command of HMS Valiant the following year. William sought to be made a duke like his elder brothers, to receive a similar parliamentary grant, but his father was reluctant. To put pressure on him, William threatened to stand for the House of Commons for the constituency of Totnes in Devon. Appalled at the prospect of his son making his case to the voters, George III created him Duke of Clarence and St Andrews and Earl of Munster on 16 May 1789 saying: "I well know it is another vote added to the Opposition."
William's political record was inconsistent and, like many politicians of the time, cannot be ascribed to a single party. He allied himself publicly with the Whigs as well as his elder brothers George, Prince of Wales, Frederick, Duke of York, who were known to be in conflict with the political positions of their father. William ceased his active service in the Royal Navy in 1790; when Britain declared war on France in 1793, he was anxious to serve his country and expected a command, but was not given a ship at first because he had broken his arm by falling down some stairs drunk, but perhaps because he gave a speech in the House of Lords opposing the war. The following year he spoke in favour of the war; the Admiralty did not reply to his request. He did not lose hope of being appointed to an active post. In 1798 he was made an admiral. Despite repeated petitions, he was never given a command throughout the Napoleonic Wars. In 1811, he was appointed to the honorary position of Admiral of the Fleet.
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth