New Jersey Senate
The New Jersey Senate was established as the upper house of the New Jersey Legislature by the Constitution of 1844, replacing the Legislative Council. There are 40 legislative districts, representing districts with average populations of 210,359; each district has one senator and two members of the New Jersey General Assembly, the lower house of the legislature. Prior to the election in which they are chosen, senators must be a minimum of 30 years old and a resident of the state for four years to be eligible to serve in office. From 1844 until 1965, each county was an electoral district, with each county electing one senator. Under the 1844 Constitution the term of office was three years; the 1947 Constitution changed the term to four years. Since 1968 it has consisted of 40 senators. Senators serve a two-year term at the beginning of each decade, with the rest of the decade divided into two four-year terms; the "2-4-4" cycle was put into place so that Senate elections can reflect the changes made to the district boundaries on the basis of the decennial United States Census.
If the cycle were not put into place the boundaries would sometimes be four years out of date before being used for Senate elections. Rather, with the varied term, the boundaries are only two years out of date, thus elections for Senate seats take place in years ending with a "1", "3" or "7". Interim appointments are made to fill vacant legislative seats by the county committee or committees of the party of the vacating person; the office is on the ballot for the next general election, unless the vacancy occurred within 51 days of the election. The appointment stands until the following general election. Senatorial courtesy is a senate tradition that allows home county legislators to intercede to prevent consideration of a local resident nominated by the Governor for a position that requires Senate confirmation. Any of the senators from the nominee's home county can invoke senatorial courtesy to block a nomination, temporarily or permanently, without any obligation to justify the basis of their actions.
Governor Corzine nominated Stuart Rabner on June 4, 2007, to be the next Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court, replacing James R. Zazzali, nearing mandatory retirement age. Shortly after the nomination, two members of the Senate from Essex County, where Rabner resides, blocked consideration of his confirmation by invoking senatorial courtesy. State Senator Ronald Rice had blocked the nomination, but relented on June 15, 2007, after a meeting with the governor. Nia Gill dropped her block on June 19, 2007, but did not explain the nature of her concerns, though anonymous lawmakers cited in The New York Times indicated that the objection was due to Rabner's race and Governor Corzine's failure to consider a minority candidate for the post. In June 2007, Loretta Weinberg used senatorial courtesy privileges to hold up consideration of a new term in office for Bergen County Prosecutor John Molinelli; until 2010, in the event of a gubernatorial vacancy, the New Jersey Constitution had specified that the President of the Senate would assume the role of Acting Governor and retain their role in the Senate.
An Acting Governor would assume the governorship while retaining the reins of power in their house of the legislature. The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey took office for the first time on January 19, 2010, following conjoint election with the Governor of New Jersey; the position was created as the result of a Constitutional amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution passed by the voters on November 8, 2005. While the amendment itself took effect as of January 17, 2006, made some interim changes to the succession to the governorship, the first lieutenant governor was not elected until November 3, 2009. District 1: Bob Andrzejczak District 2: Chris A. Brown District 3: Stephen M. Sweeney District 4: Fred H. Madden District 5: Nilsa Cruz-Perez District 6: James Beach District 7: Troy Singleton District 8: Dawn Marie Addiego District 9: Christopher J. Connors District 10: James W. Holzapfel District 11: Vin Gopal District 12: Samuel D. Thompson District 13: Declan O'Scanlon District 14: Linda R. Greenstein District 15: Shirley Turner District 16: Christopher Bateman District 17: Bob Smith District 18: Patrick J. Diegnan District 19: Joseph Vitale District 20: Joseph Cryan District 21: Thomas Kean, Jr. District 22: Nicholas Scutari District 23: Michael J. Doherty District 24: Steve Oroho District 25: Anthony Bucco District 26: Joseph Pennacchio District 27: Richard Codey District 28: Ronald Rice District 29: Teresa Ruiz District 30: Robert Singer District 31: Sandra Bolden Cunningham District 32: Nicholas Sacco District 33: Brian P. Stack District 34: Nia Gill District 35: Nellie Pou District 36: Paul Sarlo District 37: Loretta Weinberg District 38: Joseph Lagana District 39: Gerald Cardinale District 40: Kristin Corrado Committee chairs for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Budget and Appropriations - Paul Sarlo Commerce - Nellie Pou Community and Urban Affairs - Jeff Van Drew Economic Growth - Nilsa Cruz-Perez Education - Teresa Ruiz Environment and Energy - Bob Smith Health, Human Services and Senior Citizens - Joseph Vitale Higher Education - Sandra Bolden Cunningh
The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Hudson County, New Jersey
Hudson County, a county in the U. S. state of New Jersey, lies west of the lower Hudson River, named for Henry Hudson, the sea captain who explored the area in 1609. Part of New Jersey's Gateway Region in the New York metropolitan area, Jersey City is its largest city and county seat; as of the 2017 Census estimate, Hudson County was the fastest-growing county in New Jersey compared to 2010. Hudson County is the fourth-most populous county in the state. Hudson County is the geographically smallest and most densely populated county in New Jersey and the sixth-most densely populated county in the United States with 13,731.4 residents per square mile of total area in 2010, 14,973.9 per square mile in 2017. There are 12 municipalities in Hudson County, listed with area in square miles and 2010 Census data for population and housing. North Hudson and West Hudson each comprise municipalities in their distinct areas. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 62.31 square miles, including 46.19 square miles of land and 16.12 square miles of water.
Based on land area, it is the smallest of New Jersey's 21 counties, less than half the size of the next smallest and the eighth-smallest of all counties in the United States. Hudson is located in the heart of New York metropolitan area in northeastern New Jersey, it is bordered by Upper New York Bay to the east. The topography is marked by the New Jersey Palisades in the north with cliffs overlooking the Hudson to the east and less severe cuesta, or slope, to the west, they level off to the southern peninsula, coastal and flat. The western region, around the Hackensack and Passaic is part of the New Jersey Meadowlands. Much of the land along the county's extensive shoreline and littoral zone was created by land reclamation; the highest point, at 260 feet above sea level, is in West New York. North Bergen is the city with the second most hills per square mile in the United States behind San Francisco. Ellis Island and Liberty Island, opposite Liberty State Park, lie within Hudson County's waters, which extend to the New York state line.
Liberty Island is wholly part of New York. Created through land reclamation, Ellis Island covers a land area of 27.5 acres, with the 2.74-acre natural island and contiguous areas comprising an 3.3 acres exclave of New York. Shooters Island, in the Kill van Kull, is shared with New York. Robbins Reef Light sits atop a reef which runs parallel the Jersey City waterfront. Much of the county lies between the Hackensack and Hudson Rivers on geographically long narrow peninsula, a contiguous urban area where it's difficult to know when one's crossed a civic boundary; these boundaries and the topography-including many hills and inlets-create distinct neighborhoods. Kennedy Boulevard runs the entire length of the peninsula. Numerous cuts for rail and vehicular traffic cross Bergen Hill. Counties adjacent to Hudson are New York New York and Kings County, New York to the east. Given its proximity to Manhattan, it is sometimes referred to as New York City's sixth borough. At the time of European contact in the 17th century, Hudson County was the territory of the Lenape, namely the bands known as the Hackensack, the Tappan, the Raritan, the Manhattan.
They were a seasonally migrational people who practiced small-scale agriculture augmented by hunting and gathering which given the topography of the area, included much fishing and trapping. These groups had frequent trading contact with Europeans, their Algonquian language can still be inferred in many local place names such as Communipaw, Hackensack, Weehawken and Pamrapo Henry Hudson, for whom the county and river on which it sits are named, established a claim for the area in 1609 when anchoring his ship the Halve Maen at Harsimus Cove and Weehawken Cove. The west bank of the North River and the cliffs and marshlands abutting and beyond it, were settled by Europeans from the Lowlands around the same time as New Amsterdam. In 1630, Michael Pauw received a land patent, or patroonship and purchased the land between the Hudson and Hackensack Rivers, giving it the Latin-ized form of his name, Pavonia, he was forced to return his holdings to the Dutch West India Company. Homesteads were established at Communipaw, Paulus Hook and Hoebuck.
Relations were tenuous with the Lenape, led to Kieft's War, which began as a slaughter by the Dutch at Communipaw and is considered to be one of the first genocides of Native Americans by Europeans. A series of raids and reprisals across the province lasted two years, ended in an uneasy truce. Other homesteads were established at Constable Hook and other lands at Achter Col on Bergen Neck. In 1658, Director-General Peter Stuyvesant of New Netherland negotiated
New Jersey General Assembly
The New Jersey General Assembly is the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature. Since the election of 1967, the Assembly has consisted of 80 members. Two members are elected from each of New Jersey's 40 legislative districts for a term of two years, each representing districts with average populations of 210,359. To be eligible to run, a potential candidate must be at least 21 years of age, must have lived in their district for at least one year prior to the election, have lived in the state of New Jersey for two years, they must be residents of their districts. Membership in the Assembly is considered a part-time job, many members have employment in addition to their legislative work. Assembly members serve two-year terms, elected every odd-numbered year in November. Several members of the Assembly hold other elective office, as they are grandfathered in under a New Jersey law that banned multiple office holding in 2007; the Assembly is led by the Speaker of the Assembly, elected by the membership of the chamber.
After the Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey and the President of the New Jersey Senate, the Speaker of the Assembly is third in the line of succession to replace the Governor of New Jersey in the event that he or she is unable to execute the duties of that office. The Speaker decides the schedule for the Assembly, which bills will be considered, appoints committee chairmen, runs the Assembly's agenda; the current Speaker is Craig Coughlin. Members of the NJ General Assembly receive an annual base salary of $49,000 with the Senate President and the Assembly Speaker earning more. Members receive $110,000 for staff salaries. In addition, they receive stationery and a telephone card, they receive other benefits. The total cost to the State of New Jersey for each member of the general assembly is $200,000 annually. See: New Jersey Legislature#Colonial period and New Jersey Legislative Council#Composition Committee chairs for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Agriculture and Natural Resources - Asm.
Bob Andrzejczak Appropriations - Asm. John Burzichelli Budget - Aswm. Eliana Pintor Marin Commerce and Economic Development - Asm. Gordon M. Johnson Consumer Affairs - Asm. Paul Moriarty Education - Asw. Pamela R. Lampitt Environment and Solid Waste - Asw. Nancy Pinkin Financial Institutions and Insurance - Asm. John F. McKeon Health and Senior Services - Asm. Herb Conaway, MD Higher Education - Asw. Mila Jasey Homeland Security and State Preparedness - Asw. Valerie Vainieri Huttle Housing and Community Development - Asm. Jerry Green Human Services - Asw. Joann Downey Judiciary - Asw. Annette Quijano Labor - Asm. Joseph Egan Law and Public Safety - Asm. Adam Taliaferro Military and Veterans' Affairs - Asw. Cleopatra Tucker Oversight and Federal Relations - Asm. Joseph Danielsen Regulated Professions - Asm. Thomas Giblin Regulatory Oversight - Asm. Reed Gusciora Science and Technology - Asm. Andrew Zwicker State and Local Government - Asm. Vincent Mazzeo Telecommunications and Utilities - Asm. Wayne DeAngelo Tourism and the Arts - Asm.
Ralph Caputo Transportation and Independent Authorities - Asm. Daniel R. Benson Women and Children - Asw. Gabriela Mosquera Note: The first three subsections below end with a constitutional year: 1776, 1844 or 1947; the fourth subsection ends in 1966, the year of the U. S. Supreme Court decision that required legislative apportionment based on the principle of "one person, one vote"; the following is a list of Speakers of the Assembly since 1703. On December 6, 1775, Gov. William Franklin prorogued the New Jersey Legislature until January 3, 1776, but it never met again. On May 30, 1776, Franklin attempted to convene the legislature, but was met instead with an order by the New Jersey Provincial Congress for his arrest. On July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress approved a new constitution; the Constitution of 1844 expanded the General Assembly to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the then-nineteen counties by population. Category:Members of the New Jersey General Assembly New Jersey State Constitution New Jersey Legislature official website Assembly Democrats official website Assembly Republicans official website New Jersey section of Project Vote Smart a national database of voting records and other information about legislators
The Star-Ledger is the largest circulated newspaper in the U. S. is based in Newark. It is a sister paper to The Jersey Journal of Jersey City, The Times of Trenton and the Staten Island Advance, all of which are owned by Advance Publications. In 2007, The Star-Ledger's daily circulation was more than the next two largest New Jersey newspapers combined and its Sunday circulation larger than the next three papers combined, it has suffered great declines in print circulation in recent years, to 180,000 daily in 2013 and 114,000 "individually paid print circulation,", the number of copies being bought by subscription or at newsstands, in 2015. In July 2013, The Ledger announced. In 2013, Advance Publications announced it was exploring cost-saving changes among its New Jersey properties, but was not considering mergers or changes in publication frequency at any of the newspapers, nor the elimination of home delivery; the Newark Daily Advertiser, founded in 1832, was Newark's first daily newspaper.
It subsequently evolved into the Newark Star-Eagle, owned by what became Block Communications. S. I. Newhouse bought the Star-Eagle from Block in 1939 and merged it with the Newark Ledger to become the Newark Star-Ledger; the paper dropped Newark from its masthead sometime in the 1970s, but is still popularly called the Newark Star-Ledger by many New Jersey residents. During the 1960s The Star-Ledger's chief competitor was the Newark Evening News, once the most popular newspaper in New Jersey. In March 1971, the Star-Ledger surpassed the Evening News in daily circulation, because the Newark News was on strike; the Evening News shut down in 1972. After the Newark Evening News moved to a high-traffic area the Star-Ledger opened a satellite plant in Piscataway; the Piscataway location offered quick access to Union, Monmouth and Middlesex counties. The Star-Ledger was the recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting in 2005 for its comprehensive and clear-headed coverage of the resignation of New Jersey Governor Jim McGreevey, after he confessed to adultery with a male lover.
The paper awards the Star-Ledger Trophy each year to the number one high school teams in their respective sport in New Jersey. In 2005, George Arwady became the publisher of The Star-Ledger. A graduate of Columbia University, Arwady had been the publisher of the Kalamazoo Gazette in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Having worked with the Newhouse family for years, Arwady was asked to move to Newark to financially revamp the paper. Due to financial losses, the paper's parent company Advance Publications announced on July 31, 2008, that it would sell the Star-Ledger unless 200 non-union staff voluntarily left under a buyout offer, its unionized truck drivers and mailers agreed to concessions. On September 16, publisher George Arwady sent employees an email saying that management felt progress had been made on the buyout and concessions from the mailers, but that management is "far from an agreement with the Drivers' union.". The email continued: Since it is doubtful that the Drivers will ratify an agreement by October 8, 2008, we will be sending formal notices to all employees this week, as required by both federal and New Jersey law, advising you that the Company will be sold, or, failing that, that it will close operations on January 5, 2009.
On October 24, 2008, the newspaper announced that 168 newsroom employees had offered to take the company's buyout offer, that the company had accepted 151 of them, which resulted in a 40% reduction in newsroom staff. On January 16, 2013, the newspaper announced the layoffs of 34 employees including 18 newsroom staff; the Newark headquarters of the Star-Ledger, home to the state's largest newspaper for nearly 50 years, was sold to a New York developer in July 2014, according to a news article released by the paper. The Star-Ledger, which Vezza said will continue to be published seven days a week, will retain a presence in Newark in leased office space located within the downtown Gateway Center complex, where the publisher, the newspaper's editorial board, its columnists, its magazine staff and a handful of other jobs will be based. Advance Publications, the owner of the newspaper, launched a new media company — NJ Advance Media — in 2014 to provide content and marketing services for its online presence at NJ.com, many of its New Jersey newspapers out of the offices in Woodbridge.
The sales and marketing staffs moved to Woodbridge in June 2014. Amzi Armstrong William Burnet Kinney Thomas T. Kinney James Smith, Jr. Paul Block Samuel Irving Newhouse, Sr. Donald Newhouse Richard Vezza After Kevin Whitmer left in September 2015, Richard Vezza assumed the position as editor. Prior to Whitmer, James Willse manned the helm from 1995, he was appointed following the retirement of 32-year veteran editor Mort Pye. Willse was the former publisher of the New York Daily News. Prior to accepting the Ledger's editorship, Willse headed the review of electronic information options for all Newhouse newspapers, he expanded the Ledger' use of color and encouraged a more aggressive editorial team. The National Press Foundation named Willse its 1999 recipient of the George Beveridge Editor of the Year Award in recognition of Ledger's coverage of racial profiling by the New Jersey State Police; the Star-Ledger was featured prominently various times in the television series The Sopranos, an HBO drama series set in New Jersey.
Tony Soprano received home delivery of the paper, several episodes opened with him picking it up at the end of his driveway. The Sopranos creator David Chase credited a
Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned. This system is used in the United States, many countries of continental Europe, some Southeastern Asian countries with European colonial history, such as Indonesia and the Philippines, although some institutions use translations of these phrases rather than the Latin originals; the honors distinction should not be confused with the honors degrees offered in some countries. A college's or university's regulations set out definite criteria to be met in order for a student to obtain a given honors distinction. For example, the student might be required to achieve a specific grade point average, to submit an honors thesis for evaluation, to be part of an honors program, or to graduate early; each university sets its own standards. Since these standards may vary it is possible for the same level of Latin honors conferred by different institutions to represent contrasting levels of academic achievement.
Some institutions may grant equivalent non-Latin honors to undergraduates. The University of Wisconsin–Madison, for example, has a series of plain English grading honors based on class standing; these honors, when they are used, are always awarded to undergraduates earning their bachelor's, with the exception of law school graduates, much more to graduate students receiving their master's or doctorate degree. The honor is indicated on the diploma. Latin honors are conferred upon law school students graduating as a Juris Doctor or J. D. in which case they are based upon class rank or grade point average. In North America, Latin honors are awarded by colleges and universities for undergraduates degrees, such as the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science, by law schools for the Juris Doctor degree. Latin honors are not used with other graduate degrees, such as M. D. or Ph. D. degrees. Most institutions use two or three levels of Latin honors, listed below in ascending order: cum laude, meaning "with praise".
This honor is awarded to graduates in the top 20%, top 25%, or top 30% of their class, depending on the institution. Magna cum laude, meaning "with great praise"; this honor is awarded to graduates in the top 10% or top 15% of their class, depending on the institution. Summa cum laude, meaning "with greatest praise"; this honor is awarded to graduates in the top 1%, top 2%, or top 5% of their class, depending on the institution. Not all institutions award the summa cum laude distinction; some institutions have additional distinctions. For example, at a few universities maxima cum laude, meaning "with great praise", is an intermediary honor between the magna and the summa honors, it is sometimes used when the summa honor is reserved only for students with perfect academic records. A further used distinction is that of egregia cum laude which means "with outstanding praise," and if used may be for either students achieving summa cum laude honors in a difficult subject area or recipients of a non-standard Bachelor's degree.
For undergraduate degrees, Latin honors are used in only a few countries such as the United States, Indonesia, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines and Canada. Most countries use a different scheme, such as the British undergraduate degree classification, more used with varying criteria and nomenclature depending on country, including Australia, Barbados, Colombia, Hong Kong, Ireland, Kenya, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa and Tobago, the United Kingdom and many other countries. Malta shows the Latin honors on the degree certificates, but the UK model is shown on the transcript. In Austria, the only Latin honor in use is sub auspiciis Praesidentis rei publicae for doctoral degrees. Candidates must have excellent grades throughout high school and university, making it difficult to attain: only about 20 out of a total of 2,500 doctoral graduates per year achieve a sub auspiciis degree. In Belgium, the university degree awarded is limited to: Satisfaction cum laude magna cum laude summa cum laude In Brazil, the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica awards the cum laude honor for graduates with every individual grade above 8.5, the magna cum laude honor for graduates with average grade above 8.5 and more than 50% of individual grades above 9.5, the summa cum laude honor for graduates with average grade above 9.5.
As of 2009, only 22 graduates have received the summa cum laude honor at ITA. The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro awards the cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 8.0 to 8.9, the magna cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 9.0 to 9.4, the summa cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 9.5 to 10.0. The Federal University of Ceará awards the magna cum laude honor for undergraduates who have never failed a course, achieved an average grade from 8.5 and have received a fellowship of both Academic Extension and Teaching Initiation. In Estonia, up until 2010 both summa cum laude and cum laude were used. Summa cum laude was awarded only for exceptional work. Since 1 September 2010, only cum laude is used. It