An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state. An aide-de-camp may participate at ceremonial functions, the first aide-de-camp is the foremost personal aide; this is not to be confused with an adjutant, the senior administrator of a military unit. The badge of office for an aide-de-camp is the aiguillette, a braided cord in gold or other colours, worn on the shoulder of a uniform. Whether it is worn on the left or the right shoulder is dictated by protocol. In some countries, aide-de-camp is considered to be a title of honour, which confers the post-nominal letters ADC or A de C. In Argentina, three officers, are appointed as aide-de-camp to the president of the republic and three others to the minister of defense, these six being the only ones to be called "edecán", one Spanish translation for aide-de-camp. A controversy was raised in 2006, when president Néstor Kirchner decided to promote his army aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Colonel Graham to colonel, one year ahead of his class.
Upon taking office, former president Cristina Kirchner decided to have, for the first time, female officers as her aides-de-camp. In each of the armed forces, the chief of staff and other senior officers have their own adjutants of the rank of major or lieutenant colonel, or its equivalent. At unit level, the unit S-1 doubles as the unit commander's adjutant, although in recent times in many units this practice has been left only for ceremonial purposes, while for everyday duties a senior NCO performs the adjutant's activities. An aiguillette is worn on the right shoulder by aides-de-camp and adjutants as a symbol of their position, the colour of the aiguillette depending of the rank of the person they are serving. In Belgium the title of honorary aide-de-camp to the King can be granted by the royal court for services rendered. Notable people include Major General Baron Édouard Empain, Count Charles John d'Oultremont, Lieutenant General Baron Albert du Roy de Blicquy. An aide-de-camp, according to an 1816 military dictionary, was defined as an officer appointed to attend a general officer, was traditionally under the grade of captain: "The King may appoint for himself as many as he pleases, which appointment gives the rank of colonel in the army.
Generals being field marshals, have four, lieutenant generals two, major generals one". In British colonies and modern-day British overseas territories, an aide-de-camp is appointed to serve the governor and the governor general; these aides were from military branches or native auxiliaries. They were entitled to use letters A de C after their names; the emblem of the office is the aiguillette worn on their uniform. Australian Defence Force officers serve as aides-de-camp to specific senior appointments, such as the Queen, Governor-General, state governors, Chief of the Defence Force, other specified Army and Air Force command appointments. Honorary aides-de-camp to the Governor-General or state governors are entitled to the post-nominal ADC during their appointment. Officers of and above the ranks of rear admiral, major general, air vice marshal in designated command appointments are entitled to an aide de camp with the army rank of captain. Within the navy, an aide-de-camp is called a "flag lieutenant".
In 1973, the Governor of Bermuda, Sir Richard Sharples, his aide-de-camp, Captain Hugh Sayers, were murdered on the grounds of Government House. Aides-de-camp in Canada are appointed to the Queen and some members of the royal family, the governor general, lieutenant governors, to certain other appointments. In addition to the military officers appointed as full-time aides-de-camp to the governor general, several other flag/general and senior officers are appointed ex officio as honorary aides-de-camp to the governor general or Members of the Royal Family including: The Chief of the Defence Staff The commandant of the Royal Military College of Canada A senior officer of the Quebec-based Royal 22e Régiment Commanding officer, The Governor General's Horse Guards Commanding officer, Governor General's Foot Guards Commanding officer, The Canadian Grenadier Guards Commanding officer, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada The commanding officers of Naval Reserve divisionsMost aides-de-camp wear a gold pattern aiguillette when acting in their official capacity.
All aides-de-camp wear the cypher or badge of the principal to whom they are appointed. Honorary appointees to the Queen, to the Duke of Edinburgh, or the Prince of Wales, wear the appropriate cypher on their uniform epaulette and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters ADC for the duration of their appointment. Aides-de-camp to the governor general wear the governor general's badge and aides-de-camp to a lieutenant governor wear the lieutenant governor's badge
63rd (West Suffolk) Regiment of Foot
The 63rd Regiment of Foot, was a British Army regiment, raised in 1756. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 96th Regiment of Foot to form the Manchester Regiment in 1881; the formation of the regiment was prompted by the expansion of the army as a result of the commencement of the Seven Years' War. On 25 August 1756 it was ordered that a number of existing regiments should raise a second battalion; the 2nd Battalion of the 8th Regiment of Foot was formed on 10 December 1756 and renumbered as the 63rd Regiment of Foot on 21 April 1758. That year, the newly created 63rd, along with a number of other regiments and various other assets, set off for the West Indies. In January 1759 the regiment took part in the unsuccessful invasion of Martinique; that month the regiment took part in the invasion of Guadeloupe: after the Royal Navy bombarded Basse-Terre, the British troops landed on the west part of the island, near Fort Royal, a large citadel. By 24 January, British troops had entered the main town: the citadel.
The regiment suffered a number of attacks while garrisoning the citadel, the rest of the force having moved to the more hospitable east of the island. During one attack, the regiment's commanding officer Lieutenant-Colonel; the regiment remained in the West Indies for a further five years. In 1764 the regiment reached Ireland. In 1775 the regiment arrived in America in response to a request for reinforcements due to the outbreak of the American War of Independence; the regiment took part in the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775, with a third attack, which ended in a bayonet charge breaking the Americans. The regiment remained in Boston after the battle, the town becoming more uneasy to be in. In March 1776 the regiment, along with the rest of the forces in Boston, heading for Halifax in Canada; the regiment took part in the Battle of Long Island in August 1776, a devastating blow against the Americans, though astonishingly, the American leader General George Washington, managed to reverse the blow, struck against much of the Continental Army's morale in this battle, soon after.
Grenadier and Light companies of the regiment took part in the Battle of Brandywine in September 1777 and the Battle of Germantown in October 1777. The main force of the regiment took part in the Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery in October 1777; the regiment moved to Philadelphia and took part in the Battle of Monmouth in June 1778. In 1780 the regiment became involved in the campaign in the Carolinas taking part in the siege and subsequent capture of Charleston; that year the mounted company of the regiment, augmented by a detachment from Tarleton's Legion under the command of the dashing, Banastre Tarleton and captured an American cavalry unit. The regiment took part in number of battles as part of the forces commanded by Lord Cornwallis over the next two years, as well as taking part in another engagement near Camden in April 1781, as part of a force under the command of General Francis Rawdon. In 1782 the regiment was designated the 63rd Regiment of Foot. In 1794 the regiment joined British forces taking part in the Flanders Campaign.
The regiment was involved in a number of actions before the British forces withdrew from the Netherlands in 1795. That same year, the regiment were part of a force designed to take a number of Caribbean islands under Dutch and French control. However, their transport ship sank, with the loss of two companies from the regiment, en route to the islands; the regiment took part in a variety of operations on the islands in the Caribbean, remaining in the region until 1799, when they departed for home. In August 1799 the regiment took part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, seeing action at the Battle of Alkmaar in October 1799. In November 1801 the regiment joined the garrison at Gibraltar and, in 1803, it was deployed to Ireland. A second battalion was raised in 1804. In 1807 the 1st battalion was involved in an expedition to Madeira, a Portuguese-controlled territory, under the command of Major-General William Beresford. Once the expeditionary forces landed, the Portuguese Governor agreed to all demands made by the British forces.
In February 1808 the 1st battalion was stationed in Barbados. It took part the expedition to Martinique. On 9 April 1809, a detachment from the 1st battalion was serving on the Treasury store-ship Emma, so shared in the prize money for the French brig Navigateur for which Emma was a joint captor with sundry other ships; the 1st battalion became the garrison for island, suffering from diseases one would expect in such tropical weather at that time. In January 1810, part of the 1st battalion took part in the capture of Guadeloupe, a duty the regiment had participated in many years before; the 1st battalion returned to Martinique and departed the Caribbean in 1819. Meanwhile, the 2nd battalion took part in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign in autumn 1809, suffering from terrible fever while assisting in the capture of a number of towns on the island. In 1820, the regiment were deployed to Ireland, a deployment that would last until 1826; the regiment was involved in an expedition to Portugal due to fears of impending insurrection in the country and landed there in January 1827.
The rebel cause subsided, thanks in part due to the expedition made by the British forces. In 1829, the regiment began providing escorts for convict ships traveling to New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land; the rest of the regiment became garrison troops in the latter colony. A detachment of the regiment was present at the foundation ceremony of Perth in 182
3rd Dragoon Guards
The 3rd Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685 as the Earl of Plymouth's Regiment of Horse. It was renamed as the 3rd Regiment of Dragoon Guards in 1751 and the 3rd Dragoon Guards in 1765, it saw service for two centuries, including the First World War, before being amalgamated into the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards in 1922. The regiment was first raised by Thomas Hickman-Windsor, 1st Earl of Plymouth as the Earl of Plymouth's Regiment of Horse in 1685 as part of the response to the Monmouth Rebellion, by the regimenting of various independent troops, was ranked as the 4th Regiment of Horse; the regiment saw action at the Battle of Schellenberg in July 1704, the Battle of Blenheim in August 1704, the Battle of Ramillies in May 1706, the Battle of Oudenarde in July 1708 and the Battle of Malplaquet in September 1709 during the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1746 it was ranked as the 3rd Dragoon Guards, formally titled in 1751 as the 3rd Regiment of Dragoon Guards.
Shortly thereafter, in 1765, it took the title 3rd Dragoon Guards, for the future George IV. It took part in the suppression of the Bristol riots in 1831 and, after service in India, took part in the British Expedition to Abyssinia in 1868; the regiment was employed chasing the elusive General Christiaan de Wet in spring 1901 during the Second Boer War. The regiment, in Cairo at the start of First World War, landed in France as part of the 6th Cavalry Brigade in the 3rd Cavalry Division in October 1914 for service on the Western Front where it fought at the First Battle of Ypres in October 1914, the Second Battle of Ypres in April 1915 and the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917, it retitled as 3rd Dragoon Guards in 1921, was amalgamated with the 6th Dragoon Guards to form the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards the following year. The regimental collection is held in the Cheshire Military Museum at Chester Castle; some items are held by the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Museum at Edinburgh Castle. The regiment was awarded the following battle honours: Early Wars: Blenheim, Oudenarde, Warburg, Willems, Albuhera, Peninsula, South Africa 1901–02.
The Great War: Ypres 1914, 1915, Nonne Bosschen, Loos, Arras 1917, Scarpe 1917, Somme 1918, St. Quentin, Amiens, Hindenburg Line, Cambrai 1918, Pursuit to Mons and Flanders 1914–18; the colonels of the regiment were as follows: 1685 Thomas, Earl of Plymouth —Windsor's or The Earl of Plymouth's Regiment of Horse 1687 Sir John Fenwick —Sir John Fenwick's Horse 1688 Richard, Earl Rivers —Savage's or Earl Rivers' Horse 1693 John, Lord Berkeley —Lord Berkeley's Horse 1693 Cornelius Wood —Wood's Horse 1712 Thomas, Viscount Windsor —Lord Windsor's Horse 1717 George Wade —Wade's Horse 1748 Sir Charles Howard K B —Sir Charles Howard's Horse 1751 Sir Charles Howard 1765 Gen. Lord Robert Manners 1782 Gen. Philip Honywood 1785 Lt-Gen. Richard Burton Phillipson 1792 Gen. Sir William Fawcett 1804 Gen. Richard Vyse 1825 Gen. Sir William Payne-Gallwey, 1st Baronet 1831 Gen. Samuel Hawker 1839 Lt-Gen. Sir James Charles Dalbiac 1842 Lt-Gen. Francis Newbery 1847 Gen. Charles Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart 1851 Lt-Gen.
James Claud Bourchier 1859 Gen. Sir John Scott 1866 Gen. Robert Richardson Robertson 1883 Gen. Sir William Henry Seymour 1891 Lt-Gen. Conyers Tower 1903 Maj-Gen. Andrew Smythe Montague Browne 1905 Maj-Gen. George Salis-Schwabe 1907 Maj-Gen. Sir Reginald Talbot 1920 Maj-Gen. Sir Nevill Maskelyne Smyth 1922: regiment amalgamated with the 6th Dragoon Guards to form the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards British cavalry during the First World War Chant, Christopher; the Handbook of British Regiments. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-64724-8. HMSO. Battle Honours Awarded for the Great War. Andrews UK Limited. ISBN 978-1-78150-187-0
A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, in some nations' air forces or marines. The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank, it originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank; however different countries use other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations; the various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are known as field officers or field-grade officers, below them are company-grade officers. There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide.
In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, used throughout the Middle East and North Africa but is not used elsewhere in the world. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe, it is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth and the United States of America. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled field marshal, marshal, or captain general; the other is derived from the French Revolution, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a colonel general rank; the rank of field marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries used two brigade command ranks, why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks.
In some nations, the equivalent to brigadier general is brigadier, not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; the serjeant major was the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general and lieutenant general. The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles. Serjeant major as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a creation; the armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles. These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system, in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt. Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks: Adjutant general Commandant-general Inspector general General-in-chief General of the Army General of the Air Force General of the Armies of the United States, a title created for General John J. Pershing, subsequently granted posthumously to George Washington Generaladmiral Air general and aviation general Wing general and group general General-potpukovnik Director general Director general of national defence Controller general Prefect general Master-General of the Ordnance – senior British military position.
Police Director General. Commissioner Admiral In addition to militarily educated generals, there are generals in medicine and engineering; the rank of the most senior chaplain, is usually considered to be a general officer rank. In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix, is the most senior type of general, above lieutenant general and directly below field marshal as a four-star rank, it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks being used only in wartime or as honorary titles. In some armies, the rank of captain general, general of the army, army general or colonel general occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal; the rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e. th
Royal Guelphic Order
The Royal Guelphic Order, sometimes referred to as the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, is a Hanoverian order of chivalry instituted on 28 April 1815 by the Prince Regent. It takes its name from the House of whom of the Hanoverians were a branch. After the defeat and forced dissolution of the Kingdom of Hanover by the Kingdom of Prussia, the order continued as a house order to be awarded by the Royal House of Hanover. Today, its current chancellor is the Hanoverian head of Ernst August, Prince of Hanover; the honour is named after the House of Guelph to which the Hanoverian kings belonged, its insignia were based on the white horse of that kingdom's arms. In the United Kingdom it has always been regarded as a foreign order, before 1837 members of the order were not entitled to style themselves as "Sir" unless they were created Knights Bachelor, as many were; the Order includes two Divisions and Military. It had three classes, but with several reorganizations since 1841, as house order today it has four classes and an additional Cross of Merit.
In descending order of seniority, are: Knight Grand Cross Knight Commander Knight Holders of the respective degrees of the order in Britain were entitled to be post-nominally addressed with the initials, which stand for Knight Grand Cross of Hanover, Knight Commander of Hanover and Knight of Hanover. The initial GCG was used, held to be more correct. Grand Cross Commander 1st Class Commander 2nd Class Knight Cross of Merit The Order has six officers: the Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, the Registrar, the King of Arms, the Genealogist, the Secretary; the first six officers were: Chancellor: Count Ernst Friedrich Herbert von Münster Vice-Chancellor: Georg Nieper Secretary: Ludwig Moeller King of Arms: Sir George Nayler Genealogist: August Neubourg Registrar: Sir William Woods Chancellor: Ernst August, Prince of Hanover Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS. William Herschel Sir Augustus d'Este Sir John Franklin Sir Edward Cromwell Disbrowe Sir Benjamin Stephenson Walthère Frère-Orban Joseph-Pringle Taylor Sir Frederick Smith Sir William Jackson Hooker Sir Charles Webb Dance Captain Sir Thomas Lavie R.
N. K. H. Sir Thomas Hawker British honours system List of Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order List of Knights Commander of the Royal Guelphic Order Media related to Royal Guelphic Order at Wikimedia Commons
Sir John Duckworth, 1st Baronet
Sir John Thomas Duckworth, 1st Baronet, GCB was an officer of the Royal Navy, serving during the Seven Years' War, the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as the Governor of Newfoundland during the War of 1812, a member of the British House of Commons during his semi-retirement. Duckworth, a vicar's son, achieved much in a naval career that began at the age of 11. Serving with most of the great names of the Royal Navy during the 18th and early 19th centuries, he fought all of Britain's enemies on the seas at one time or another, including a Dardanelles operation that would be remembered a century during the First World War, he was in command at the Battle of San Domingo, the last great fleet action of the Napoleonic Wars. Born in Leatherhead, England, Duckworth was one of five sons of Sarah Johnson and the vicar Henry Duckworth A. M. of Stoke Poges, County of Buckinghamshire. The Duckworths were descended from a landed family, with Henry being installed as Canon of Windsor.
John Duckworth went to Eton College, but began his naval career in 1759 at the suggestion of Edward Boscawen, when he entered the Royal Navy as a midshipman on HMS Namur. Namur became part of the fleet under Sir Edward Hawke, Duckworth was present at the Battle of Quiberon Bay on 20 November 1759. On 5 April 1764 he joined the 50-gun HMS Guernsey at Chatham, after leaving HMS Prince of Orange, to serve with Admiral Hugh Palliser Governor of Newfoundland, he served aboard HMS Princess Royal, on which he suffered a concussion when he was hit by the head of another sailor, decapitated by a cannonball. He spent some months as an acting lieutenant, was confirmed in the rank on 14 November 1771, he spent three years aboard the 74-gun HMS Kent, the Plymouth guardship, under Captain Charles Fielding. Fielding was given command of the frigate HMS Diamond in early 1776, he took Duckworth with him as his first lieutenant. Duckworth married Anne Wallis in July 1776, with whom he had a daughter. After some time in North America, where Duckworth became involved in a court-martial after an accident at Rhode Island on 18 January 1777 left several men dead, the Diamond was sent to join Vice-Admiral John Byron's fleet in the West Indies.
Byron transferred him to his own ship, HMS Princess Royal, in March 1779, Duckworth was present aboard her at the Battle of Grenada on 6 July 1779. Duckworth was promoted to commander ten days after this and given command of the sloop-of-war HMS Rover. After cruising off Martinique for a time, he was promoted to post captain on 16 June 1780 and given command of the 74-gun HMS Terrible, he returned to the Princess Royal as flag-captain to Rear-Admiral Sir Joshua Rowley, with whom he went to Jamaica. He was in command of HMS Yarmouth, before moving into HMS Bristol in February 1781, returned to England with a trade convoy. In the years of peace before the French Revolution he was a captain of the 74-gun HMS Bombay Castle, lying at Plymouth. Fighting against France, Duckworth distinguished himself both in European waters and in the Caribbean, he was in command of the 74-gun HMS Orion from 1793 and served in the Channel Fleet under Admiral Lord Howe. He was in action at the Glorious First of June.
Duckworth was one of few commanders mentioned by Howe for their good conduct, one of eighteen commanders honoured with the Naval Gold Medal, the thanks of both Houses of Parliament. He was appointed to command the 74-gun HMS Leviathan in early 1794, went out to the West Indies where he served under Rear-Admiral Sir William Parker, he was appointed commodore at Santo Domingo in August 1796. In 1798 Duckworth was in command of a small squadron of four vessels, he sailed for Minorca on 19 October 1798, where he was a joint commander with Sir Charles Stuart landing his 800 troops in the bay of Addaya, landing sailors and marines from his ships, which included HMS Cormorant and HMS Aurora, to support the Army. He was promoted to rear-admiral of the white on 14 February 1799 following Minorca's capture, "Minorca" was inscribed on his coat of arms. In June his squadron of four ships captured Courageux. In April 1800 was in command of the blockading squadron off Cadiz, intercepted a large and rich Spanish convoy from Lima off Cadiz, consisting of two frigates and eleven merchant vessels, with his share of the prize money estimated at £75,000.
In June 1800 he sailed to take up his post as the newly appointed Commander-in-Chief at Barbados and the Leeward Islands Station, succeeding Lord Hugh Seymour. Duckworth was nominated a Knight Companion of the most Honourable Military Order of the Bath in 1801, for the capture of the islands of St. Bartholomew, St. Martin, St. Thomas, St. John and St. Croix and defeat of the Swedish and Danish forces stationed there on 20 March 1801. Lieutenant-General Thomas Trigge commanded the ground troops, which consisted of two brigades under Brigadier-Generals Fuller and Frederick Maitland, of 1,500 and 1,800 troops respectively; these included the 64th Regiment of Foot, the 2nd and 8th West Indies Regiments, two detachments of Royal Artillery, two companies of sailors, each of about 100 men. The ships involved, in addition to Leviathan, included HMS Andromeda, HMS Unite, HMS Coromandel, HMS Proselyte, HMS Amphitrite, HMS Hornet, the brig HMS Drake, hired armed brig Fanny, schooner HMS Eclair, tender Alexandria.
Aside from the territory and prisoners taken during the operation, Duckworth's force took two Swedish merchantmen, a Danish ship, three small French vessels, one privateer brig, one captured English ship, a merchant-brig, four small scho
Osterley Park is a large park and one of the largest open spaces in London. In its grounds, there is a large mansion, referred to as'Osterley House'; the park lies between Isleworth. It is operated by the National trust; when the house was built it was surrounded by countryside. It was one of a group of large houses close to London which served as country retreats for wealthy families. Other surviving country retreats of this type near London include Chiswick House; the park is one of the largest open spaces in west London, although the M4 motorway cuts across the middle of it. The original building on this site was a manor house built in the 1570s for banker Sir Thomas Gresham, who purchased the manor of Osterley in 1562; the "faire and stately brick house" was completed in 1576. It is known; the stable block from this period remains at Osterley Park. Gresham was so wealthy he bought the neighbouring Manor of Boston in 1572. Two hundred years the manor house was falling into disrepair, when, as the result of a mortgage default, it came into the ownership of Sir Francis Child, the founder of Child's Bank.
In 1761 Sir Francis's grandsons and Robert, employed Scottish architect Robert Adam, just emerging as one of the most fashionable architects in Britain, to remodel the house. When Francis died in 1763, the project was taken up by his brother and heir Robert Child, for whom the interiors were created; the house is of red brick with white stone details and is square, with turrets in the four corners. Adam's design, which incorporates some of the earlier structure, is unusual, differs in style from the original construction. One side is left open and is spanned by an Ionic pedimented screen, approached by a broad flight of steps and leads to a central courtyard, at piano nobile level. Adam's neoclassical interiors are among his most notable sequences of rooms. Horace Walpole described the drawing room as "worthy of Eve before the fall." The rooms are characterised by elaborate but restrained plasterwork, rich varied colour schemes, a degree of coordination between decor and furnishings unusual in English neoclassical interiors.
Notable rooms include the entrance hall, which has large semi-circular alcoves at each end, the Etruscan dressing room, which Adam said was inspired by the Etruscan vases in Sir William Hamilton's collection, illustrations of, published. Adam designed some of the furniture, including the opulent domed state bed, still in the house. Robert Child's only daughter, Sarah Anne Child, married John Fane, 10th Earl of Westmorland in 1782; when Child died two months his will placed his vast holdings, including Osterley, in trust for his eldest granddaughter, Lady Sarah Sophia Fane, born in 1785. She married George Child-Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey, thus Osterley passed into the Jersey family; this was done deliberately by Child. This was because Fane eloped with Sarah Child to Gretna Green and Child was so enraged that he left his entire estate to "the first born child", he didn't specify Sarah Sophia, nor did he specify the gender. The grounds of Osterley Park were used for the training of the first members of the Local Defence Volunteers when the 9th Earl, a friend of publisher Lord Hulton, allowed writer and military journalist Captain Tom Wintringham to establish the first Home Guard training school at the park in May/June 1940, teaching the theory and practice of modern mechanical warfare, guerilla warfare techniques and using the estate workers' homes scheduled for demolition, to teach street fighting techniques.
The painter Roland Penrose taught camouflage techniques here, attempting to disguise the obvious charms of a naked Lee Miller. Maj. Wilfred Vernon taught the art of mixing home-made explosives, his explosives store can still be seen at the rear of the house, while Canadian Bert "Yank" Levy, who had served under Wintringham in the Spanish Civil War taught knife fighting and hand-to-hand combat. Despite winning world fame in newsreels and newspaper articles around the world, the school was disapproved of by the War Office and Winston Churchill, was taken over in September 1940. Closed in 1941, its staff and courses were reallocated to other newly opened War Office-approved Home Guard schools. George Child Villiers, 9th Earl of Jersey, opened Osterley to the public in 1939 after having received many requests to see its historic interior; the Earl justified his decision by saying that it was "sufficient answer that he did not live in it and that many others wished to see it". A series of exhibitions of artworks by living artists were staged by the Earl in the top-floor rooms of Osterley to contrast the 18th-century interiors on the ground floor on its 1939 opening.
Though it never came to fruition, the Earl planned to create an arboretum in the grounds of Osterley. After the Second World War the Earl approached Middlesex County Council who had shown interest in purchasing the house before the war, but decided to give the house and its park to the National Trust; the furniture at Osterley was sold to the Albert Museum. The 9th Earl moved to the island of Jersey in 1947, taking many pictures from Osterley's collection with him, although some were destroyed in a warehouse fire on the island soon after; the Earl assisted the Ministry of Wor