John Ripley Freeman
John Ripley Freeman was an American civil and hydraulic engineer. He is known for the design of several waterworks and was president of the American Society of Civil Engineers, presidents of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Freeman was born in Maine on his father's farm, he attended the country school in his hometown, public schools in Portland, Lawrence, Massachusetts. In 1872 he started studying civil engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he obtained his BSc in 1878, he received his Bachelor of Science at, Department of Civil Engineering in June 1876. After graduation in 1878 Freeman started his career at the Essex water power company as assistant to the company's engineer, Hiram F. Mills. In those days he became acquainted with other leading engineers such as Charles Storer Storrow, James B. Francis, Joseph R. Davis and John C. Hoadley. In 1886, he moved to Boston to the Associated Mutual Fire Insurance Company, where he was appointed engineer and inspector.
In the next decennia Freeman was the design engineer for several water projects, participated in several water works commissions, was consulting engineer in many parties. Freeman van president of the American Society of Civil Engineers, presidents of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, he was the founder and president of Massachusetts Mutual Fire Insurance Company. He was a member of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during World War I, served as chairman from 1918–1919. Freeman received numerous honorary degrees, he received Doctor of Science degrees from Brown University in 1904. Freeman was elected Honorary Member Phi Beta Kappa at Brown University in 1901. Freeman is noted for his efforts to design and build the Charles River Dam, advising the government on dam and lock foundations for the Panama Canal, influencing the design of MIT's new campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Freeman was the design engineer for several water projects, including the Lake Spaulding Dam, the Holter Dam, the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct, the Charles River Dam, the Keokuk Dam, the Los Angeles Aqueduct, the Panama Canal.
John Freeman, Regulation of elevation and discharge of the great lakes, 1926 John Freeman, Earthquake damage and earthquake insurance, 1932 John Freeman, Experiments relating to hydraulics of fire streams The nozzle as an accurate water meter. John Freeman, Fire-stream tables. John Freeman, Flow of water in pipes. John Freeman, Hydraulic laboratory practice: comprising a translation, revised to 1929, of Die Wasserbaulaboratorien Europas, published in 1926 by Verein Deutscher Ingenieure. John Freeman, On contemporary technical education. John Freeman, On the safeguarding of life in theaters. Jarzombek, Designing MIT: Bosworth's New Tech, Boston: Northeastern University Press "Freeman, John Ripley. Papers, 1827-1955". Archived from the original on 2007-04-05. Retrieved 2007-04-11. "Theodore Roosevelt's Letter to J. P. Freeman". Retrieved 2007-04-11. National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir Freeman's study of 1903 Chicago Iroquois Theatre fire. John R. Freeman Fund of the Boston Society of Civil Engineering
George S. Greene
George Sears Greene was a civil engineer and a Union general during the American Civil War. He was part of the Greene family of Rhode Island, which had a record of distinguished military service to the United States, he first served in the Army from 1823 to 1836 after graduating second from his class at West Point. As a civilian, he was one of the founders of the American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects and was responsible for numerous railroads and aqueduct construction projects in the northeastern United States. After 25 years as a civilian, he rejoined the Army to fight in the American Civil War. Despite his age, he rose up the ranks and was appointed a brigadier general in early 1862. During the war, he took part in the Northern Virginia Campaign, the Battle of Antietam, the Battle of Chancellorsville, his most notable contribution during the war was his defense of the Union right flank at Culp's Hill during the Battle of Gettysburg. He returned to engineering work after the war until his death in 1899.
Greene was born in Rhode Island, one of nine children of Caleb and Sarah Robinson Greene. His family had roots in the founding of Rhode Island and in the American Revolutionary War, including General Nathanael Greene, George's second cousin. Caleb was a financially shrewd ship owner and merchant, but the Embargo Act of 1807, which prohibited U. S. vessels from carrying goods to other countries, the War of 1812 left his family in financial difficulties. Young George attended Wrentham Academy and a Latin grammar school in Providence and hoped to attend Brown University there, but his impoverished father could not afford it, so he moved to New York City and found work in a dry goods store on Pearl Street. In the New York store, Greene met Major Sylvanus Thayer, superintendent of the United States Military Academy, who recommended him to the Secretary of War for appointment to the academy. Greene entered West Point at age 18 and graduated second of 35 cadets in the class of 1823. Classmates of Greene's included future Union Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas, Joseph K. Mansfield, David Hunter, Dennis Hart Mahan, Albert Sidney Johnston.
Top graduates of the academy chose the Engineers as their branch, but Greene decided on the artillery and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 3rd U. S. Artillery Regiment. However, due to his excellent academic performance, he stayed at the academy until 1827 as an assistant professor of mathematics and as a principal assistant professor of engineering. One of the students he taught during this period was Cadet Robert E. Lee. In the summer of 1828 Greene married Mary Elizabeth Vinton, sister of his best friend at West Point, David Vinton. Elizabeth gave birth to three children over the next four years: Mary Vinton, George Sears, Francis Vinton Greene. While assigned to Fort Sullivan in Eastport, Maine in 1833, tragedy struck Greene's family: Elizabeth and all three of their children died within seven months from tuberculosis. To ease the pain on his mind and to escape the isolation and loneliness of peacetime Army garrison duty, he immersed himself in study of both the law and medicine, coming close to professional certification in both by the time he resigned his commission in 1836 to become a civil engineer.
Greene built railroads in six states and designed municipal sewage and water systems for Washington, D. C. Detroit, several other cities. In New York City, he designed the Croton Aqueduct reservoir in Central Park and the enlarged High Bridge over the Harlem River, he was one of twelve founders in New York City of the American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects. While on a trip to Maine for railroad surveying, he met Martha Barrett Dana, daughter of Samuel Dana, a prominent Massachusetts politician, they were married in Charlestown, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1837. They had six children together, including four sons, one daughter, one son who died in infancy. Despite being over 60 years old and having been out of the Army for 25 years, the crisis of the Union compelled Greene to seek to rejoin the service, he was apolitical and was not an abolitionist, but he was a firm believer in restoring the Union. He was appointed colonel of the 60th New York Volunteer Infantry on January 18, 1862.
The regiment of upstate New Yorkers had been dissatisfied with their colonel and the company commanders had petitioned for his removal. Governor Edwin D. Morgan, although reluctant to appoint Greene because of his age, saw his 13 years of regular army experience as a solution to his political/military problem. During this period, Governor John A. Andrew of Massachusetts was prepared to offer Greene a regiment, but Greene chose to serve New York; the officers of the 60th were dismayed when the gray-haired man reported for duty. They had requested that their lieutenant colonel be promoted, which would have raised many of them in rank themselves. On April 28, 1862, Greene was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and served on the staff of Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks in the Shenandoah Valley campaign against Stonewall Jackson. At age 61, Greene was one of the oldest generals in the Union army and his troops took to calling him "Old Man" or "Pap" Greene. However, his age did not keep him from being one of the most aggressive commanders in the army.
He commanded the 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps, of the Army of Virginia at the Battle of Cedar Mountain during the Northern Virginia Campaign. Attacked by a Confederate force three times the size of his own and his men refused to give ground, holding out until the neighboring Union units were forced to withdraw, his division comma
Julius Walker Adams
Julius Walker Adams was an American civil engineer and railroad engineer, who designed the Starrucca Viaduct. He co-founded the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1852 and served as its president from 1874 to 1875. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1812, Adams was the second cousin of President John Quincy Adams. In 1830, he entered the United States Military Academy, where studied for two years, but resigned to start working as an engineer for his uncle George Washington Whistler. From 1832 to 1844, he acted as assistant engineer of various railroads, he was at Cochituate water works, Boston, in 1846, in the same year became superintending engineer of the Erie Railway, where he worked with Daniel McCallum. With James P. Kirkwood Adams designed the stone arch Starrucca Viaduct, built in 1847-1848 by New York and Erie Railroad. In 1851 he was editor of Appletons' Mechanics' Magazine. In 1852 he moved to Kentucky, was chief engineer of the Central Railroad, in 1855 of the Memphis and Ohio Railroad.
In 1856, he switched from railroad engineering to design and supervise the first large-scale urban sewer system in the United States for Brooklyn, New York. In 1860 he became an engineer for New Haven's water works. During the Civil War, he became a colonel in the 67th New York Volunteers and served in Army of the Potomac. Wounded in the 1862 Battle of Seven Pines in Virginia, he returned to Brooklyn. During the 1863 New York City draft riots, he commanded the troops who defended the offices of the New York Times and New-York Tribune, which published the names of those selected for service. From 1869 to 1878 he served as chief engineer of the Brooklyn board of city works, from 1878 to 1889 consulting engineer of the board of public works of New York City. A suggestion of his led to the formation of a company which had charge of building the first bridge over the East River at New York, he served as president of the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1874–75, published Sewers and Drains and various scientific papers.
His son, Julius W. Adams, graduated at West Point in 1861, served there as assistant instructor of infantry tactics until June 1862, was wounded and taken prisoner at Gaines's Mills, promoted captain in August 1862, served at Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, where he commanded a regiment, the Second Battle of Cold Harbor, where he received wounds that caused his death. Adams Julius W.. Sewerage of Elmira Adams, Julius Walker. Report on the Improved Sewerage System
Postage stamps and postal history of the Canal Zone
Postage stamps and postal history of the Canal Zone is a subject that covers the postal system, postage stamps used and mail sent to and from the Panama Canal Zone from 1904 up until October 1978, after the United States relinquished its authority of the Zone in compliance with the treaty it reached with Panama. The Canal Zone was a strip of territory 50 miles long and 10 miles wide across the Isthmus of Panama, was ceded to the United States for the purpose of constructing and operating the canal which connected the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Upon the establishment of the Canal Zone in 1903, seventeen Post Offices had been established and were operated by the U. S. Government; the Canal Zone and its post offices, with the main distributing office in Cristobal, operated as an independent government agency under the direct authority of the President of the United States. In the towns where there were railroad stations, the station agents of the Panama Railroad functioned as postmasters. Along with ships and freight, domestic mail and mail from around the world moved through the canal.
The Canal Zone Post Office began operating and issued its first postage stamps on June 24, 1904. These were the current stamps of Panama or the U. S. overprinted with'CANAL ZONE' in various styles. Philatelists have identified over 100 varieties, some of them quite rare; the Republic of Panama was formally part of Colombia, after it broke away from Colombia, with assistance from the United States, it established itself as a separate nation where it became necessary to establish its own post offices and issue its own postage stamps. The Canal Zone Post Office was inaugurated on June 25, 1904. Beforehand the domestic rates of postage in the United States were made applicable to all possessions of the United States on June 20, 1904, which henceforth included the Canal Zone; the first Panama stamps consisted of existing Colombian stamps. These in turn were used for Canal Zone postage and were again, overprinted with CANAL ZONE with a red bar at top blocking out the name Colombia. Many varieties of the overprinting of PANAMA and CANAL ZONE exist, including doubled overprinting, complete inverts and stamps with the letter A inverted or missing.
The coloring of the overprinting varies from violet to bluish-violet, with the overprinting measuring 18 mm. The first comprehensive study of these issues was conducted by George L. Toppan, his classification of the various varieties that occur in these issues is the most feasible one yet presented; the first stamps issued for Canal Zone postage consisted of three values, 2c, 5c and 10c, which were first issued on June 24, 1904, but were only used for twenty-four days, until July 17, 1904, were removed from sale after that date. They were overprinted with a rubber handstamp. Dr. J. C. Perry, a surgeon in the U. S. Marine Hospital, a philatelic student was stationed at Ancon at this time, whose investigations provided much information concerning this and some of the series. In regard to the first stamp issues he said: The first issue of stamps was authorized by executive order of the Governor of the Canal Zone, which provided that a limited number of stamps of the Panama Republic should be secured and surcharged "Canal Zone" in order to meet the demands of the postal service until the United States stamps properly surcharged could be obtained from Washington.
These first issues were guarded and purchases were limited to the amount of one dollar in silver, or fifty cents in U. S. currency. The executive order cautioned anyone about buying or keeping large quantities of these stamps, as they would not be available for postage after the above date. However, this cautionary measure was unnecessary; this first series of Canal Zone overprint issues is the one with the most plentiful fakes. These stamps consisted of existing U. S. regular issues of 1902–1903 and were overprinted in 1904 with CANAL ZONE and PANAMA in vertical fashion, for use as Canal Zone postage: Issued in denominations of 1c, 2c, 5c 8c and 10c. Benjamin Franklin became the first historical figure to appear on Canal Zone Postage; the overprinting was conducted in Washington D. C; these were the first U. S. stamps overprinted for use in the Canal Zone, consisted of a huge quantity on 10-million stamps. As the stamps featured American historical figures, such as Benjamin Franklin, George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, they were not well received by the Panamanian population in and around the Canal Zone.
These issues were used for less than five months and were taken off sale as a result of the "Taft Agreement". This agreement was brought about as a result of an investigation into the protests made by Panama officials and business; these issues were in use from July 18 to December 11, 1904. Only a small percentage were sold, with the greater bulk of them destroyed on January 2–3, 1906, supervised by the Director of Posts, Tom M. Cooke. Selected Issues: Two years after they were issued they were withdrawn from sale with the remainders of all values destroyed on January 2nd and 3rd, 1906, their withdrawal was arranged through an agreement between the Secretary of War, William Taft, the Government of the Republic of Panama. The arrangement between the two governments resulted in many varieties for two reasons: One was due to the fact that the Canal Zone surcharge was printed on small quantities of stamps, with copper faced type, reset at least five times for some of the values; the other was because many of the stamps used were those, surcharged by the Panama authorities, which were again surcharged with the Canal Zone overprinting.
The last of these overprints were issued in
The Panama Canal is an artificial 82 km waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal is a conduit for maritime trade. Canal locks are at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 26 m above sea level, lower the ships at the other end; the original locks are 34 m wide. A third, wider lane of locks was constructed between September 2007 and May 2016; the expanded canal began commercial operation on June 26, 2016. The new locks allow transit of larger, post-Panamax ships, capable of handling more cargo. France began work on the canal in 1881, but stopped due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate; the United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15, 1914. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut reduced the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, enabling them to avoid the lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America via the Drake Passage or Strait of Magellan.
Colombia and the United States controlled the territory surrounding the canal during construction. The US continued to control the canal and surrounding Panama Canal Zone until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for handover to Panama. After a period of joint American–Panamanian control, in 1999, the canal was taken over by the Panamanian government, it is now operated by the government-owned Panama Canal Authority. Annual traffic has risen from about 1,000 ships in 1914, when the canal opened, to 14,702 vessels in 2008, for a total of 333.7 million Panama Canal/Universal Measurement System tons. By 2012, more than 815,000 vessels had passed through the canal, it takes 11.38 hours to pass through the Panama Canal. The American Society of Civil Engineers has ranked the Panama Canal one of the seven wonders of the modern world; the earliest mention of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama occurred in 1534, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, ordered a survey for a route through the Americas that would ease the voyage for ships traveling between Spain and Peru.
Such a route would have given the Spanish a military advantage over the Portuguese. In 1668, the English physician and philosopher Sir Thomas Browne speculated in his encyclopaedic endeavour Pseudodoxia Epidemica - "some Isthmus have been eat through by the Sea, others cut by the spade: And if policy would permit, that of Panama in America were most worthy the attempt: it being but few miles over, would open a shorter cut unto the East Indies and China". In 1788, American Thomas Jefferson Minister to France, suggested that the Spanish should build the canal since it would be a less treacherous route for ships than going around the southern tip of South America, that tropical ocean currents would widen the canal thereafter. During an expedition from 1788 to 1793, Alessandro Malaspina outlined plans for its construction. Given the strategic location of Panama and the potential offered by its narrow isthmus separating two great oceans, other trade links in the area were attempted over the years.
The ill-fated Darien scheme was launched by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1698 to set up an overland trade route. Inhospitable conditions thwarted the effort and it was abandoned in April 1700. Numerous canals were built in other countries in the late early 19th centuries; the success of the Erie Canal in the United States in the 1820s and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America led to a surge of American interest in building an inter-oceanic canal. Beginning in 1826, US officials began negotiations with Gran Colombia, hoping to gain a concession for the building of a canal. Jealous of their newly obtained independence and fearing that they would be dominated by an American presence, the president Simón Bolívar and New Granada officials declined American offers; the new nation was politically unstable, Panama rebelled several times during the 19th century. Another effort was made in 1843. According to the New York Daily Tribune, August 24, 1843, a contract was entered into by Barings of London and the Republic of New Granada for the construction of a canal across the Isthmus of Darien.
They referred to it as the Atlantic and Pacific Canal, it was a wholly British endeavor. It was expected to be completed in five years. At nearly the same time, other ideas were floated, including a canal across Mexico's Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Nothing came of that plan, either. In 1846, the Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty, negotiated between the US and New Granada, granted the United States transit rights and the right to intervene militarily in the isthmus. In 1848, the discovery of gold in California, on the West Coast of the United States, created great interest in a crossing between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. William H. Aspinwall, the man who won the federal subsidy for the building and operating the Pacific mail steamships at around the same time, benefited from this discovery. Aspinwall's route included steamship legs from New York City to Panama and from Panama to California, with an overland portage through Panama; the route between California and Panama was soon traveled, as it provided one of the fastest links between San Francisco and the East Coast cities, about 40 days' transit in total.
Nearly all the gold, shipped out of California went by the fast Panama route. Several new and larger paddle steamers were soon plying
Horatio Allen was an American civil engineer and inventor, President of Erie Railroad in the year 1843–1844. Born in Schenectady, New York, he graduated from Columbia University in 1823, was appointed Chief Engineer of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. In 1828 he was sent to England to buy locomotives for the canal company's projected railway. There he made the acquaintance of engineer George Stephenson. In 1829 he assembled the first steam locomotive to run in America, the Stourbridge Lion, which ran at Honesdale, Pennsylvania. From 1829 to 1834 he was the chief engineer of the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company, at that time the longest railway in the world, he was the inventor of the so-called "swiveling truck" for railway cars. He wrote: The Railroad Era. In his other activities, from 1838 to 1842 he was principal assistant engineer of the Croton Aqueduct, the major water supply system for New York City. In 1924 the Delaware and Hudson Railway built its first experimental high-pressure locomotive, No. 1400 and named it "Horatio Allen".
Allen, Horatio. "Diary of Horatio Allen 1828". Railway and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin. 89: 97–138. JSTOR 43520168. M. N. Forney, Memoir of Horatio Allen List of railroad executives The Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention & Innovation Horatio Allen at Find a Grave
Arthur Powell Davis
Arthur Powell Davis was an American hydrographer, geographer and nephew of John Wesley Powell. He was born on February 9, 1861, in Decatur and received his Civil Engineering degree from George Washington University in 1888. Upon graduation he joined his uncle west on the US Geological Survey through New Mexico and California, he worked in hydrography in places as far flung as China, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua and Turkestan. In 1888 he co-founded the National Geographic Society, in 1907 he was elected president of the Washington Society of Engineers, he served as the Director of the Reclamation Service from 1914 to 1923. Boulder Dam was fundamentally the conception of Arthur Powell Davis. A month before he died, Arthur Powell Davis was appointed Consulting Engineer on the dam project. Mr. Davis had his vision back in 1902, he died in Oakland, California, on August 7, 1933, is buried in St. Paul’s Rock Creek Cemetery in Washington, D. C. along with his wife, Elizabeth B. Davis; the Davis Dam is named after him.
Arthur Davis brought more to his job than ambition. Like other progressive Republicans, he had deep faith in the role of experts, worshipped efficiency, viewed the federal government as a major instrument for social and political reform. An American Engineer in Stalin's Russia: The Memoirs of Zara Witkin, 1932-1934. Witkin, Zara. "Arthur Powell Davis, the distinguished American reclamation engineer...worked in old Russia under the Czar and for the Soviet Government for several years prior to 1932, engaged in designing a giant irrigation project in southeastern Russia." Works by or about Arthur Powell Davis at Internet Archive Works by Arthur Powell Davis at LibriVox