The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Edward Pilsbury was the 38th mayor of New Orleans. Administrations of the Mayors of New Orleans - Edward Pilsbury, New Orleans Public Library
Mathilde "Tig" O'Callaghan Notaro is an American stand-up comic, radio contributor, actress. She is known for her deadpan comedy, her acclaimed album Live was nominated in 2014 for the Grammy Award for Best Comedy Album at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards. The special Tig Notaro: Boyish Girl Interrupted was nominated in 2016 at the 68th Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Writing for a Variety Special. In 2017, the album of Boyish Girl Interrupted was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Comedy Album at the 59th Annual Grammy Awards. Notaro was born in Mississippi, her mother was born in New Orleans. Notaro was raised in Pass Christian, until kindergarten, her family moved to Spring, Texas, a suburb of Houston. She has a brother, Renaud Notaro, a year older than her and works as a radio talk show host. Notaro's great-great-grandfather was John Fitzpatrick, mayor of New Orleans from 1892 to 1896. Notaro said she hated school, she failed three grades dropping out of high school. In 1990, while living in Texas, Notaro got her GED.
Notaro moved to Denver, where she became involved in the music industry. She became a band manager. Notaro's work promoting bands took her to Los Angeles, where she tried stand-up for the first time in the late'90s. Notaro has since been featured on Comedy Central Presents and on The Sarah Silverman Program as a lesbian police officer, she collaborates with writing partner Kyle Dunnigan. With Dunnigan and David Huntsberger, she co-hosted the podcast Professor Blastoff from May 2011 until July 2015. In 2011, she released her debut stand-up album, Good One, her 2012 sophomore album, Live, is a recording of a stand-up set performed shortly after she was diagnosed with breast cancer. In 2012, Notaro appeared on the Conan television show, in May of that year on the live episode of This American Life, broadcast to theaters nationwide and on radio in edited form, she performed a monologue about having encountered Taylor Dayne on multiple occasions, greeting her each time with, "Excuse me, I'm sorry to bother you, but I just have to tell you.
I love your voice." After her monologue, Dayne made a surprise appearance, serenading Notaro with the song "I'll Always Love You". She worked on fellow comedian Amy Schumer's Comedy Central series Inside Amy Schumer. In 2012, Notaro did a Kickstarter-funded series called Clown Service written by and starring Notaro. Notaro wrote a memoir for HarperCollins imprint Ecco called I'm Just a Person, there is a Showtime documentary made about her life that chronicled her post-cancer stand-up tour called Knock Knock, It's Tig Notaro. In July 2015, a Netflix movie called Tig, which chronicles Notaro's attempts to become pregnant with her fiancée, Stephanie Allynne, was released; the singer Sharon Van Etten wrote a song in homage to Notaro called "Words", shown in the credits. In November 2015, Notaro co-wrote and starred in a semi-autobiographical TV pilot for Amazon Video called One Mississippi; the show received a six-episode series order from Amazon a month later. The show follows Notaro's character as she returns to her hometown of Bay Saint Lucille, after her mother's unexpected death.
Her first stand-up one-hour special was released by HBO in 2015, Tig Notaro: Boyish Girl Interrupted. In 2016, it was released as her third album on her own label, Bentzen Ball Records, which put out Aparna Nancherla's Just Putting It Out There. In April 2018, it was announced that Notaro would appear in the second season of Star Trek: Discovery as Chief Engineer Jett Reno of the U. S. S. Hiawatha. Netflix released Notaro's second one-hour special, Happy To Be Here, on May 22, 2018. On her approach to comedy: "I'm always going to do whatever I think is funniest. If something's dark, I'll do it. If it's a sock puppet, if it's a stool, I'll do it. There's no preconceived idea of who I think I might be now." Notaro said that since her cancer diagnosis, she has shifted not to darker comedy but rather to personal comedy. She was more distant and observational, but now she reflects on her childhood and her life. In the autumn of 2016, she appeared in video as an onstage "stand-in" during the Nostalgia For the Present concert tour of Australian singer Sia Furler for the song "Diamonds."
Notaro met her wife, Stephanie Allynne, on the set of the movie In a World... They became engaged on January 1, 2015 and were married on October 24, 2015, they welcomed twin sons in 2016, conceived using Allynne's eggs via a surrogate. Notaro plays the guitar and drums and says she is an avid music fan, in bands when she was younger. "Tig" is a childhood nickname given to her by her brother. Notaro was diagnosed with cancer in both breasts on July 30, 2012. On August 3, she addressed her recent cancer diagnosis and other personal difficulties during her live stage show at Largo in Los Angeles; the set has been described as "instantly legendary," with many comedians praising her work. The next day, comedian Louis C. K. called Notaro, telling her he wanted to release the audio of the show. She was uncomfortable with the idea at first but decided the material could help people, so she agreed. C. K. made audio of the performance available that October for download on his site under the title Live. Notaro released the audio on iTunes.
Live ended up selling more copies than Kiss' album Monster, which debuted the same week, something Notaro said she never dreamed could happen. She was a fan of the band in her youth. Notaro had a double mastectomy with no reconstructive surgery. Notaro opted out of chemo but decided to continue treatment with hormone blockin
James Pitot known as Jacques Pitot, was the third Mayor of New Orleans, after Cavalier Petit served for a ten-day interim following Mayor Boré's resignation. Because he had attained American citizenship, he is sometimes called New Orleans' first American mayor. Born Jacques-François Pitot in Normandy and educated in Paris, Pitot's family was of the nobility of France and fled that nation during the French Revolution. Jacques Pitot left Saint-Domingue and settled in Philadelphia, where he became an American citizen, lived in Norfolk, Virginia. After his 1796 arrival in Spanish-held Louisiana, he prospered as a merchant and became a member of the New Orleans city council. James Pitot was appointed mayor by Territorial Governor William C. C. Claiborne, he served from 6 June 1804 to 26 July 1805. During Mayor Pitot's administration the first city charter of New Orleans was enacted, including the first public elections of aldermen or city councilmen. After he resigned as mayor, Claiborne appointed him as Probate Court judge for the Orleans Territory, a position he continued to hold after Louisiana became a state.
Judge James Pitot served the legal community until his death on November 4, 1831. He was President of the New Orleans Navigation Company, granted the right to operate a toll canal extending from Bayou St. John into the Tremé neighborhood, terminating in the'turning basin' which gave its name to Basin Street; this route saved shippers many expensive days and risks of navigating the winding Mississippi River below New Orleans, in the age of sail. (Bayou St. John connects to Lake Pontchartrain, which in turn leads to the Gulf of Mexico. Pitot's home alongside Bayou St. John still stands, now the Pitot House; the home is near the "bayou bridge" which Governor Claiborne ordered the military "to permit no Negroes to pass or repass the same," during the event known as the 1811 slave uprising. Jacques Pitot is not properly remembered for his role as president of the Orleans Parish police jury, when during the War of 1812, on January 31, 1814, he authorized the re-enlisting of free people of color into the local militia.
This was a bold move, coming eighteen months after Louisiana had become a state and less than seven years after Orleans Territorial Governor Claiborne had been wounded in a duel with his nemesis, Daniel Clark. Clark's challenge was based on Claiborne's recognition of the militia battalion of free men of color in 1804, shortly after the United States took possession of the French province. Pitot's action built upon the long-standing network of kinship, economic ties and cultural ties free blacks had, not only up and down the Mississippi River from New Orleans with both slave-holding whites and with slaves, but throughout the Caribbean and Gulf trade region, including Jamaica, where the British launched their attack against New Orleans in December 1814. British efforts to lure away both slaves and free blacks to their side of the conflict were not as successful as they had hoped. Pitot's volunteer militia, including the free men of color, joined other units of free men of color, as well as numerous slaves, who were crucial to the defeat of the British invasion under the unified command of General Andrew Jackson.
Pitot House Pitot in the Louisiana Historical Association's online Dictionary of Louisiana Biography Pitot biography on New Orleans Public Library site, transcription from a 1940 WPA compilation. Pitot's tenure as mayor James Pitot at Find a Grave
Charles M. Waterman (New Orleans)
Charles M. Waterman was the 17th mayor of New Orleans. Waterman was nominated for mayor in 1856 as the Know Nothing Party candidate when he was about 47 years of age; the New Orleans City Council impeached and removed Waterman from office on 3 June 1858. Henry M. Summers was appointed interim mayor. Waterman disappeared mysteriously in June 1860 committing suicide by jumping the Mississippi River. Administrations of the Mayors of New Orleans, Charles M. Waterman, Louisiana Division, New Orleans Public Library
George Foster Shepley (Maine and Louisiana)
George Foster Shepley was a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was appointed military and 18th Governor of Louisiana by General Benjamin Butler in June 1862, he served as a United States federal judge. Born in Saco, Shepley studied law at Harvard University, received an A. B. from Dartmouth College in 1837. He read law and was admitted to the bar in 1839, he began the practice of law the same year, was in private practice in Bangor, Maine from 1839 to 1844 and in Portland, Maine from 1844 to 1861. He was a U. S. Attorney for the District of Maine from 1848 to 1849 and from 1853 to 1861. Shepley joined the army in November 1861 as a colonel of the 12th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment, he served as the acting military mayor of New Orleans from May 20, 1862 – July 11, 1862. This appointment lasted less than two months before Shepley was appointed military governor of the occupied parishes of Louisiana from 1862–1864, with the rank of brigadier general. Shepley served as the first military governor of Richmond, the Confederate capital.
After the war, Shepley returned to his private practice in Portland in 1865. He was a member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1866 to 1867, continued in private practice until 1869. On December 8, 1869, Shepley was nominated by President Ulysses S. Grant to a new seat on the United States circuit court for the First Circuit created by 16 Stat. 44. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 22, 1869, received his commission the same day, he continued in that office until his death. He died in Portland, Maine, on July 20, 1878, is interred at Evergreen Cemetery in that city, his tombstone has his birth date as January 1, 1819. List of American Civil War generals https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:16_Stat._44_.pdf State of Louisiana – Biography Cemetery Memorial by La-Cemeteries George Foster Shepley at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. "George Foster Shepley". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-10-13
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a