Quarter (United States coin)
The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a United States coin worth 25 cents, one-fourth of a dollar. It has a thickness of.069 inches. The coin sports the profile of George Washington on its obverse, its reverse design has changed frequently, it has been produced on and off since 1796 and since 1831. The choice of 1⁄4 as a denomination—as opposed to the 1⁄5 more common elsewhere—originated with the practice of dividing Spanish milled dollars into eight wedge-shaped segments. "Two bits" is a common nickname for a quarter. The current clad version is two layers of cupronickel, 75% copper and 25% nickel, on a core of pure copper; the total composition of the coin is 8.33% nickel, with the remainder copper. It weighs 1/80th of a pound, 0.1823 troy oz. The diameter is 0.955 inches, the width of 0.069 inches. The coin has a 0.069-inch reeded edge. Owing to the introduction of the clad quarter in 1965, it was called a "Johnson Sandwich" after Lyndon B. Johnson, the US President at the time; as of 2011, it cost 11.14 cents to produce each coin.
The U. S. Mint began producing silver quarters again in 1992 for inclusion in the annual Silver Proof set. Early quarters were larger in diameter and thinner than the current coin; the current regular issue coin is the George Washington quarter, showing George Washington on the front. The reverse featured an eagle prior to the 1999 50 State Quarters Program; the Washington quarter was designed by John Flanagan. It was issued as a circulating commemorative, but was made a regular issue coin in 1934. In 1999, the 50 State Quarters program of circulating commemorative quarters began; these have a modified Washington obverse and a different reverse for each state, ending the former Washington quarter's production completely. On January 23, 2007, the House of Representatives passed H. R. 392 extending the state quarter program one year to 2009, to include the District of Columbia and the five inhabited US territories: Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
The bill passed through the Senate and was signed into legislation by President George W. Bush as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, Pub. L. 110–161, on December 27, 2007. The typeface used in the state quarter series varies a bit from one state to another, but is derived from Albertus. On June 4, 2008, a bill titled America's Beautiful National Parks Quarter Dollar Coin Act of 2008, H. R. 6184, was introduced to the House of Representatives. On December 23, 2008, President Bush signed the bill into law as Pub. L. 110–456. The America the Beautiful Quarters program will continue for 12 years. Silver quartersWright 1792 Draped Bust 1796–1807 Draped Bust, Small Eagle 1796 Draped Bust, Heraldic Eagle 1804–1807 Capped Bust 1815–1838 Capped Bust, With Motto 1815–1828 Capped Bust, No Motto 1831–1838 Seated Liberty 1838–1891 Seated Liberty, No Motto 1838–1865 Seated Liberty, With Motto 1866–1891 Barber 1892–1916 Standing Liberty 1916–1930Standing Liberty 1916–1917 Standing Liberty 1917–1924 Standing Liberty 1925-1930 Washington Quarter 1932–1964, 1992–1998 Washington Bicentennial 1975–1976 Washington U.
S. Statehood Series 1999–2008 Washington District of Columbia and U. S. Territories 2009 Washington America the Beautiful Quarters 2010–2021 Copper-nickel quartersWashington Quarter 1965–1974, 1977–1998 Washington Bicentennial 1975–1976 Washington U. S. Statehood Series 1999–2008 Washington District of Columbia and U. S. Territories 2009 Washington America the Beautiful Quarters 2010–2021 Non-clad silver quarters weigh 6.25 grams and are composed of 90% silver, 10% copper, with a total silver weight of 0.1808479 troy ounce pure silver. They were issued from 1932 through 1964; the current rarities for the Washington Quarter silver series are: Branch Mintmarks are D = Denver, S = San Francisco. Coins without mintmarks are all made at the main Mint in Philadelphia; this listing is for Business strikes, not Proofs 1932-D 1932-S 1934 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1935-D 1936-D 1937 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1937-S 1938-S 1939-S 1940-D 1942-D – with Doubled Die Obverse 1943 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1943-S – with Doubled Die Obverse 1950-D/S Over mintmark 1950-S/D Over mintmark The 1940 Denver Mint, 1936 Denver mint and the 1935 Denver Mint coins, as well as many others in the series, are more valuable than other coins.
This is not due to their mintages. Many of these coins are worth only melt value in low grades. Other coins in the above list are expensive because of their low mintages, such as the 1932 Denver and San Francisco issues; the overstruck mintmark issues are scarce and expensive in the higher grades. The 1934 Philadelphia strike appears in two versions: one with a light motto, the same as that used on the 1932 strikings, the other a heavy motto seen after the dies were reworked. Except in the highest grades, the difference in value between the two is minor; the Silver Series of Was
Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States. With 6,953,927 visitors to its three locations in 2018, it was the third most visited art museum in the world, its permanent collection contains over two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the eastern edge of Central Park along Museum Mile in Manhattan's Upper East Side is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art and artifacts from Medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue on the Upper East Side; the permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian and Islamic art.
The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries; the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, was located at 681 Fifth Avenue; the Met's permanent collection is curated by seventeen separate departments, each with a specialized staff of curators and scholars, as well as six dedicated conservation departments and a Department of Scientific Research. The permanent collection includes works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, an extensive collection of American and modern art; the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian and Islamic art. The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, antique weapons and armor from around the world.
A great number of period rooms, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Met's galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts large traveling shows throughout the year; the current chairman of the board, Daniel Brodsky, was elected in 2011 and became chairman three years after director Philippe de Montebello retired at the end of 2008. On March 1, 2017, the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss, the Met's president and COO, would temporarily act as CEO for the museum. Following the departure of Thomas P. Campbell as the Met's director and CEO on June 30, 2017, the search for a new director of the museum was assigned to the human resources firm Phillips Oppenheim to present a new candidate for the position "by the end of the fiscal year in June" of 2018; the next director will report to Weiss as the current president of the museum. In April 2018, Max Hollein was named director. Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started acquiring ancient art and artifacts from the Near East.
From a few cuneiform tablets and seals, the Met's collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. Representing a history of the region beginning in the Neolithic Period and encompassing the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the end of Late Antiquity, the collection includes works from the Sumerian, Sasanian, Assyrian and Elamite cultures, as well as an extensive collection of unique Bronze Age objects; the highlights of the collection include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures, from the Northwest Palace of the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II. Though the Met first acquired a group of Peruvian antiquities in 1882, the museum did not begin a concerted effort to collect works from Africa and the Americas until 1969, when American businessman and philanthropist Nelson A. Rockefeller donated his more than 3,000-piece collection to the museum. Today, the Met's collection contains more than 11,000 pieces from sub-Saharan Africa, the Pacific Islands, the Americas and is housed in the 40,000-square-foot Rockefeller Wing on the south end of the museum.
The collection ranges from 40,000-year-old indigenous Australian rock paintings, to a group of 15-foot-tall memorial poles carved by the Asmat people of New Guinea, to a priceless collection of ceremonial and personal objects from the Nigerian Court of Benin donated by Klaus Perls. The range of materials represented in the Africa and Americas collection is undoubtedly the widest of any department at the Met, including everything from precious metals to porcupine quills; the Met's Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, arguably the most comprehensive in the US. The collection dates back to the founding of the museum: many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections. Today, an entire wing of the museum is dedicated to the Asian collection, spans 4,000 years of Asian art; every Asian civilization is represented in the Met's Asian department, the pieces on display include every type of decorative art, from painting and printmaking to sculpture and metalworking.
The department is well known for its comprehensive collection of Chinese calligraphy and painting, as well as for its Indian sculptures and Tibetan works, the arts of Burma and Thailand. All three ancient religions of India – Hinduism and Jainism – are well represented in these s
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
John Bernard Flannagan
John Bernard Flannagan was an American sculptor. Along with Robert Laurent and William Zorach, he is known as one of the first practitioners of direct carving in the United States. Flannagan was born in Fargo, North Dakota, on April 7, 1895, his father died when he was only five years old, his mother, unable to support her family, placed him in an orphanage. "Unrelenting poverty... was to plague him for the rest of his life." He suffered from severe depression and alcoholism, which led to his suicide. In his youth, Flannagan was recognized as possessing artistic talents, in 1914 he attended the Minneapolis School of Art, now the Minneapolis College of Art and Design, where he studied painting; when the United States entered World War I in 1917, Flannagan quit school and joined the Merchant Marines. He remained a merchant marine until 1922. After his return to civilian life, he was hired by painter Arthur B. Davies to work on Davies' farm in New York State. There Davis encouraged the young man to return to painting, which he did taking up wood carving.
A year in 1922, Flannagan appeared in his first exhibition, along with Davies, Walt Kuhn, Charles Sheeler, William Glackens, Charles and Maurice Prendergast. In 1927 Flannagan gave up wood carving to concentrate on stone carving. In 1928 he produced some of the first American direct carved stone sculptures of note, one of, entitled "Pelican." The years between 1930 and 1933 found Flannagan, now married, in Ireland. There he mastered the technique of carving stones that he scavenged from the Irish countryside into sculptures small animals, he felt that "there exists an image within every rock." His "aim to produce a sculpture that hardly feels carved, but rather to have always been that way."Back in the United States by 1934, Flannagan found work with the PWAP, the Depression-era government program that sponsored American artists. He received this position, his only means of support at the time, through the influence of Juliana Force, the first director of the Whitney Museum of American Art. Force and Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney had been longtime supporters of the sculptor, recognizing that he was a profoundly troubled man but an exceptionally talented artist.
Flannagan's time with the PWAP did not go smoothly. "The artist's alcoholism was always problematic: he alternated marathon work sessions with drinking bouts. Indeed, Flannagan had put in ninety hours one week and took the next two weeks off, as was his custom, he worked until he was utterly exhausted and drank to blot out the fatigue." He lost his job with the PWAP. His ensuing mental breakdown and seven months' incarceration in a mental institution, followed by a divorce, did not lessen Flannagan's resolve to produce as much quality sculpture as possible, but, in 1939, after being struck by a car and sustaining a severe closed head injury, it became difficult for him to function. Destitute and suffering from ill health, Flannagan committed suicide on January 6, 1942. Posthumously, Flannagan has not always received the critical attention that other sculptors of his time of equivalent talent have enjoyed. Art historian Sam Hunter provided one judgement in his survey of modern American art: A controlled Expressionism was the basis of the style of one of the most interesting stone carvers who emerged in the 1930s, John B.
Flannagan. Flannagan's earlier work had been Gothic images of suffering, attenuated free-standing figures in wood handled like bas-relief with affinities to both German Expressionism and primitive Christian art. In the next decade his style broadened, becoming more rounded. Hunter compared Flannagan's sensibility to "the visionary, romantic art of Albert Pinkham Ryder and Morris Graves," adding that "the microscopic sensibilities of such American poets as Emily Dickinson and Marianne Moore support and confirm the native authenticity of Flannagan's touching, creatural realism."
Augustus Saint-Gaudens was an American sculptor of the Beaux-Arts generation who embodied the ideals of the American Renaissance. Raised in New York City, he traveled to Europe for further training and artistic study, returned to New York, where he achieved major critical success for his monuments commemorating heroes of the American Civil War, many of which still stand. In addition to his works such as the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common, the outstanding grand equestrian monuments to Civil War Generals, John A. Logan in Chicago's Grant Park, William Tecumseh Sherman, at the corner of New York's Central Park. Saint-Gaudens created Classical works such as the Diana, employed his skills in numismatics. Most notably, he designed the $20 "double eagle" gold piece for the US Mint, considered one of the most beautiful American coins issued as well as the $10 "Indian Head" gold eagle, both of which were minted from 1907 until 1933. In his years he founded the "Cornish Colony", an artistic colony that included notable painters, sculptors and architects.
His brother Louis Saint-Gaudens, with whom he collaborated, was a well-known sculptor. Saint-Gaudens was born in Dublin to a French father, Bernard Paul Ernest Saint-Gaudens, a shoemaker by trade from a small village in the French Pyrenees, Aspet, 15 kilometers from Saint-Gaudens, an Irish mother, he was raised in New York. In 1861, he became an apprentice to a cameo-cutter, Louis Avet, took evening art classes at the Cooper Union in New York City. Two years he was hired as an apprentice of Jules Le Brethon, another cameo cutter, enrolled at the National Academy of Design. At age 19, his apprenticeship was completed and he traveled to Paris in 1867, where he studied in the atelier of François Jouffroy at the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1870, he left Paris for Rome to study art and architecture, worked on his first commissions. There he met a deaf American art student, Augusta Fisher Homer, whom he married on June 1, 1877; the couple had a son named Homer Saint-Gaudens. In 1874, Edwards Pierrepont, a prominent New York reformer, hired Saint-Gaudens to create a marble bust of himself.
Pierrepont, a phrenologist, proved to be a demanding client, insisting that Saint-Gaudens make his head larger. Saint-Gaudens said that Pierrepont's bust "seemed to be affected with some dreadful swelling disease" and he told a friend that he would "give anything to get hold of that bust and smash it to atoms". In 1876, he won a commission for a bronze David Farragut Memorial, he rented a studio at 49 rue Notre Dame des Champs. Stanford White designed the pedestal, it was unveiled on May 1881, in Madison Square Park. He collaborated with Stanford White again in 1892–94 when he created Diana as a weather vane for the second Madison Square Garden building in New York City; the statue stood on a 300-foot-high tower. It was the first statue in that part of Manhattan to be lit at night by electricity; the statue and its tower was a landmark until 1925. In New York, he was a member of the Tilers, a group of prominent artists and writers, including Winslow Homer, William Merritt Chase and Arthur Quartley.
He was a member of the Salmagundi Club in New York. In 1876, Saint-Gaudens received his first major commission: a monument to Civil War Admiral David Farragut, in New York's Madison Square; the commissions followed fast, including the colossal Standing Lincoln in Lincoln Park, Chicago in a setting by architect White, 1884–1887, considered the finest portrait statue in the United States, a long series of memorials, funerary monuments and busts, including the Adams Memorial, the Peter Cooper Monument, the John A. Logan Monument. Arguably the greatest of these monuments is the bronze bas-relief that forms the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common, 1884–1897, which Saint-Gaudens labored on for 14 years. Two grand equestrian monuments to Civil War generals are outstanding: to General John A. Logan, atop a tumulus in Chicago, 1894–1897, to William Tecumseh Sherman at the corner of Central Park in New York, 1892–1903, the first use of Robert Treat Paine's pointing device for the accurate mechanical enlargement of sculpture models.
The depictions of the African-American soldiers on the Shaw memorial is noted as a rare example of true-to-life, non-derogatory, depictions of Afro-ancestral physical characteristics in 19th-century American art. For the Lincoln Centennial in 1909, Saint-Gaudens produced another statue of the president. A seated figure, Abraham Lincoln: The Head of State, is in Chicago's Grant Park. Saint-Gaudens completed the design work and had begun casting the statue at the time of his death—his workshop completed it; the statue's head was used as the model for the commemorative postage stamp issued on the 100th anniversary of Lincoln's birth. Saint-Gaudens created the statue for the monument of Charles Stewart Parnell, installed at the north end of Dublin's O'Connell Street in 1911
50 State Quarters
The 50 State Quarters Program was the release of a series of circulating commemorative coins by the United States Mint. From 1999 through 2008, it featured unique designs for each of the 50 U. S. states on the reverse of the quarter. The 50 State Quarters Program was started to support a new generation of coin collectors, it became the most successful numismatic program in history, with half of the U. S. population collecting the coins, either in a casual manner or as a serious pursuit. The U. S. federal government so far has made additional profits of $3.0 billion from collectors taking the coins out of circulation. In 2009, the U. S. Mint began issuing quarters under the 2009 District of Columbia and U. S. Territories Program; the Territories Quarter Program was authorized by the passage of a newer legislative act, H. R. 2764. This program features the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands; the program's origins lie with the Citizens Commemorative Coin Advisory Committee, appointed by Secretary of Treasury Lloyd Bentsen in December 1993 and chaired by Mint Director Philip N. Diehl.
From the first days of the CCCAC, one of its members, David Ganz, urged the committee to endorse the 50 States Quarters program, in 1995, the CCCAC did so. The committee sought the support of Representative Michael Castle, chairman of the House Banking subcommittee with jurisdiction over the nation's coinage. Castle's initial caution was resolved when Diehl suggested the coins be issued in the order the states entered the Union or ratified the Constitution. Delaware, Castle's home state, was the first state to ratify the Constitution. Castle subsequently filed legislation to authorize the program. Despite the support of the director of the mint and the treasury secretary-appointed CCCAC, the Treasury Department opposed the 50 States Quarters program, as commemorative coinage had come to be identified with abuses and excesses; the mint's economic models estimated the program would earn the government between $2.6 billion and $5.1 billion in additional seignorage and $110 million in additional numismatic profits.
Diehl and Castle used these profit projections to urge the Treasury's support, but Treasury officials found the projections to lack credibility. Diehl worked with Castle behind the scenes to move legislation forward despite the Treasury's opposition to the program. However, the Treasury suggested to Castle that the department should conduct a study to determine the feasibility of the program. With Diehl's advice, Castle accepted the Treasury's offer, the agreement was codified in the United States Commemorative Coin Act of 1996; the act authorized the secretary to proceed with the 50 States Quarters program without further congressional action if the results of the feasibility study were favorable. The Treasury Department engaged the consulting firm Coopers and Lybrand to conduct the study in 1997, which confirmed the Mint's demand and numismatic profit projections for the program. Among other conclusions, the study found that 98 million Americans were to save one or more full sets of the quarters.
The Treasury Department continued to oppose the program and declined to proceed with it without a congressional mandate to do so. In 1997, Congress issued that mandate in the form of S. 1228, the "United States Commemorative Coin Program Act", signed into law by President Bill Clinton on December 1, 1997. The 50 state quarters were released by five each year, they were released in the same order that the states ratified the Constitution and/or were admitted to the Union. Each quarter's reverse commemorated one of the 50 states with a design emblematic of its unique history and symbols. Certain design elements, such as state flags, images of living persons, head-and-shoulder images of deceased persons were prohibited; the authorizing legislation and Mint procedures gave states a substantial role and considerable discretion in determining the design that would represent their state. The majority of states followed a process by which the governor solicited the state's citizens to submit design concepts and appointed an advisory group to oversee the process.
Governors submitted three to five finalist design concepts to the secretary of treasury for approval. Approved designs were returned to the states for selection of a final design. States employed one of two approaches in making this selection. In 33 states, the governor selected the final recommended design based on the recommendations of advisory groups and citizens. In the other 17 states, citizens selected the final design through online, mail or other public votes. US Mint engravers applied all final design concepts approved by the secretary of treasury; the media and public attention surrounding this process and the release of each state's quarter was intense and produced significant publicity for the program. The State Quarters Program was the most popular commemorative coin program in United States history. By the end of 2008, all of the original 50 states quarters had been released; the official total, according to the US Mint, was 34,797,600,000 coins. The average mint
They shall not pass
"They shall not pass" is a slogan used to express determination to defend a position against an enemy. "On ne passe pas" means "one does not pass". It was most famously used during the Battle of Verdun in the First World War by French General Robert Nivelle, it appears on propaganda posters, such as that by Maurice Neumont after the Second Battle of the Marne, adopted on uniform badges by units manning the Maginot Line. During the war, it was used by Romanian soldiers during the Battle of Mărășești, it was used during the Spanish Civil War, this time at the Siege of Madrid by Dolores Ibárruri Gómez, a member of the Communist Party of Spain, in her famous "No pasarán" speech on 18 July 1936. The leader of the fascist forces, Generalísimo Francisco Franco, upon gaining Madrid, responded to this slogan by declaring "Hemos pasado". "¡No pasarán!" was used by British anti-fascists during the October 1936 Battle of Cable Street, is still used in this context in some political circles. It was accompanied by the words nosotros pasaremos to indicate that communists rather than fascists will be the ones to seize state power.
The phrase was brought to the public consciousness again following action in December 1943 by French-Canadian officer Paul Triquet of the Royal 22e Regiment. Nicaragua no pasarán is the title of a 1984 documentary by David Bradbury about the events in Nicaragua that led to the overthrow of Somoza's dictatorship; the WWI first-person shooter video game Battlefield 1 features a downloadable content update titled "They Shall Not Pass". The update features the Battle of Verdun, Battle of Soissons, Fort Vaux, Second Battle of the Marne and the Nivelle Offensive. Author Max Brooks referenced the phrase in his book World War Z, a fictional oral history of a worldwide war between zombies and the living. During France's counteroffensive against the living dead, a team of commandos moving through a tunnel breaks through a wall to find three hundred zombies on the other side; the last words heard from the squad's leader: "On ne passe pas!" The title of Scottish documentary Nae Pasaran, which focuses on Scottish solidarity with Chile during the Pinochet dictatorship, is a play on the phrase using the Scots word nae.
Chiselbury School for the Sons of Gentlefolk, headmaster Professor Jimmy Edwards, had "They shall not pass" as its school motto. Awake iron! Molon labe Order No. 227 Venceremos Raised fist List of last stands