John Fletcher (playwright)

John Fletcher was a Jacobean playwright. Following William Shakespeare as house playwright for the King's Men, he was among the most prolific and influential dramatists of his day, he collaborated on writing plays with Francis Beaumont, with William Shakespeare on two plays. Though his reputation has been far eclipsed since, Fletcher remains an important transitional figure between the Elizabethan popular tradition and the popular drama of the Restoration. Fletcher was born in December 1579 in Rye and died of the plague in August 1625, his father Richard Fletcher was an ambitious and successful cleric, in turn Dean of Peterborough, Bishop of Bristol, Bishop of Worcester and Bishop of London, as well as chaplain to Queen Elizabeth. As Dean of Peterborough, Richard Fletcher, at the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots at Fotheringay Castle, "knelt down on the scaffold steps and started to pray out loud and at length, in a prolonged and rhetorical style as though determined to force his way into the pages of history".

He cried out at her death, "So perish all the Queen's enemies!" Richard Fletcher died shortly after falling out of favour with the Queen, over a marriage she had advised against. He appears to have been rehabilitated before his death in 1596 but he died in debt; the upbringing of John Fletcher and his seven siblings was entrusted to his paternal uncle Giles Fletcher, a poet and minor official. His uncle's connexions ceased to be a benefit and may have become a liability after the rebellion of Robert Devereux the Earl of Essex, his patron. Fletcher appears to have entered Corpus Christi College, Cambridge University in 1591, at the age of eleven, it is not certain that he took a degree but evidence suggests that he was preparing for a career in the church. Little is known about his time at college but he evidently followed the path trodden by the University wits before him, from Cambridge to the burgeoning commercial theatre of London. In 1606, he began to appear as a playwright for the Children of the Queen's Revels performing at the Blackfriars Theatre.

Commendatory verses by Richard Brome in the Beaumont and Fletcher 1647 folio place Fletcher in the company of Ben Jonson. At the beginning of his career, his most important association was with Francis Beaumont; the two wrote together for close on a decade, first for the children and for the King's Men. According to an anecdote transmitted or invented by John Aubrey, they lived together, sharing clothes and having "one wench in the house between them"; this domestic arrangement, if it existed, was ended by Beaumont's marriage in 1613 and their dramatic partnership ended after Beaumont fell ill of a stroke, the same year. By this time, Fletcher had moved into a closer association with the King's Men, he collaborated with Shakespeare on Henry VIII, The Two Noble Kinsmen and the lost Cardenio, the basis for Lewis Theobald's play Double Falsehood. A play he wrote singly around this time, The Woman's Prize or the Tamer Tamed, is a sequel to The Taming of the Shrew. In 1616, after Shakespeare's death, Fletcher appears to have entered into an exclusive arrangement with the King's Men similar to Shakespeare's.

Fletcher wrote only for that company between the death of Shakespeare and his death nine years later. He never lost his habit of collaboration, working with Nathan Field and with Philip Massinger, who succeeded him as house playwright for the King's Men, his popularity continued throughout his life. He died in 1625 of the plague, he seems to have been buried in what is now Southwark Cathedral, although the precise location is not known. What is more certain is that two simple adjacent stones in the floor of the Choir of Southwark Cathedral, one marked'Edmond Shakespeare 1607' the other'John Fletcher 1625' refer to Shakespeare's younger brother and the playwright, his mastery is most notable in two dramatic types and comedy of manners. Fletcher's early career was marked by one significant failure, of The Faithful Shepherdess, his adaptation of Giovanni Battista Guarini's Il Pastor Fido, performed by the Blackfriars Children in 1608. In the preface to the printed edition of his play, Fletcher explained the failure as due to his audience's faulty expectations.

They expected a pastoral tragicomedy to feature dances and murder, with the shepherds presented in conventional stereotypes—as Fletcher put it, wearing "gray cloaks, with curtailed dogs in strings". Fletcher's preface in defence of his play is best known for its pithy definition of tragicomedy: "A tragicomedy is not so called in respect of mirth and killing, but in respect it wants deaths, enough to make it no tragedy. A comedy, he went on to say, must be "a representation of familiar people" and the preface is critical of drama that features characters whose action violates nature. Fletcher appears to have been developing a new style faster. By 1609, however, he had found his voice. With Beaumont, he wrote Philaster, which became a hit for the King's Men and began a profitable connexion between Fletcher and that company. Philaster appears to have initiated a vog

Marc Hérold Gracien

Marc Hérold Gracien is a Haitian footballer. At the age of 17 in 2001, Marc-Herold Gracien was considered as the fastest player in France by beating Nicolas Anelka's record after a physical test at Clarefontaine Gracien grew up in France and was part of storied French club Paris Saint-Germain's youth academy, where he played from the age of 14. Gracien began his professional career in France at the age of 18, playing with lower-league sides such as La Rochelle, Les Lilas and Plessis-Robinson. Gracien signed with the Real Maryland Monarchs in the USL Second Division in 2009, playing eight games and scoring 1 goal and one assist in his debut season with the team. SS La Gauloise scored 11 goals. In January 2010, Gracien signed a 2-year contract with the Indian Ocean side. Gracien is fast skillful and his ability to play with both feet is impressive, he has a strong strike and he is a great goal scorer. Gracien made his debut for the Haiti national football team in 2004, he played the qualifying games for the 2009 CONCACAF Gold Cup.

Marc Hérold Gracien at


Atanquez or San Sebastian is a Colombian town and corregimiento of Valledupar in the Department of Cesar. Atanquez is located on the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range at 2,000 m over sea level. Atanquez is known for being predominantly inhabited by the indigenous ethnic group Kankuamos among others and mestizo groups. Atanquez was an indigenous settlement founded according to oral tradition by a Mama named Tukaka. In the mid-18th century the Spanish had colonized the plains surrounding the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range and decided to colonize the mountains and re-found the indigenous settlements; these indigenous villages were Atanquez, Maraocaso and El Rosario which grew in population due to the displacement caused during the period of Spanish conquest of the Chimila and Guanebucanes in the lower and surrounding areas of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountains in the 16th century. The Kogui named these the "Wiwa", while the Arhuaco called them "Arzario". Former African slaves established in Atanquez and formed the "Palenque of Atanquez".

The Spanish sent Capuchin and Dominican friars to "civilize" the indigenous and named it San Sebastian. According to an order of the Royal Audience of Santa Fe de Bogota by a Sub-delegated Judge of Land named Don Agustín de la Sierra in 1781; the corregimiento of Atanquez was created by Municipal Accord of Valledupar 02 on January 4, 1906 and ordered by Mayor of Valledupar, Moisés Martínez. Atanquez became part of the indigenous Kankuamo Resguardo created by Resolution 012 of April 10, 2003 as established by the Colombian Institute of Agrarian Reform. Between 1986 and 2003 the Colombian armed conflict affected the region of Atanquez intensively with 197 Kankuamos murdered by paramilitary and guerrilla groups; the region was influenced by the paramilitary group United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia, two guerrillas. These groups flourished in the region due to the marijuana bonanza of the 1970s and the use of their traditional Coca plants to produce cocaine and the introduction of amapola plantations.

The economy of Atanquez is based on the production of indigenous art crafts. The main products are panela, liquor from maize and sugar cane, production of medicinal plants, local fruits and vegetables and coffee, commercialize in Valledupar. Gutierrez Hinojosa, Tomas Dario, Valledupar Musica de una Historia, Bogota: Editorial Grijalbo LTDA, ISBN 958-639-175-2 Atanquez official website