Governor of Maryland
The governor of the State of Maryland heads the executive branch of the government of the State of Maryland, is the commander-in-chief of the state's National Guard units. The governor is the highest-ranking official in the state and has a broad range of appointive powers in both the state and local governments, as specified by the Maryland Constitution; because of the extent of these constitutional powers, the governor of Maryland has been ranked as being among the most powerful governors in the United States. The current governor is Larry Hogan, a Republican who took office on January 21, 2015. Like most state chief executives in the United States, the governor is elected by the citizens of Maryland to serve a four-year term. Under the Constitution of Maryland, the governor can run any number of times, but not more than twice in a row; this makes it possible for a two-term governor to run for the office again after remaining out of office for at least one term. An eligible candidate for governor must be at least 30 years old, a resident of and a registered voter in Maryland for the five years preceding the election.
If a candidate meets this minimum requirement, he or she must file his or her candidacy with the Maryland State Board of Elections, pay a filing fee, file a financial disclosure, create a legal campaign financial body. The governor, like all statewide officials in Maryland, is elected in the even-numbered years in which the election for President of the United States does not occur; as the chief executive of the State of Maryland, the governor heads the executive branch of government, which includes all state executive departments and agencies, as well as advisory boards, commissions and task forces. The main constitutional responsibility of the governor of Maryland, any other State's chief executive, is to carry out the business of the state and to enforce the laws passed by the Legislature; the governor has some say in these laws, since the governor has the ability to veto any bill sent to his or her desk by the Maryland General Assembly, though the assembly may override that veto. The governor is given a number of more specific powers as relates to appropriations of state funds, the appointment of state officials, a variety of less prominent and less utilized powers.
Every year, the governor must present a proposed budget to the Maryland General Assembly. After receiving the proposed budget, the assembly is allowed to decrease any portion of the budget for the executive branch, but it may never increase it or transfer funds between executive departments; the assembly may, increase funds for the Legislative and Judicial branches of government. The governor has the power to veto any law, passed by the General Assembly, including a "line item veto", which can be used to strike certain portions of appropriations bills; the Legislature has the power to override a Governor's veto by vote of three-fifths of the number of members in each house. The governor sits on the board of public works, whose other two members are the comptroller and the treasurer; this board has broad powers in approving the spending of state funds. They must approve state expenditures of all general funds and capital improvement funds, excluding expenditures for the construction of state roads and highways.
It has the power to solicit loans on its own accord either to meet a deficit or in anticipation of other revenues, in addition to approving expenditures of funds from loans authorized by the General Assembly. The governor appoints all military and civil officers of the state government, subject to advice and consent of the Maryland State Senate; the governor appoints certain boards and commissions in each of the 24 Counties and in Baltimore City, such as local Boards of Elections, commissions notaries public, appoints officers to fill vacancies in the elected offices of Attorney General and Comptroller. Should a vacancy arise in either of the two houses of the General Assembly, the governor fills that vacancy, though the governor must choose from among the recommendations of the local party organization to which the person leaving the vacancy belonged. Any officer appointed by the governor, except a member of the General Assembly, is removable by him or her, if there is a legitimate cause for removal.
Among the most prominent of the governor's appointees are the 24 secretaries and heads of departments that make up the governor's Cabinet known as the executive council. The governor of Maryland is the chairman of the governor's executive council which coordinates all state government functions; this is composed of the following members, all of whom, except the lieutenant governor, are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Maryland State Senate as heads of executive departments: Lieutenant governor- Boyd Rutherford Secretary of State- John C. Wobensmith Secretary of Aging- Rona E. Kramer Secretary of Agriculture- Joe Bartenfelder Secretary of Budget and Management- David Brinkley Secretary of Business and Economic Development- R. Michael Gill Secretary of Disabilities-Carol Beatty State Superintendent of Schools - Lillian M. Lowery Secretary of Environment- Ben Grumbles Secretary of General Services- C. Gail Bassette Secretary of Health and Mental Hygiene- Van Mitchell Secretary of Housing and Community Development- Kenneth C. Holt Secretary of Human Resources- Sam Maholtra Secretary of Information Technology- David Garcia Secretary of Juvenile Services- Sam J. Abed Secretary of Labor and Regulation- Kelly Schulz Secretary of Natural Resources- Mark Belton Secretary of Planni
Anti-Federalism was a late-18th century movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U. S. federal government and which opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, gave state governments more authority. Led by Patrick Henry of Virginia, Anti-Federalists worried, among other things, that the position of president a novelty, might evolve into a monarchy. Though the Constitution was ratified and supplanted the Articles of Confederation, Anti-Federalist influence helped lead to the passage of the United States Bill of Rights, they believed. They believed, they believed the Constitution did too little with the courts and would create an out-of-control judiciary. They believed that the national government would be too far away from the people and thus unresponsive to the needs of localities, they believed. During the American Revolution and its immediate aftermath, the term federal was applied to any person who supported the colonial union and the government formed under the Articles of Confederation.
After the war, the group that felt the national government under the Articles was too weak appropriated the name Federalist for themselves. Historian Jackson Turner Main wrote, "to them, the man of'federal principles' approved of'federal measures,' which meant those that increased the weight and authority or extended the influence of the Confederation Congress."As the Federalists moved to amend the Articles leading to the Constitutional Convention, they applied the term anti-federalist to their opposition. The term implied or not, both opposition to Congress and unpatriotic motives; the Anti-Federalists rejected the term. In both their correspondence and their local groups, they tried to capture the term. For example, an unknown anti-federalist signed his public correspondence as "A Federal Farmer" and the New York committee opposing the Constitution was called the "Federal Republican Committee." However the Federalists carried the name Anti-Federalist forever stuck. The Anti-Federalists were composed of diverse elements, including those opposed to the Constitution because they thought that a stronger government threatened the sovereignty and prestige of the states, localities, or individuals.
Some of the opposition believed that the central government under the Articles of Confederation was sufficient. Still others believed that while the national government under the Articles was too weak, the national government under the Constitution would be too strong. Another complaint of the Anti-Federalists was that the Constitution provided for a centralized rather than federal government and that a federal form of government was a leaguing of states as under the Articles of Confederation. During the period of debate over the ratification of the Constitution, numerous independent local speeches and articles were published all across the country. Many of the articles in opposition were written under pseudonyms, such as "Brutus", "Centinel", "Federal Farmer." Famous revolutionary figures such as Patrick Henry came out publicly against the Constitution. They argued that the strong national government proposed by the Federalists was a threat to the rights of individuals and that the president would become a king.
They objected to the federal court system created by the proposed constitution. This produced a phenomenal body of political writing. In many states the opposition to the Constitution was strong, in two states—North Carolina and Rhode Island—it prevented ratification until the definite establishment of the new government forced their adherence. Individualism was the strongest element of opposition. In Rhode Island, resistance against the Constitution was so strong that civil war broke out on July 4, 1788, when anti-federalist members of the Country Party led by Judge William West marched into Providence with over 1,000 armed protesters; the Anti-Federalists played upon these feelings in the ratification convention in Massachusetts. By this point, five of the states had ratified the Constitution with relative ease, but the Massachusetts convention was far more disputed and contentious. After a long debate, a compromise was reached. Massachusetts would ratify the Constitution with recommended provisions in the ratifying instrument that the Constitution be amended with a bill of rights.
Four of the next five states to ratify, including New Hampshire and New York, included similar language in their ratif
Maryland's 2nd congressional district
Maryland's 2nd congressional district elects a representative to the United States House of Representatives every two years. The district comprises parts of Howard, Harford and Anne Arundel Counties, as well as small portions of the City of Baltimore; the seat is represented by Dutch Ruppersberger. When it was first organized in the late 1780s the Maryland 2nd Congressional district consisted of the northern portion of the eastern shore of Maryland and the area where the Susquehanna River empties into the Chesapeake Bay, it had a population of 55,008 in 1790. After the 1790 census Maryland gained two seats in the house; the new 2nd district consisted of Howard County, Prince George's County and Anne Arundel County. The boundary ran on a line heading north-east from the north-west corner of the District of Columbia so that a small portion of Montgomery County was in the 2nd district; this remained the boundaries of the district until the post-1830 census redistricting. At this time the 2nd district was moved back to the eastern shore region.
The only change between the district's boundaries in 1790 and those in 1834 was that in the latter year Caroline County was part of the 2nd district. In the 1842 redistricting, which involved a decrease in the total number of representatives, Maryland went back to having only six members of the house; the second district was moved again and now composed the Maryland Panhandle, all of Maryland starting with Frederick County and going west. The post-1850 census redistricting caused another drastic redrawing of Maryland's congressional districts; the second district was moved back to the East side of the state. However this time it only had the eastern shore as far south as Kent County; however going westward it had Harford County and western Baltimore County and the western and most southerly portions of Baltimore. It took in Carroll County. In the 1862 redistricting process Maryland was reduced to having only five congressional districts; the second was cut down in size though to only having Harford County and northern Baltimore County including some areas now within the city boundaries on Baltimore.
In the 1872 redistricting Maryland rose to six districts. However the area of the 2nd district increased; this was because it lost some of its area on the east side of Baltimore to the third district. It now consisted of all of Baltimore county, the northern reaches of Baltimore. Cecil County was returned to its area. Carroll County was put back in the second district, thus the second district in 1873 was closer to that of 1853 than of 1871 in terms of the area within its boundaries. In 1890 there was a small portion of the city of Baltimore, moved from the 4th district and placed in the 7th district, it appears this was in the general area where Freemont meets Fulton and a little further south along Freemont. These boundaries remained until the 1898 elections. In that year a few more north-west Baltimore neighborhoods were transferred from the 4th to the 2nd district, as well as a few north-central Baltimore neighborhoods. In 1902 another change was done to congressional district boundaries in Maryland.
With the northward growth of population in Baltimore the 4th and 3rd districts boundaries were moved into areas in the 2nd district. However areas in north-west Baltimore that were closer to down-town were shifted into the 2nd district. Cecil County was moved to the first district; the arm of Baltimore County around Arbutus had long been in the 5th District but at this point it was transferred into the 2nd district. These remained the boundaries of the 2nd district for the next 50 years. In 1952 Maryland redrew its congressional districts; the 2nd district lost all of its area within the city of Baltimore, so it now consisted of Baltimore and Harford Counties. In 1966 Maryland redrew its congressional districts to follow the rule of "One man, one vote"; this was necessary since the state had been electing one of its congressmen at large in the previous two elections. A portion of Baltimore County along Baltimore's north-east border was removed from the 2nd district; the Arbutus section of Baltimore county was removed from the district along with a further north portion of the county reaching to about Garrison.
Most of Carroll County was moved to the Maryland panhandle based 6th district. In 1972 Harford County was moved to the First District; the remaining portion of Carroll County was moved to the 6th district. However the Garrison area of Baltimore County, all of Baltimore county east of Baltimore and a small part of Baltimore itself were moved back into the second district. In 1982 some of the areas, in the 2nd district just north and west of Baltimore were moved into the Maryland Congressional 3rd District. At this time a part of Harford County was moved back into the 2nd congressional district. In 2012 the district was found to be the eleventh least compact congressional district in the United States. United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland, 2018 United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland, 2016 United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland, 2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland, 2012 United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland, 2010 United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland, 2008 United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland, 2006 Maryland's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Maryland's 3rd congressional district
Maryland's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district in the state of Maryland. It comprises portions of Baltimore, Howard and Anne Arundel counties, as well as a significant part of the independent city of Baltimore; the seat is represented by John Sarbanes, a Democrat. Landmarks in the district include the state capital, Annapolis. Three people who represented Maryland in the United States Senate were former representatives of the 3rd district, including Ben Cardin, Barbara Mikulski, Paul Sarbanes; the district's odd shape is attributed to gerrymandering to favor Democratic candidates following the 2000 and 2010 censuses. In 2012 the district was found to be the third least compact congressional district in the United States and in 2014 The Washington Post called it the nation's second-most gerrymandered district. John Sarbanes, the current Democratic Representative for the district, has put forth the For the People Act of 2019 to address electoral reform, voting rights and gerrymandering in the United States.
Maryland's 3rd district was one of the 61 districts that elected a representative to the 1st United States Congress. It has the distinction of being one of the few congressional districts that once included areas not in the state they are in; the 3rd congressional district was composed of Prince George's County and Anne Arundel County, Maryland. At that point what is now Howard County, Maryland was in Anne Arundel County, Prince George's County included the eastern half of the District of Columbia. In 1792 the Maryland 3rd Congressional District was moved to include Montgomery County and the eastern half of Frederick County, Maryland; the population was about 33,000. However, the western portion of what is today Carroll County, Maryland was at this point in Frederick County, the western half of the District of Columbia was in Montgomery County; this latter fact explains why the district lost population though it in theory did not experience redistricting after the 1800 census. With the population of Georgetown, D. C. no longer in the district, its 1800 population was about 31,000.
At this point the 3rd was Maryland's least populous district having half the population of the Baltimore City and County 5th district, which in 1800 had just above 59,000 inhabitants. The boundaries remained the same after the 1820 and 1830 censuses. While in 1820 the district had about 36,000 inhabitants its population had risen to 53,622 in 1830. With the formation of Carroll County in the 1830s as well as Maryland falling from 8 to 6 congressional seats, the boundaries of the 3rd Congressional District were drastically redrawn; the only area that remained in the 3rd Congressional District was the part of Carroll County, in Frederick County. The 3rd included Baltimore County and the western half of the city of Baltimore, its new population was 69,923, 24.5 % of. In 1853 the 3rd district was redrawn again; the new district consisted of Baltimore County except for the northern and western parts of the county and about the eastern third of the City of Baltimore. The district now had a population of 95,729.
In the redistricting following the 1860 census, Maryland was reduced to five congressional districts. The 3rd was moved so that it contained the part of Baltimore that had not been in the 3rd before 1863, it now had a population of 130,040. In 1873 the 3rd district was moved again, it now had a population of 120,978. Maryland's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo