Roman Catholic Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA, provides the Roman Catholic Church's pastoral and spiritual services to those serving in the armed forces of the United States and their dependents and to all military and naval bases, to the facilities of the Veterans Administration, to other federal services overseas. It was established as a military vicariate, with the Archbishop of New York serving as the military vicar, it was reorganized as an archdiocese, with its own archbishop and its see relocated to the District of Columbia by Pope John Paul II in 1986. The current diocesan bishop is Archbishop Timothy P. Broglio, he is assisted by several auxiliary bishops. Together, they oversee Catholic priests serving as chaplains throughout the world; each chaplain remains incardinated into the diocese or religious institute for which he was ordained. The Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA is a personal jurisdiction, meaning that it has no defined territory and that its jurisdiction extends to those whom it serves throughout the world.
It has jurisdiction wherever American women in uniform serve. The jurisdiction of the Archdiocese extends to all United States government property in the United States and abroad, including U. S. military installations, embassies and other diplomatic missions. Prior to the creation of the Military Ordinariate and the Archdiocese for the Military Services, the armed forces of the United States was served by an informal corps of volunteer priests. Beginning in 1917, the spiritual care of those in military service fell to the Military Vicariate, the equivalent of a personal vicariate apostolic, that is, a particular church the membership of, defined by some personal quality, headed by a legate of the pope; the ordinariate was headed by then-Bishop Patrick J. Hayes, an auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of New York who served double duty as papal military vicar for the United States beginning on November 24, 1917. Hayes was chosen because New York was the primary port of embarkation for U. S. troops leaving for Europe and therefore a convenient contact point for Catholic chaplains serving with them.
When Cardinal John Farley, Archbishop of New York, Hayes was appointed as his successor and kept the additional title and duty of military vicar. In November 1939, the Holy See established the Military Vicariate of the United States of America; the post remained an additional duty of the archbishop of New York from Hayes' time until Cardinal Terence Cooke began plans to separate it as its own jurisdiction in the early 1980s, plans he was unable to carry out before his death in 1983. Cardinal John Joseph O'Connor—a retired Navy chaplain with the rank of Rear Admiral, having served as chief of Navy chaplains who subsequently served as an auxiliary bishop for the Military Vicariate—succeeded Cardinal Cooke as Archbishop of New York and Apostolic Administrator of the Military Vicariate, he oversaw the completion of the transition. On July 21, 1986, Pope John Paul II reconstituted the military vicariate as the present Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA, naming Archbishop Joseph T. Ryan its first archbishop.
As of April 2013, about 25% of the U. S. armed forces are Catholic. The lists of bishops and auxiliary bishops and their tenure of service: Cardinal Patrick Joseph Hayes, concurrently served as Auxiliary Bishop of New York and Archbishop of New York Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, concurrently served as Archbishop of New York Cardinal Terence James Cooke, concurrently served as Archbishop of New York John Francis O'Hara, C. S. C. Appointed Bishop of Buffalo and Archbishop of Philadelphia William Richard Arnold John Joseph Thomas Ryan Joseph Thomas Dimino Edwin Frederick O'Brien, appointed Archbishop of Baltimore and Pro-Grand Master and Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre Timothy P. Broglio John Joseph Thomas Ryan Edwin Frederick O'Brien William Tibertus McCarty, C. Ss. R. Appointed Bishop of Rapid City James Henry Ambrose Griffiths, concurrently served as Auxiliary Bishop of New York Philip Joseph Furlong William Joseph Moran James Jerome Killeen John Joseph O'Connor, appointed Bishop of Scranton and Archbishop of New York Lawrence Joyce Kenney Angelo Thomas Acerra, O.
S. B. Joseph Thomas Dimino, appointed Archbishop for the Military Services, USA Francis Xavier Roque John Gavin Nolan John Joseph Glynn José de Jesús Madera Uribe, M. Sp. S. John Joseph Kaising Joseph W. Estabrook Richard Brendan Higgins F. Richard Spencer Neal James Buckon Robert J. Coyle, appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Rockville Centre Joseph L. Coffey William Muhm The diocesan chancery is located in Washington, D. C. See: Military chaplain § Non-combatant statusThe Geneva Conventions state that chaplains are noncombatants: they do not have the right to participate directly in hostilities. Captured chaplains are not considered Prisoners of War and must be returned to their home nation unless retained to minister to prisoners of war. For histori
A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries. A consul is distinguished from an ambassador, the latter being a representative from one head of state to another. There can be only one ambassador from one country to another, representing the first country's head of state to that of the second, his or her duties revolve around diplomatic relations between the two countries. A less common usage is an administrative consul, who takes a governing role and is appointed by a country that has colonised or occupied another. In classical Greece, some of the functions of the modern consul were fulfilled by a proxenos. Unlike the modern position, this was a citizen of the host polity; the proxenos was a wealthy merchant who had socio-economic ties with another city and who helped its citizens when they were in trouble in his own city.
The position of proxenos was hereditary in a particular family. Modern honorary consuls fulfill a function, to a degree similar to that of the ancient Greek institution. Consuls were the highest magistrates of the Roman Roman Empire; the term was revived by the Republic of Genoa, unlike Rome, bestowed it on various state officials, not restricted to the highest. Among these were Genoese officials stationed in various Mediterranean ports, whose role included duties similar to those of the modern consul, i. e. helping Genoese merchants and sailors in difficulties with the local authorities. The consolat de mar was an institution established under the reign of Peter IV of Aragon in the fourteenth century, spread to 47 locations throughout the Mediterranean, it was a judicial body, administering maritime and commercial law as Lex Mercatoria. Although the consolat de mar was established by the Corts General of the Crown of Aragon, the consuls were independent from the King; this distinction between consular and diplomatic functions remains to this day.
Modern consuls retain limited judicial powers to settle disputes on ships from their country. The consulado de mercaderes was set up in 1543 in Seville as a merchant guild to control trade with Latin America; as such, it had branches in the principal cities of the Spanish colonies. The connection of "consul" with trade and commercial law is retained in French. In Francophone countries, a juge consulaire is a non-professional judge elected by the chamber of commerce to settle commercial disputes in the first instance; the office of a consul is a consulate and is subordinate to the state's main representation in the capital of that foreign country an embassy or – between Commonwealth countries – high commission. Like the terms embassy or high commission, consulate may refer not only to the office of consul, but to the building occupied by the consul and his or her staff; the consulate may share premises with the embassy itself. A consul of the highest rank is termed a consul-general, is appointed to a consulate-general.
There are one or more deputy consuls-general, vice-consuls, consular agents working under the consul-general. A country may appoint more than one consul-general to another nation. Consuls of various ranks may have specific legal authority for certain activities, such as notarizing documents; as such, diplomatic personnel with other responsibilities may receive consular letters patent. Aside from those outlined in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, there are few formal requirements outlining what a consular official must do. For example, for some countries, consular officials may be responsible for the issue of visas. Nonetheless, consulates proper will be headed by consuls of various ranks if such officials have little or no connection with the more limited sense of consular service. Activities of a consulate include protecting the interests of their citizens temporarily or permanently resident in the host country, issuing passports. However, the principal role of a consulate lies traditionally in promoting trade—assisting companies to invest and to import and export goods and services both inwardly to their home country and outward to their host country.
Although it is not admitted publicly, like embassies, may gather intelligence information from the assigned country. Contrary to popular belief, many of the staff of consulates may be career diplomats, but they do not have diplomatic immunity unless they are accredited as such. Immunities and privileges for consuls and accredited staff of consulates are limited to actions undertaken in their official capacity and, with respect to the consulate itself, to those required for official duties. In practice, the extension and application of consular privileges and immunities can differ from country to country. Consulates are more numerous than diplomatic missions, such as embassies. Ambassadors are posted only in a foreign nation'
University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana. The main campus covers 1,261 acres in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural, the Notre Dame Stadium, the Basilica; the school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Edward Sorin, its first president. Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, in particular for its undergraduate education. Undergraduate students are organized into six colleges and Letters, Engineering, Business and Global Affairs; the School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the globally renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers over 15 summer programs. Notre Dame's graduate program has more than 50 master and professional degree programs offered by the five schools, with the addition of the Notre Dame Law School and an MD–PhD program offered in combination with the Indiana University School of Medicine.
It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. The majority of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 31 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies and intramural sports teams; the university counts 134,000 alumni, considered among the strongest alumni networks among U. S. colleges. The university's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century. Other ND sport teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships; the Notre Dame Victory March is regarded as one of the most famous and recognizable collegiate fight songs. Started as a small all-male institution in 1842 and chartered in 1844, Notre Dame reached international fame at the beginning of the 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under the guidance of coach Knute Rockne.
Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of Theodore Hesburgh between 1952 and 1987 as Hesburgh's administration increased the university's resources, academic programs, reputation and first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. Since, the university has seen steady growth, under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I. Jenkins, many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Notre Dame's growth has continued in the 21st century, it possesses one of the largest endowments of any U. S. university, at $13.1 billion. In 1842, the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build a college in two years. Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, 1842, began the school using Stephen Badin's old log chapel, he soon erected additional buildings, including the Old College, the first church, the first main building.
They acquired two students and set about building additions to the campus. Notre Dame began as a primary and secondary school, but soon received its official college charter from the Indiana General Assembly on January 15, 1844. Under the charter the school is named the University of Notre Dame du Lac; because the university was only for male students, the female-only Saint Mary's College was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1844. The first degrees from the college were awarded in 1849; the university was expanded with new buildings to accommodate more students and faculty. With each new president, new academic programs were offered and new buildings built to accommodate them; the original Main Building built by Sorin just after he arrived was replaced by a larger "Main Building" in 1865, which housed the university's administration and dormitories. Under William Corby's first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame increased to more than 500 students. In 1869 he opened the law school, which offered a two-year course of study, in 1871 he began construction of Sacred Heart Church, today the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame.
Beginning in 1873, a library collection was started by Auguste Lemonnier, housed in the Main Building, by 1879 it had grown to ten thousand volumes. This Main Building, the library collection, was destroyed by a fire in April 1879; the university founder and the president at the time, William Corby planned for the rebuilding of the structure that had housed the entire University. Construction was started on May 17, by the incredible zeal of administrator and workers the building was completed before the fall semester of 1879; the library collection was rebuilt and stayed housed in the new Main Building for years afterwards. Around the time of the fire, a music hall was opened. Known as Washington Hall, it hosted musical acts put on by the school. By 1880, a science program was established at the university, a Science Hall (today LaFortu
Basilica of the Sacred Heart (Notre Dame)
The Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Notre Dame, Indiana, USA, is a Roman Catholic church on the campus of the University of Notre Dame serving as the mother church of the Congregation of Holy Cross in the United States. The neo-gothic church has 44 large stained glass windows and murals completed over a 17-year period by the Vatican painter Luigi Gregori; the basilica bell tower is 230 feet high, making it the tallest University chapel in America. It is a contributing building in Notre Dame's historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Basilica is a major tour attraction in Northern Indiana, is visited annually by more than 50,000 tourists. In 1686, Fr. Claude-Jean Allouez, S. J. established the Ste-Marie-des-Lacs mission on the south shore of the St. Mary's lake, in order to serve the local Potawatomi tribe along with French trappers and settlers in the area; the French Catholic missionaries were expelled by the British from the area following the French and Indian War in 1763, but in 1832 Ste-Marie-des-Lacs was re-established by Stephen Badin and the Log Chapel was built.
When Rev. Edward Sorin, C. S. C. Established the University of Notre Dame, the community held religious services in the small log cabin built by Stephen Badin; this was replaced by a larger log cabin between 1842 and 1843. The growth of the institution required a proper church, school leaders decided to spend $1500 to construct a new edifice. Work began on 25 May 1848, the structure was dedicated on 12 November of the following year; the solemn consecration took place a year on 11 November 1849, with Bishop of Vincennes, Maurice de St. Palais presiding. Father Sorin describes the first church: "The style is Greek, with rounded arches. There are three vaults and six columns which produce a pretty effect; the tribune, built for the use of the Sisters, is elliptical like the sanctuary. It is enriched with an organ of Mr. H. Erben, though a little weak for the church, is one of its most precious ornaments."Shortly after the completion of the church, the university added a bell to its tower. In the spring of 1851, the wind swept bell to the ground.
That summer, university leaders purchased a larger bell in Cincinnati weighing 3,220 pounds and installed it in one of the church towers after it was blessed on the feast of the Assumption. In 1852 double spires were built by a local carpenter in exchange for his son's tuition at the school; the University's needs soon outgrew the small first church and in spring of 1869 the leaders decided to build a new church dedicated to Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, despite the lack of funds in the school's treasury. Popular architect Patrick Keely drew the first plans which envisioned a baroque plan similar to the Church of the Gesu in Rome; because of the limited budget, the church at Notre Dame was not to be as large or as elaborate as the Roman edifice, but rather the size of the church of the same name in Montreal. The original plan featured a cruciform church two hundred feet in length with three naves and a transept, a dome over the crossing, two large bell-towers, a capacity of 2,000; the estimated cost would be around $100,000.
Fr. Sorin decided that these plans were too grandiose, that the church could not cost more than half that sum, since at the moment they had only about $8,000 dollars at hand. In January 1870, a new architect, Mr. T. Brady from St. Louis, drew new plans for the church, it is not sure who drew the definite plans, but it is that Fr. Sorin, Rev. Alexis Granger, C. S. C. and Irish-born Brother Charles Borromeo Harding, C. S. C. A hard-working, self-taught campus builder were part of the building; the new church was erected in Gothic style rather than baroque. Sorin's French taste and his will to build a striking landmark. Work on the foundations for the new church began in the spring of 1870, the cornerstone was laid on 31 May 1871, with six bishops present, including Cincinnati Archbishop John Purcell; the building underwent many changes. As soon as it was inhabitable, university leaders installed an organ and held functions and celebrations in the unfinished building. Bishop Joseph Gregory Dwenger consecrated the new sanctuary on 15 August 1888.
In 1931, it underwent its first thorough renovation by designed by New York architect Wilfred E. Anthony. In 1968, the church was renovated with the intention of bringing it in line with the liturgical reform of the Second Vatican Council; the church again received a renovation 20 years executed by Conrad Schmitt Studios, during which some of the 1968 renovations were reverted. The conservation and restoration of the historic stained glass windows, created in Le Mans, was one of the studio's largest single projects, with 116 windows and over 1,200 panels of glass. On 17 January 1992, Pope John Paul II raised the Church of the Sacred Heart to the status of Minor basilica; this designation is one factor in making it a popular destination for 50,000 pilgrims and tourists who visit annually. From 1977 through 1997, Rev. Daniel R. Jenky, C. S. C. of the Diocese of Peoria, served as rector of the basilica, before he became head of the religious community there and Auxiliary Bishop and vicar general of The Dioceseof Fort Wayne–South Bend and Bishop of the Diocese of Peoria, Illinois.
Under his tenure, the church was elevated to a basilica. The exterior of the church is constructed of Notre Dame brick and features a bell tower with a spire and two lateral pinnacles; the bell tower is 218 feet tall, topped by a 12 feet tall golden cross, making its total of 230 feet the tallest height on campus. President Rev. Mat
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Ann Arbor is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County. The 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934. Ann Arbor is home to the University of Michigan; the university shapes Ann Arbor's economy as it employs about 30,000 workers, including about 12,000 in the medical center. The city's economy is centered on high technology, with several companies drawn to the area by the university's research and development infrastructure. Ann Arbor was founded in 1824, named for wives of the village's founders, both named Ann, the stands of bur oak trees; the University of Michigan moved from Detroit to Ann Arbor in 1837, the city grew at a rapid rate in the early to mid-20th century. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as a center for left-wing politics. Ann Arbor became a focal point for political activism, such as opposition to the Vietnam War and support for the legalization of cannabis. In about 1774, the Potawatomi founded two villages in the area of.
Ann Arbor was founded in 1824 by land speculators John Elisha Walker Rumsey. On May 25, 1824, the town plat was registered with Wayne County as "Annarbour", the earliest known use of the town's name. Allen and Rumsey decided to name it for their wives, both named Ann, for the stands of bur oak in the 640 acres of land they purchased for $800 from the federal government at $1.25 per acre. The local Ojibwa named the settlement kaw-goosh-kaw-nick, after the sound of Allen's sawmill. Ann Arbor became the seat of Washtenaw County in 1827, was incorporated as a village in 1833; the Ann Arbor Land Company, a group of speculators, set aside 40 acres of undeveloped land and offered it to the state of Michigan as the site of the state capital, but lost the bid to Lansing. In 1837, the property was accepted instead as the site of the University of Michigan, which moved from Detroit. Since the university's establishment in the city in 1837, the histories of the University of Michigan and Ann Arbor have been linked.
The town became a regional transportation hub in 1839 with the arrival of the Michigan Central Railroad, a north–south railway connecting Ann Arbor to Toledo and other markets to the south was established in 1878. Throughout the 1840s and the 1850s settlers continued to come to Ann Arbor. While the earlier settlers were of British ancestry, the newer settlers consisted of Germans and African-Americans. In 1851, Ann Arbor was chartered as a city, though the city showed a drop in population during the Depression of 1873, it was not until the early 1880s that Ann Arbor again saw robust growth, with new emigrants from Greece, Italy and Poland. Ann Arbor saw increased growth in manufacturing in milling. Ann Arbor's Jewish community grew after the turn of the 20th century, its first and oldest synagogue, Beth Israel Congregation, was established in 1916. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as an important center for liberal politics. Ann Arbor became a locus for left-wing activism and anti-Vietnam War movement, as well as the student movement.
The first major meetings of the national left-wing campus group Students for a Democratic Society took place in Ann Arbor in 1960. S. teach-in against the Vietnam War. During the ensuing 15 years, many countercultural and New Left enterprises sprang up and developed large constituencies within the city; these influences washed into municipal politics during the early and mid-1970s when three members of the Human Rights Party won city council seats on the strength of the student vote. During their time on the council, HRP representatives fought for measures including pioneering antidiscrimination ordinances, measures decriminalizing marijuana possession, a rent-control ordinance. Alongside these liberal and left-wing efforts, a small group of conservative institutions were born in Ann Arbor; these include Word of a charismatic inter-denominational movement. Following a 1956 vote, the city of East Ann Arbor merged with Ann Arbor to encompass the eastern sections of the city. In the past several decades, Ann Arbor has grappled with the effects of rising land values and urban sprawl stretching into outlying countryside.
On November 4, 2003, voters approved a greenbelt plan under which the city government bought development rights on agricultural parcels of land adjacent to Ann Arbor to preserve them from sprawling development. Since a vociferous local debate has hinged on how and whether to accommodate and guide development within city limits. Ann Arbor ranks in the "top places to live" lists published by various mainstream media outlets every year. In 2008, it was ranked by CNNMoney.com 27th out of 100 "America's best small cities". And in 2010, Forbes listed Ann Arbor as one of the most liveable cities in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.70 square miles, of which, 27.83 square miles of it is land and 0.87 square miles is water, much of, part of the Huron River. Ann Arbor is about 35 miles west of Detroit. Ann Arbor Charter Township adjoins the city's north and east sides. Ann Arbor is situated on the Huron River in a productive fruit-growing region.
The landscape of Ann Arbor consists of hills and valleys, with the terrain becoming steeper near the Huron River. The elevation ranges from about 750 feet along the Huron River to 1,015 feet (309