Victoria University of Manchester
The former Victoria University of Manchester, now the University of Manchester, was founded in 1851 as Owens College. In 1880, the college joined the federal Victoria University, gaining an independent university charter in 1904 as the Victoria University of Manchester after the collapse of the federal university. On 1 October 2004, the Victoria University of Manchester merged with the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology to form a new, larger entity, the new university was named The University of Manchester. Owens College was founded in 1851, named after John Owens, a textile merchant, who left a bequest of £96,942 for the purpose, its first accommodation was at Cobden House on Quay Street, Manchester, in a house, the residence of Richard Cobden. In 1859, Owens College was approved as a provincial examination centre for matriculation candidates of the University of London; as the college progressed it became inadequate so a move to Chorlton on Medlock was planned in 1871.
Alfred Waterhouse was the architect of the new college building, west of Oxford Road, opened in 1873. Owens College became the first affiliate college of the federal Victoria University in 1880. In 1884, University College Liverpool joined the Victoria University, followed in 1887 by the Yorkshire College in Leeds. In 1903 University College Liverpool left the Victoria University to become the independent University of Liverpool; the new Victoria University of Manchester was established by royal charter on 15 July 1903. In the mid-1960s the university and the city corporation commissioned Hugh Wilson and Lewis Womersley to produce a new plan for the campus; the final report was issued in 1966. The Precinct Centre building included the oldest part of the Manchester Business School, Devonshire House and Crawford House and the St Peter's House, the University Chaplaincy, it stood on Booth Street East and Booth Street West and Oxford Road ran through it at ground level. The architects were Wilson & Womersley, in association with the university's planning officer, H. Thomas.
The Precinct Centre was the largest public building completed in the campus redevelopment, containing office and shopping space, a pub and post office amongst other town centre facilities, designed to separate human from traffic. The precinct centre was demolished in August 2015 as part of Manchester University's £50m redevelopment of Manchester Business School. On 5 March 2003 it was announced that the university was to merge with UMIST on 1 October 2004, to form the largest conventional university in the UK, the University of Manchester, following which the Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST would cease to exist; the new university was inaugurated on 1 October 2004. The university had more than 18,000 full-time students by the time it merged with UMIST, it was regarded as one of the top universities in the country achieving top ratings for research. See Category:Vice-Chancellors of the Victoria University of Manchester The chief officers of the university were the vice-chancellor, the registrar, the bursar and the librarian.
In years many administrative changes were made that increased the independence of the Director of Estates and Services, the Director of the Manchester Computing Centre, combined the offices of registrar and bursar as that of registrar and secretary, the last holder of this post was Eddie Newcomb. In the early decades of Owens College, a few outstanding faculty members set high standards for the new institution; these included statistician Stanley Jevons, jurist James Bryce, Henry Enfield Roscoe Professor of Chemistry and Principal of the college. It educated the young J. J. Thomson before he went to Trinity College, Cambridge Since the 1800s many notable people have worked and studied at the Victoria University of Manchester as, for example, Benedict Cumberbatch; the motto of the university was Arduus ad solem, meaning "striving towards the sun". It is a metaphor for aspiring to enlightenment, it is quoted from Virgil's Aeneid, Book II, the archives do not record the reasons for its choice. The original verse refers to a serpent and the sun, both of which featured in the university coat of arms.
The serpent is traditionally associated with wisdom. The arms were granted in October 1871 to Owens College while the Victoria University had arms of its own which fell into abeyance from 1904 upon the merger of the College with the University. According to Norman Marlow, the motto Arduus ad solem – taken from Aeneid II – was a play on words, relating to Manchester's geographical situation; the Virgilian context referred to Pyrrhus, appearing in shining armour'like a snake which has sloughed its skin, reaching upwards with an effort towards the sun'. The emblem of the university in use for a number of years was based on the archway into the quadrangle from Oxford Road where there used to be a set of coats of arms relating to the h
Philip Arthur Larkin was an English poet and librarian. His first book of poetry, The North Ship, was published in 1945, followed by two novels, Jill and A Girl in Winter, he came to prominence in 1955 with the publication of his second collection of poems, The Less Deceived, followed by The Whitsun Weddings and High Windows, he contributed to The Daily Telegraph as its jazz critic from 1961 to 1971, articles gathered in All What Jazz: A Record Diary 1961–71, he edited The Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse. His many honours include the Queen's Gold Medal for Poetry, he was offered, but declined, the position of Poet Laureate in 1984, following the death of Sir John Betjeman. After graduating from Oxford in 1943 with a first in English language and literature, Larkin became a librarian, it was during the thirty years he worked with distinction as university librarian at the Brynmor Jones Library at the University of Hull that he produced the greater part of his published work. His poems are marked by what Andrew Motion calls "a English, glum accuracy” about emotions and relationships, what Donald Davie described as "lowered sights and diminished expectations".
Eric Homberger called him "the saddest heart in the post-war supermarket"—Larkin himself said that deprivation for him was “what daffodils were for Wordsworth”. Influenced by W. H. Auden, W. B. Yeats, Thomas Hardy, his poems are structured but flexible verse forms, they were described by Jean Hartley, the ex-wife of Larkin's publisher George Hartley, as a "piquant mixture of lyricism and discontent", though anthologist Keith Tuma writes that there is more to Larkin's work than its reputation for dour pessimism suggests. Larkin's public persona was that of the no-nonsense, solitary Englishman who disliked fame and had no patience for the trappings of the public literary life; the posthumous publication by Anthony Thwaite in 1992 of his letters triggered controversy about his personal life and political views, described by John Banville as hair-raising, but in places hilarious. Lisa Jardine called him a "casual, habitual racist, an easy misogynist", but the academic John Osborne argued in 2008 that "the worst that anyone has discovered about Larkin are some crass letters and a taste for porn softer than what passes for mainstream entertainment".
Despite the controversy Larkin was chosen in a 2003 Poetry Book Society survey two decades after his death, as Britain's best-loved poet of the previous 50 years, in 2008 The Times named him Britain's greatest post-war writer. In 1973 a Coventry Evening Telegraph reviewer referred to Larkin as "the bard of Coventry", but in 2010, 25 years after his death, it was Larkin's adopted home city, Kingston upon Hull, that commemorated him with the Larkin 25 Festival which culminated in the unveiling of a statue of Larkin by Martin Jennings on 2 December 2010, the 25th anniversary of his death. On 2 December 2016, the 31st anniversary of his death, a floor stone memorial for Larkin was unveiled at Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey. Philip Larkin was born on 9 August 1922 at 2, Poultney Road, Coventry, the only son and younger child of Sydney Larkin, who came from Lichfield, his wife, Eva Emily Day of Epping; the family lived in the district of Radford, until Larkin was five years old, before moving to a large three-storey middle-class house complete with servants quarters near Coventry railway station and King Henry VIII School, in Manor Road.
Having survived the bombings of the Second World War their former house in Manor Road was demolished in the 1960s to make way for a road modernisation programme, the construction of an inner ring road. His sister Catherine, known as Kitty, was 10 years older, his father, a self-made man who had risen to be Coventry City Treasurer, was a singular individual,'nihilistically disillusioned in middle age', who combined a love of literature with an enthusiasm for Nazism, had attended two Nuremberg rallies during the mid-'30s. He introduced his son to the works of Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, James Joyce and above all D. H. Lawrence, his mother was a nervous and passive woman, "a kind of defective mechanism... Her ideal is ` to be taken care of", dominated by her husband. Larkin's early childhood was in some respects unusual: he was educated at home until the age of eight by his mother and sister, neither friends nor relatives visited the family home, he developed a stammer. Nonetheless, when he joined Coventry's King Henry VIII Junior School he fitted in and made close, long-standing friendships, such as those with James "Jim" Sutton, Colin Gunner and Noel "Josh" Hughes.
Although home life was cold, Larkin enjoyed support from his parents. For example, his deep passion for jazz was supported by the purchase of a drum kit and a saxophone, supplemented by a subscription to Down Beat. From the junior school he progressed to King Henry VIII Senior School, he fared quite poorly when he sat his School Certificate exam at the age of 16. Despite his results, he was allowed to stay on at school. Larkin began at Oxford University in October 1940, a year after the outbreak of Second World War; the old upper class traditions of university life had, at least for the time being and most of the male students were studying for truncated degrees. Due to his poor eyesight, Larkin failed his military medical examination and was able to study for the usual three years. Through his tutorial partner, Norman Iles, he met Kingsley Amis
A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy. The term sonnet is derived from the Italian word sonetto. By the thirteenth century it signified a poem of fourteen lines that follows a strict rhyme scheme and specific structure. Conventions associated with the sonnet have evolved over its history. Writers of sonnets are sometimes called "sonneteers"; the sonnet was created by Giacomo da Lentini, head of the Sicilian School under Emperor Frederick II. Guittone d'Arezzo rediscovered it and brought it to Tuscany where he adapted it to his language when he founded the Siculo-Tuscan School, or Guittonian school of poetry, he wrote 250 sonnets. Other Italian poets of the time, including Dante Alighieri and Guido Cavalcanti, wrote sonnets, but the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarch. Other fine examples were written by Michelangelo; the structure of a typical Italian sonnet of the time included two parts that together formed a compact form of "argument". First, the octave, forms the "proposition", which describes a "problem", or "question", followed by a sestet, which proposes a "resolution".
The ninth line initiates what is called the "turn", or "volta", which signals the move from proposition to resolution. In sonnets that don't follow the problem/resolution structure, the ninth line still marks a "turn" by signaling a change in the tone, mood, or stance of the poem; the ABBA ABBA pattern became the standard for Italian sonnets. For the sestet there were two different possibilities: CDE CDE and CDC CDC. In time, other variants on this rhyming scheme were introduced, such as CDCDCD. Petrarch used an ABBA ABBA pattern for the octave, followed by either CDE CDE or CDC CDC rhymes in the sestet; the Crybin variant of the Italian sonnet has the rhyme scheme ABBA CDDC EFG EFG. In English, both the English or Shakespearean sonnet, the Italian Petrarchan sonnet are traditionally written in iambic pentameter; the first known sonnets in English, written by Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, used the Italian, Petrarchan form, as did sonnets by English poets, including John Milton, Thomas Gray, William Wordsworth and Elizabeth Barrett Browning.
Early twentieth-century American poet Edna St. Vincent Millay wrote Petrarchan sonnets. On His Blindness by Milton, gives a sense of the Petrarchan rhyme scheme: Most Sonnets in Dante's La Vita Nuova are Petrarchan. Chapter VII gives sonnet "O voi che per la via", with two sestets and two quatrains, Ch. VIII, "Morte villana", with two sestets and two quatrains; the sole confirmed surviving sonnet in the Occitan language is confidently dated to 1284, is conserved only in troubadour manuscript P, an Italian chansonnier of 1310, now XLI.42 in the Biblioteca Laurenziana in Florence. It is addressed to Peter III of Aragon, it employs the rhyme scheme ABAB ABAB CDCDCD. This poem is interesting for its information on north Italian perspectives concerning the War of the Sicilian Vespers, the conflict between the Angevins and Aragonese for Sicily. Peter III and the Aragonese cause was popular in northern Italy at the time and Paolo's sonnet is a celebration of his victory over the Angevins and Capetians in the Aragonese Crusade: An Occitan sonnet, dated to 1321 and assigned to one "William of Almarichi", is found in Jean de Nostredame and cited in Giovanni Mario Crescimbeni's, Istoria della volgar poesia.
It congratulates Robert of Naples on his recent victory. Its authenticity is dubious. There are two poorly regarded sonnets by the Italian Dante de Maiano. In the 16th century, around Ronsard ), Joachim du Bellay and Jean Antoine de Baïf, there formed a group of radical young noble poets of the court, who began writing in, amongst other forms of poetry, the Petrarchan sonnet cycle; the character of La Pléiade literary program was given in Du Bellay's manifesto, the "Defense and Illustration of the French Language", which maintained that French was a worthy language for literary expression and which promulgated a program of linguistic and literary production and purification. By the late 17th century poets on relied on stanza forms incorporating rhymed couplets, by the 18th century fixed-form poems – and, in particular, the sonnet – were avoided; the resulting versification – less constrained by meter and rhyme patterns than Renaissance poetry – more mirrored prose. The Romantics were responsible for a return to many of the fixed-form poems used during the 15th and 16th centuries, as well as for the creation of new forms.
The sonnet however was little used until the Parnassians brought it back into favor, the sonnet would subsequently find its most significant practitioner in Charles Baudelaire. The traditional French sonnet form was however modified by Baudelaire, who used 32 different forms of sonnet with non-traditional rhyme patterns to great effect in his Les Fleurs du mal; when English sonnets were introduced by Thomas Wyatt in the early 16th century, his sonnets and those of his contemporary the Earl of Surrey were chiefly translations from the Italian of Petrarch and the French of Ronsard and others. While Wyatt introduced the
The British Council is a British organisation specialising in international cultural and educational opportunities. It works in over 100 countries: promoting a wider knowledge of the United Kingdom and the English language; the British Council is governed by a Royal Charter. It is a public corporation and an executive nondepartmental public body, sponsored by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, its headquarters are near Trafalgar Square. Its chairman is Christopher Rodrigues, its CEO is Sir Ciarán Devane and its chief operating officer is Adrian Greer. 1934: British Foreign Office officials created the "British Committee for Relations with Other Countries" to support English education abroad, promote British culture and fight the rise of fascism. The name became British Council for Relations with Other Countries. 1936: The organisation’s name was shortened to the British Council. 1938: The British Council opens its first four offices in Bucharest, Cairo and Warsaw. The offices in Portugal are the oldest in continuous operation in the world.
1940: King George VI granted the British Council a Royal Charter for promoting "a wider knowledge of and the English language abroad and developing closer cultural relations between and other countries". 1942: The British Council undertook a promotion of British culture overseas. The music section of the project was a recording of significant recent compositions by British composers: E. J. Moeran's Symphony in G minor was the first work to be recorded under this initiative, followed by recordings of Walton's Belshazzar's Feast, Bliss's Piano Concerto, Bax's Third Symphony, Elgar's The Dream of Gerontius. 1944: In August, after the liberation of Paris, Austin Gill was sent by the council to reestablish the Paris office, which soon had tours by the Old Vic company, Julian Huxley and T. S. Eliot. 2007: The Russian Foreign Ministry ordered the British Council to close its offices outside Moscow. The Ministry alleged that it had violated Russian tax regulations, a move that British officials claimed was a retaliation over the British expulsion of Russian diplomats involved with the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko.
This caused the British Council to cease carrying out all English-language examinations in Russia from January 2008. In early 2009, a Russian arbitration court ruled that the majority of the tax claims, valued at $6.6 million, were unjustified. 2011: On 19 August, a group of armed men attacked the British Council office in the Afghanistan capital, killing at least 12 people – none of them British – and temporarily took over the compound. All the attackers were killed in counter-attacks by forces guarding the compound; the British Council office was relocated to the British Embassy compound, as the British Council compound was destroyed in the suicide attack. 2013: The British Council in Tripoli, was targeted by a car bomb on the morning of 23 April. Diplomatic sources were reported as saying that "the bombers were foiled as they were preparing to park a rigged vehicle in front of the compound gate"; the attempted attack was simultaneous with the attack on the French Embassy in Tripoli on the same day that injured two French security guards and wounded several residents in neighbouring houses.
A jihadist group calling itself the Mujahedeen Brigade was suspected linked to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. The British Council is organised into seven Regions; the British Council has offices in: Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Jamaica, Peru, The United States of America, Uruguay and Costa Rica. The British Council has offices in: Nepal, Brunei, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand and New Zealand; the British Council has offices in: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Spain. The British Council has offices in: Egypt, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen; the British Council has offices in: Afghanistan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The British Council has offices in: Botswana, Eritrea, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Uganda; the British Council has offices in: Albania, Azerbaijan and Herzegovina, Israel, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey and Uzbekistan.
The British Council is a charity governed by Royal Charter. It is a public corporation and an executive nondepartmental public body, sponsored by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, its headquarters are off London. Its chair is Christopher Rodrigues, its CEO is Sir Ciarán Devane and chief operating officer Adrian Greer; the British Council’s total income in 2014–15 was £973 million principally made up of £154.9 million grant-in-aid received from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The British Council works in more than 100 countries: promoting a wider knowledge of the UK and the English language.
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website