Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne, she spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, Mary became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and in June 1566 they had a son, James. In February 1567, Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, he was found murdered in the garden. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle.
On 24 July 1567 she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had once claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own, was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586, she was beheaded the following year at Fotheringhay Castle. Mary was born on 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife, Mary of Guise, she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIII's sister.
On 14 December, six days after her birth, she became Queen of Scotland when her father died from the effects of a nervous collapse following the Battle of Solway Moss, or from drinking contaminated water while on campaign. A popular tale, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, "It cam wi' a lass and it will gang wi' a lass!" His House of Stuart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland. The crown had come to his family through a woman, would be lost from his family through a woman; this legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne. Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael. Rumours spread that she was weak and frail, but an English diplomat, Ralph Sadler, saw the infant at Linlithgow Palace in March 1543, unwrapped by her nurse, wrote, "it is as goodly a child as I have seen of her age, as like to live."As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult.
From the outset, there were two claims to the regency: one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, next in line to the throne. Beaton's claim was based on a version of the king's will. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Mary's mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son and heir, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. On 1 July 1543, when Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which promised that, at the age of ten, Mary would marry Edward and move to England, where Henry could oversee her upbringing; the treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children, the temporary union would dissolve. Cardinal Beaton rose to power again and began to push a pro-Catholic pro-French agenda, angering Henry, who wanted to break the Scottish alliance with France.
Beaton wanted to move Mary away from the coast to the safety of Stirling Castle. Regent Arran resisted the move, but backed down when Beaton's armed supporters gathered at Linlithgow; the Earl of Lennox escorted her mother to Stirling on 27 July 1543 with 3,500 armed men. Mary was crowned in the castle chapel on 9 September 1543, with "such solemnity as they do use in this country, not costly" according to the report of Ralph Sadler and Henry Ray. Shortly before Mary's coronation, Scottish merchants headed for France were arrested by Henry, their goods impounded; the arrests caused anger in Scotland, Arran joined Beaton and became a Catholic. The Treaty of Greenwich was rejected by the Parliament of Scotland in December; the rejection of the marriage treaty and the renewal of the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland prompted Henry's "Rough Wooing", a military campaign designed to impose the marriage of Mary to his son. English forces mounted a series of raids on French territory. In May 1544, the English Earl of Hertford raided Edinburgh, the Scots took Mary to Dunkeld for safety.
In May 1546, Beaton was murdered by Protestant lairds, on 10 September 1547, nine months after the death of Henry VIII, the Scots suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Mary's guardians, fearful for her safety, sent her t
Gilbert Gerard (judge)
Sir Gilbert Gerard was a prominent lawyer and landowner of the Tudor period. He was returned six times as a member of the English parliament for four different constituencies, he was Attorney-General for more than twenty years during the reign of Elizabeth I, as well as vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, served as Master of the Rolls. He acquired large estates in Lancashire and Staffordshire. Gerard was born before 1523, he was the son of James Gerard of Astley and Ince, descended from the Gerards of Bryn, Ashton in Makerfield and Kingsley, Cheshire. The Gerard family had lived near Wigan, since the late 14th century. However, James was a younger son, so it was not expected that he or Gilbert would inherit the family estates; the Gerard family became wealthy and distinguished in the reign of Elizabeth I, although Sir Gilbert was the most successful of them. Owing to repeated use of the same names in the Gerard family, Sir Gilbert's relatives are confused. Sir Gilbert was a cousin of the distinguished judge and administrator Sir William Gerard, who ended his career as Lord Chancellor of Ireland.
However, he had a younger brother called William, who served as MP for Preston and Wigan and died in 1584, a nephew William by that brother, who served as MP for Wigan and died in 1609. Still more confusing, Sir William, the Lord Chancellor of Ireland had a son called Gilbert, who served as MP for Chester in 1593. Gilbert's mother was daughter of John Holcroft of Holcroft, Lancashire; the Holcrofts were another rising landed gentry family. Margaret had two brothers: Sir Thomas Holcroft. Both distinguished themselves in the Anglo-Scottish Wars, served as MP for Lancashire, profited from speculation in monastic lands at the Dissolution of the Monasteries, although it was Sir Thomas, the younger brother, who had the more successful and varied career, building up a substantial estate around the estates of the former Vale Royal Abbey. Sir John, heir to the family estates, speculated in wardships, it was through one of these that Gilbert Gerard's marriage was arranged, to Anne Radcliffe or Ratcliffe.
Sir John addressed Gerard as "cousin", a term used for their relationship by the History of Parliament. "Cousin" was used in the 16th century more for blood relatives than in modern English: Sir John and Sir Thomas were Gerard's uncles. Gerard spent some time at the University of Cambridge but did not graduate, as was typical at the time, he entered Gray's Inn in 1537, when he was still about 16, was called to the bar in 1539. He seems to have been an outstanding student and was honoured by the Inn several times in life. In 1554 he was elected Autumn Reader, an important post with both academic and administrative responsibilities, in 1556 he served as Treasurer. Allegiance to Gray's Inn became a family tradition and it served as a power base for the family. Gerard installed himself in a room there and was styled "of Gray's Inn", his nephew William moved into the room too and added an office above it for his own use, Thomas Holcroft, Sir Thomas's son, was admitted to Gray's Inn in 1588. Gerard's parliamentary career was interwoven with his progress as a lawyer.
He was returned to parliament a total of four of them in the reign of Mary. Gerard was first returned as MP in 1545 for Liverpool; the town belonged to the Duchy of Lancaster, the most important local magnates were the Earls of Derby and the Molyneux family. 1545 may have been the first year Liverpool had returned members for about a century - the first for which records survive. By the early years of Elizabeth's reign, the Earls of Derby and the Duchy of Lancashire were selecting one member each, although it was the mayor and burgesses or freemen who nominally elected the members. In 1545, it is that Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby was a decisive influence in handing a seat to Gerard; the two already knew each other: Gerard was the earl's legal counsel by 1562 - much earlier. Another influential supporter would have been Gerard's uncle, Sir Thomas Holcroft, an official of the Duchy of Lancaster and held the Liverpool fee-farm of the Duchy: he was returned as MP for Lancashire in the same parliament.
Gerard was returned as junior to the other member, Nicholas Cutler, a client of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. The influence of the Molyneux family grew subsequently and Sir William Molyneux and his son acquired joint control of the Liverpool fee-farm in 1545 coming into confrontation with Derby and the civic officials; this may have played a part in Gerard's move to a safer seat in elections. Gerard was elected as MP for Wigan in March and October 1553: the last parliament of Edward VI and the first of Mary's reign; the lord of the manor of Wigan was the rector, members of the Gerard family had purchased the advowson, making them influential in local government, divided between the rector and the civic officials of the borough. As Wigan was part of the Duchy and the County palatine of Lancaster, duchy officials had considerable influence; the Earl of Derby was an important figure locally. The senior MP in 1547 and for the next five elections was Alexander Barlow, a member of the Earl's council and soon to be his brother-in-law.
All this favoured Gerard, although it is his own relatives were his most decisive allies: the High Sheriff of Lancashire, the returning officer, in 1553 was Sir Thomas Gerard, a cousin. In April 1554 Gerard was returned as MP for Sussex. Steyning had belonged to Syon Abbey until the Dissolution of the monasteries but now formed part of the royal hon
The Clink was a prison in Southwark, which operated from the 12th century until 1780. The prison served the Liberty of the Clink, a local manor area owned by the Bishop of Winchester rather than by the reigning monarch; as the Liberty owner, the Bishop kept all revenues from the Clink Liberty, could put people in prison for failing to make their payments. As the Bishop, he could imprison heretics; the Clink prison was situated next to the Bishop's London-area residence of Winchester Palace. The Clink was the oldest men's prison and the oldest women's prison in England, it is uncertain whether the prison derived its name from, or bestowed it on, the Liberty that it served. The origins of the name "The Clink" are onomatopoeic, deriving from the sound of striking metal as the prison's doors were bolted, or the rattling of the chains the prisoners wore; the name has become slang as a generic term for a jail cell. There has been a prison owned by the Bishop of Winchester in one form or another since the year 860, although at that time it would only have been one cell in a priests' college.
By 1076 an archbishop had listed the types of punishment allowed: scourging with rods. The Bishop of Winchester, whose diocese was located in Hampshire on the southern coast of England, built the Winchester Palace chapel and mansion at the Southwark site to serve as a residence close to his London governmental duties, sometime after the acquisition of the manor territory between 1144 and 1149; the prison was any number of structures within the mansion's area whereby the local miscreants were kept to await trial. The higher status of some of its internees was due to the importance of the Bishop of Winchester as a senior member of the king's government as Lord Chancellor, who could put to trial in his ecclesiastic court those accused of heresy and other religious offences; as the gaolers were poorly paid, they found other ways to supplement their income. This meant that prisoners with money and friends on the outside were able to pay the gaolers to make their time better; the gaolers hired out rooms, bedding and fuel to those who could afford it.
Food and drink were charged at twice the outside price. They accepted payments for removing them completely. For a fee, prisoners would be allowed outside to beg or to work. Madams were allowed to keep a brothel going, with payments going to the gaolers. Poorer prisoners had to beg at the grates that led up to street level and sell anything they had with them, including their clothes, to pay for food. Winchester House was raided by rioters protesting the Statute of Labourers in 1450. Classing clerics as tax collectors, they murdered them and released prisoners from the Clink before burning it down; the rebellion was put down and Winchester House was rebuilt and extended, including a new prison. Most of the prisoners had been those who had broken the rules of the Liberty, but by the 16th century, it had become a prison for heretics who held contrary views to the bishops. John Bradford and John Hooper were amongst the inmates. In years it was a debtors' prison. In 1649 Winchester House was sold to a property developer and was divided into shops and dye houses.
The Cage was removed temporarily as taxpayers had complained about the cost of upkeep, but the whipping post was still busy. By 1707 both of these and the stocks were all unused because of the cost of upkeep, by 1732 there were only two registered inmates. In 1745 a temporary prison was used, as the Clink was too decayed to use, but by 1776 the prison was again taking in debtors, it was burnt down in 1780 by Gordon rioters, was never rebuilt. The Clink Prison Museum exhibition is located on Clink Street, near to the original site, at Bankside, Southwark; the Clink Prison Museum tries to recreate the conditions of the original prison. Father John Gerard, S. J. ~1595 Father John Jones OFM ~1596–1598. Father George Blackwell ~1607–1613 Matthew Wilson, alias Edward Knott, Jesuit author. 1629–1633 John Lothropp Anne Askew List of prisons in the United Kingdom The Clink Official Website Clink Prison Museum
King's Bench Prison
The King's Bench Prison was a prison in Southwark, south London, from medieval times until it closed in 1880. It took its name from the King's Bench court of law in which cases of defamation and other misdemeanours were heard. In 1842, it was renamed the Queen's Prison, became the Southwark Convict Prison; the first prison was constructed from two houses and was situated in Angel Place, off Borough High Street, Southwark - as with other judicial buildings it was targeted during uprisings, being burned in 1381 and 1450. During the reign of King Henry VIII, new prison buildings were constructed within an enclosing brick wall; this was demolished in 1761. Its 1758 replacement was built at a cost of £7800 on a 4-acre site close to St George's Fields. Although much larger and better appointed than some other London prisons, the new King's Bench still gained a reputation for being dirty and prone to outbreaks of typhus. Debtors had to provide their own bedding and drink; those who could afford it purchased'Liberty of the Rules' allowing them to live within three square miles of the prison.
On 10 May 1768, the imprisonment in King's Bench of radical John Wilkes prompted a riot - the Massacre of St George's Fields - in which five people were killed. Like the earlier buildings, this prison was badly damaged in a fire started in the 1780 Gordon Riots. In 1842 it became the Queen's Prison taking debtors from the Marshalsea and Fleet Prisons and sending lunatics to Bedlam. Fees and the benefits they could buy were abolished, soon after it passed into the hands of the Home Office during the 1870s, it was closed and demolished. English dramatist Thomas Dekker was imprisoned in the King's Bench Prison because of a debt of ₤40 to the father of John Webster, from 1612 to 1619. In prison he continued to write. In Charles Dickens' David Copperfield Mr Micawber is imprisoned for debt in the King's Bench Prison. Madeline Bray and her father lived within the Rules of the King's Bench in Nicholas Nickleby, while the prison is discussed by Mr. Rugg and Arthur Clennam in Little Dorrit. In Herman Melville's Billy Budd, King's Bench is referred to when Melville describes John Claggart as being arraigned at King's Bench.
In his The Diary of a Prison Governor, James William Newham makes reference to the period that his step-father, Henry Benthall, spent in the Queens Bench Prison for bankruptcy, after running up debts to the tune of £15,000 following the failure of his business as a wine merchant in the Strand. Newham recalls "staying over on occasions" with his mother, in Benthall's rooms at the prison, where such proceedings were winked at "for a consideration". On his release from the Queens Bench, Benthall was to live within "the rules of the prison", it could be said that Benthall's eventful and troubled monetary situation, its consequences on his lifestyle and social standing, along with some of his rather dubious business partners, are reflected in the writings and characters of Charles Dickens. Newham notes in his diary that he lived and worked for Benthall for a period at Cecil Street, the Strand. Coincidentally, Dickens lived in Cecil Street at that time, it was 12 years that the diarist, through connections of his step-father, secured a position as clerk at Maidstone Gaol, which in turn led to Newham becoming Assistant Governor of Maidstone, Governor of St Augustine's Prison, Canterbury, in 1878.
Between 1857 and 1876, Newham oversaw the hanging of 24 inmates including that of Frances Kidder in 1868. Kidder was found guilty of drowning her 12-year-old step-daughter, Louisa Staples, in 12 inches of ditch water. Following a change in attitudes and the law, she became the last woman to be publicly executed in England. Less severe punishments included flogging and solitary confinement, as well as the daily routine of a six-hour shift spent on the treadmill for those prisoners set to hard labour. Claude de la Colombière Richard Baxter Thomas Brown Marc Isambard Brunel Charles Clerke William Combe Edmund Curll Alexander Davison Nathaniel Eaton John Galt Robert Gouger Emma, Lady Hamilton Thomas Curson Hansard Thomas Hawkes Benjamin Haydon Henry Hetherington Alexander Holborne William Hone Jeremiah Lear Frederick John Manning Daniel Mendoza John Pell John Penry Moses Pitt Edward Henry Purcell Mary Robinson Robert Recorde John Rushworth Richard Ryan (poet, biographer.
James Edward Oglethorpe was a British soldier, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, as well as the founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer, he hoped to resettle Britain's worthy poor in the New World focusing on those in debtors' prisons. James Oglethorpe was born in Surrey, the son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe of Westbrook Place and his wife Eleanor Lady Oglethorpe, he entered Corpus Christi College, Oxford in 1714, but in the same year left to join the army of Prince Eugene of Savoy. Through the recommendation of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough he became aide-de-camp to the prince, during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–18 he served with distinction in the campaign against the Turks. After his return to England, he was elected Member of Parliament for Haslemere in 1722, he became a leading humanitarian, in 1728 he advocated reform of the terrible conditions experienced by sailors in the British Royal Navy by publishing an anonymous pamphlet,'The Sailors Advocate.' In 1728, three years before conceiving the Georgia colony, Oglethorpe chaired a Parliamentary committee on prison reform.
The committee documented horrendous abuses in three debtors' prisons. As a result of the committee's actions, many debtors were released from prison with no means of support. Oglethorpe viewed this as part of the larger problem of urbanisation, depleting the countryside of productive people and depositing them in cities London, where they became impoverished or resorted to criminal activity. To address this problem, Oglethorpe and a group of associates, many of whom served on the prison committee, petitioned in 1730 to form the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America; the petition was approved in 1732, the first ship, led by Oglethorpe, departed for the New World in November. Oglethorpe and the Trustees formulated a contractual, multi-tiered plan for the settlement of Georgia; the plan envisioned a system of "agrarian equality", designed to support and perpetuate an economy based on family farming, prevent social disintegration associated with unregulated urbanisation.
Land ownership was limited to fifty acres, a grant that included a town lot, a garden plot near town, a forty-five-acre farm. Self-supporting colonists were able to obtain larger grants, but such grants were structured in fifty-acre increments tied to the number of indentured servants supported by the grantee. Servants would receive a land grant of their own upon completing their term of service. No one was permitted to acquire additional land through inheritance. With Oglethorpe on that ship were cotton seeds provided by the Chelsea Medicinal Garden in London. Established by the Apothecaries' Company in 1673 for the cultivation and study of medicinal plants, the Garden's mission soon expanded to collect and study plants and trees from all over the world; the cotton seeds given to Oglethorpe were instrumental in establishing the cotton industry in the U. S. South; as discussed below, the plan for the colony was anti-slavery, emphasizing small family-owned farms. But economic pressures led to the lifting of the ban on slavery, as described below—and slavery was indispensable to the rise of large cotton-growing plantations throughout the Deep South.
Oglethorpe and the first colonists arrived at South Carolina on the ship Anne in late 1732, settled near the present site of Savannah, Georgia on 1 February 1733. He negotiated with the Yamacraw tribe for land, built a series of defensive forts, most notably Fort Frederica, of which substantial remains can still be visited, he returned to England and arranged to have slavery banned in Georgia after being moved by an intercepted letter from Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, a slave in Maryland. Oglethorpe and his fellow trustees were granted a royal charter for the Province of Georgia between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers on 9 June 1732. Georgia was a key contested area, it was Oglethorpe's idea that British debtors should be sent to Georgia. Although it is repeated that this would theoretically rid Britain of its so-called undesirable elements, in fact it was Britain's "worthy poor" whom Oglethorpe wanted in Georgia. Few debtors ended up in Georgia; the colonists included many Scots whose pioneering skills assisted the colony, many of Georgia's new settlers consisted of poor English tradesmen and artisans and religious refugees from Switzerland and Germany, as well as a number of Jewish refugees.
There were 150 Salzburger Protestants, expelled by edict from the Archbishopric of Salzburg in present-day Austria, established the settlement of Ebenezer near Savannah. The colony's charter provided for acceptance of all religions except Roman Catholicism; the ban on Roman Catholic settlers was based on the colony's proximity to the hostile settlements in Spanish Florida. On 21 February 1734, Oglethorpe established the first Masonic Lodge within the British Colony of Georgia. Now known as Solomon's Lodge No. 1, F. & A. M. it is the "Oldest Continuously Operating English Constituted Lodge of Freemasons in the Western Hemisphere". For a period in 1736, Oglethorpe's secretary was Charles Wesley well known as a hymnwriter of Met
Bryn, Greater Manchester
Bryn is a component ward of the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, Greater Manchester, England. It is part of the larger town of Ashton-in-Makerfield and is geographically indistinguishable from it, but forms a separate local council ward; the population of this ward at the 2011 census was 11,662. Served by Bryn railway station, Bryn is home to the Three Sisters Recreation Area, created from three large spoil tips which remain from Bryn's role in Lancashire's coal mining past; the recreation area is the site of the Three Sisters Race Circuit, which provides race driving instruction and plays host to kart racing events and motorcycle road race meetings at clubman level. The name Bryn is most derived from Cumbric *brïnn, meaning'hill'. Alternatively, the name may be derived directly from the Welsh equivalent reflecting Welsh settlement in the 12th century. A third explanation is that the name is derived from Old English bryne,'burning, fire', suggestive of land cleared by burning; the former Bryn Hall was the seat of the Gerard family beginning in the thirteenth century or earlier.
It was a "safe house" for the English Roman Catholic martyr and saint Edmund Arrowsmith and his hand was preserved there after his execution. The house, dating to the fourteenth century, has now collapsed and remaining stones have been cleared; the Roman Catholic parish of Our Lady of Good Counsel was founded in 1896. In 1902 the foundation stone of the church, dedicated to Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception, was laid by Bishop Thomas Whiteside, the 4th Bishop of Liverpool; the church, on Downall Green Road, was designed in the style popularised by Augustus Pugin and opened on 21 October 1903. On 8 September 1955 the church was consecrated and the holy relics of two early Roman martyrs – Saints Speciosi and Fructuosi, were placed under the altar stone. In the course of over 100 years, the church has been served by 13 priests, the current parish priest being Father John Gorman; the Unitarian Park Lane Chapel in Wigan Road was built in 1697, though its congregation was founded in 1662. It is the oldest Non-conformist congregation in the whole district.
By the nineteenth century Park Lane was only one of nine non-conformist chapels in the recusant area