click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

John Graham (racing driver)

John Graham is a Canadian professional race car driver. In 1981, he began his career in the Can-Am series' U2 class. In 1982 he joined. In 1983, he joined Aston Martin driving the "Nimrod" at the 24 hours of Daytona. Over his career he has driven IMSA, WSC, Indy Lights, F2, ALMS, Grand-Am, ARCA, NASCAR Nationwide Series as well as in the Paris-Dakar Rally Raid, he has 9 starts at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with an LMP675 class win in 2000 with Canadian team Multimatic Motorsports. His podium finishes include the 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, Petit Le Mans. John Graham driver statistics at Racing-Reference

Tar (string instrument)

Tar is an Iranian long-necked, waisted instrument, shared by many cultures and countries including Iran, Armenia and others near the Caucasus region. The older and more complete name of the tār is čāhārtār or čārtār, meaning in Persian "four string"; this is in accordance with a practice common in Persian-speaking areas of distinguishing lutes on the basis of the number of strings employed. Beside the čārtār, these include the dotār, setār, pančtār, šaštār or šeštār, it was invented in the 18th century and has since become one of the most important musical instruments in Iran and the Caucasus in Persian classical music, the favoured instrument for radifs. The tar appeared in its present form in the middle of the eighteenth century in Persia; the body is a double-bowl shape carved from mulberry wood, with a thin membrane of stretched lamb-skin covering the top. The fingerboard has twenty-five to twenty-eight adjustable gut frets, there are three double courses of strings, its range is about two and one-half octaves, it is played with a small brass plectrum.

The long and narrow neck has a flat fingerboard running level to the membrane and ends in an elaborate pegbox with six wooden tuning pegs of different dimensions, adding to the decorative effect. It has three courses of double "singing" strings, that are tuned in fourths plus one "flying" bass string that runs outside the fingerboard and passes over an extension of the nut; every String are tuned independently. The Persian tar used to have five strings; the sixth string was added to the tar by Darvish Khan. This string is today's fifth string of the Iranian tar; the melodies performed on tar were considered useful for headache and melancholy, as well as for eliminating nervous and muscle spasms. Listening to this instrument was believed to induce a quiet and philosophical mood, compelling the listener to reflect upon life, its solemn melodies were thought to cause a person to fall asleep. The author of Qabusnameh recommends that when selecting musical tones, to take into account the temperament of the listener.

He suggested that lower pitched tones were effective for persons of sanguine and phlegmatic temperaments, while higher pitched tones were helpful for those who were identified with a choleric temperament or melancholic temperament. The tar features prominently in Jeff Wayne's Musical Version of The War of the Worlds, in the section "Horsell Common and the Heat Ray". George Fenton played it on the original album, Gaetan Schurrer can be seen playing one on the DVD of the 2006 production; the "Azerbaijani tar" or "11 string tar" is an instrument in a different shape from the Persian Tar and was developed from the Persian tar around 1870 by Sadigjan. It has a different build and has more strings; the Caucasus tar has further one extra bass-string on the side, on a raised nut, 2 double resonance strings via small metal nuts halfway the neck. All these strings are running next to the main strings over the bridge and are fixed to a string-holder and the edge of the body. Overall the Caucasus tar has 17 tones.

A tar is depicted on the reverse of the Azerbaijani 1 qəpik coin minted since 2006 and on the obverse of the Azerbaijani 1 manat banknote issued since 2006. In 2012, the craftsmanship and performance art of the Azerbaijani tar was added to the UNESCO's List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Music of Azerbaijan Music of Iran About Persian Tar Nay-Nava the Encyclopedia of Persian Music Instruments Dariush Talai Persian Tar Audio Samples Medieval music therapy Farabi School

Norwegian Heathen Society

The Norwegian Heathen Society is a non-partisan irreligious society, established in 1974 and whose main focus is counteracting the Church of Norway and Christian influence in Norway. The Heathen Society calls itself a humanist antireligious liberation movement; the organization advocates freedom of and, if need be, from religion and opposes Christian and Muslim influence. From time to time it challenges the so-called "blasphemy paragraph" in section 142 of the Norwegian Penal Code, which provides for punishment for anyone "who publicly insults or in an offensive manner shows contempt for any religious creed or for the doctrines or worship of any religious community lawfully existing ". In 1982 it produced the cartoon Jesus Kristus & Co. depicting Jesus, which stirred considerable controversy. Charges were filed by the women's branch of the Christian Democratic Party, but dropped. Another of its actions was its successful demand for the right to call "God does not exist" from the rooftops after Oslo City Council granted a mosque the right to broadcast Adhan.

The society supports the separation of church and state. "The Norwegian Heathens’ Society advocates man as the end and the togetherness of humans as the means of human society. We advocate liberation from authoritarian religions and from faiths belittling and dividing men, which rate the value of humankind according to man’s relation to a deity, which use norms and dogmata to further inhibit human thoughts and emotions. We promote the freedom of confession and oppose any confession-based discrimination in general, we oppose The Church of Norway and other religious institutions in particular." The Norwegian Humanist Association Official site

St Mary Magdalene's Church, Bolney

St Mary Magdalene's Church is an Anglican church in the village of Bolney in Mid Sussex, one of seven local government districts in the English county of West Sussex. The parish church serves a large rural parish centred on a village straddling the ancient London–Brighton road and dates from about 1100, an older origin has been suggested. Many structural additions have been made over the centuries—including a tower built using the labour of villagers—and at the entrance to the churchyard is a "magnificent" 20th-century lychgate made of local materials including Sussex Marble; the church is protected as a Grade I Listed building. Bolney is on the ancient London–Brighton road about 11 miles north of Brighton and 7 miles southeast of the market town of Horsham; the main road now bypasses the village to the east. Neither a settlement nor a church was recorded in the Domesday survey of 1086; the parish was first recorded as Bolneya or Bolne in the 13th century, was one of 12 in the Hundred of Buttinghill in the Rape of Lewes.

Despite the absence of earlier written records, some sources date the present church's origins to about 1100, around the start of the Norman era, most others attribute it to that period without specifying a date. One study, suggested an earlier construction date based on the design and decoration of the south doorway, stated to have little in common with standard Norman work: comparisons were drawn instead with similar Saxon doorways at 8th- to 11th-century churches elsewhere in England and at nearby Wivelsfield; the church was built on hilly ground overlooking Bolney from the south, was reached by a twitten from the village street. The core of the Norman building consisted of a nave, a narrower chancel set at an angle, one window in the east wall and the doorway in the south wall of the nave. To this was added the main east window in the end of the chancel—a large traceried window dating from about 1300; the south wall of the chancel has a window of a similar date, on the same wall is a 13th-century piscina.

The next structural alteration, a west tower that "dominates the church", came in 1536–38: the date is known because details of costs and progress were recorded in the churchwarden's record book, which still exists. The churchwarden at the time was John Bolney a significant and wealthy landowner in the parish, whose family was long established in the area. Described as the "moving spirit" behind "an inspired community effort involving the whole village", he paid for the tower to be built and arranged for dozens of villagers to use their skills and any money they could offer to quarry the sandstone and shape it, build temporary bridges and paths to transport the material to the church, build tools and wooden scaffolding, erect the 66-foot tall, 12-by-12-foot structure at the west end of the church; the project was completed in 1538, a new west doorway was inserted below John Bolney's coat of arms and the commemorative wording This Stepl is 66 Foot high. The church continued to expand. A west gallery for choristers was inserted in 1670—an early example of the practice, common in Sussex, of building accommodation for a choir at the west end of a church so the congregation could face them when they sang.

Organs were sometimes too expensive for churches to buy, so choral music by local singers was preferred instead. West-end galleries only became prevalent in Sussex churches in the early 18th century, though. A porch was built on the south side in 1718. A clock was added to the tower in 1898 to commemorate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. A vestry was added in 1912, general work was carried out in the nave and chancel during the 1930s. A modern stained glass window by prolific Sussex-based firm Cox & Barnard was inserted in the south aisle in 1982; the Huth family were important in church life in the 20th centuries. Henry Huth was a bibliophile whose enormous collection of rare books was sold for £300,000 in 1910, he lived in an extravagant château-style 1870's house called Wykehurst Place in the parish, was buried in the churchyard after his death in 1878. In 1905, his son Edward gave the church a large, "magnificent" lychgate constructed from local materials: oak, millstones from a mill in the parish, Sussex Marble and a Horsham Stone slab roof.

It stands at the end of the twitten leading to the churchyard, left overgrown to conserve wildlife. A mid-19th-century rector planted the churchyard and rectory grounds with a wide range of trees, many of which survive—including Bhutan pines and oaks from Somerset. There are many Victorian tombs and grave-markers in the churchyard, including some rare wooden grave-boards and some with wooden cross-pieces set between stone balls. Another of Huth's sons, Alfred Henry Huth—who became a book-collector and author, who died in 1910—is commemorated by a memorial tablet inside the church; the church consists of a nave, an angled chancel offset towards the north, a 66-foot tower at the west end, a north aisle, separated from the nave by a three-bay pointed-arched arcade, a vestry on the north side and an entrance porch on the south side. There are other entrances in the base of its stair-turret; the nave is 20 1⁄2 feet wide. T

Languages of Bolivia

The languages of Bolivia include Spanish. Indigenous languages and Spanish are official languages of the state according to the 2009 Constitution; the constitution says that all indigenous languages are official, listing 36 specific languages, of which some are extinct. Spanish and Quechua are spoken in the Andes region; the following languages are listed as official languages in the Constitution of Bolivia. Castilian and, Aymara Araona Baure Bésiro Canichana Cavineño Cayubaba Chácobo Chimán Ese Ejja Guaraní Guarasu'we Guarayu Itonama Leco Machajuyai-Kallawaya Machineri Maropa Mojeño-Ignaciano Mojeño-Trinitario Moré Mosetén Movima Pacawara Puquina Quechua Sirionó Tacana Tapieté Toromona Uru-Chipaya Weenhayek Yaminawa Yuki Yuracaré Zamuco The Bolivian government and th departmental governments are required to use at least two languages in their operation, one being Spanish, the other being selected according to the circumstances and the needs of the territory in question; these requirements appear in Article 234 of the 2009 Constitution and the General Law of Linguistic Rights and Policies.

Departmental and municipal autonomous governments are required to use the languages of their territory, always including Spanish. Following the National Education Reform of 1994, all thirty indigenous languages were introduced alongside Spanish in the country's schools. However, many schools did not implement the reforms urban schools. Bolivia's National Hymn has been translated into six indigenous languages: Aymara, Bésiro-Chiquitano, Guaraní, Guarayu and Mojeño-Trinitario. Standard German is spoken by 160,000 of; these Mennonites speak Plautdietsch, a German dialect, as everyday language but use Standard German for reading and writing and as formal language e.g. in church. Portuguese is spoken near Bolivia's border with Brazil and around 0.2% of Bolivia speaks it as their mother tongue. Bolivian Spanish Lenguas de Bolivia

Filip Đurović

Filip Đurović is a Serbian football forward, who plays for Radnički Kragujevac. Born in Kragujevac, Đurović passed youth academy of football club Radnički 1923, where he stayed until 2015, he made his SuperLiga for Radnički Kragujevac on 16 May 2015, in 29th fixture of th 2014–15 season, against Jagodina, under coach Neško Milovanović. After the club relegated to the Serbian First League, he moved to Čukarički; as a member of the club, he appeared with youth team between 2015 and 2016, baing in the squad for the 2016–17 UEFA Youth League campaign. At the beginning of 2017, during the mid-season, Đurović returned to Kragujevac and joined Serbian League West side Šumadija 1903. After the whole 2017 with Šumadija, Đurović returned to his home club Radnički 1923 for the second half-season of the 2017–18 Serbian First League campaign; as of 31 December 2017 Filip Đurović stats at utakmica.rs Filip Đurović at FootballDatabase.eu Filip Đurović – UEFA competition record