Scarsdale, New York
Scarsdale is a town and village in Westchester County, New York. The Town of Scarsdale is coextensive with the Village of Scarsdale, but the community has opted to operate with a village government, one of several villages in the state that have a similar governmental situation; as of the 2010 census, Scarsdale's population was 17,166. Caleb Heathcote purchased the land that would become Scarsdale at the end of the 17th century and, on March 21, 1701, had it elevated to a royal manor, he named the lands after his ancestral home in England. The first local census of 1712 counted twelve inhabitants, including seven African slaves; when Caleb died in 1721, his daughters inherited the property. The estate was broken up in 1774, the town was founded on March 7, 1788; the town saw fighting during the American Revolution when the Continental and British armies clashed at what is now the junction of Garden Road and Mamaroneck Road. The British commander, Sir William Howe, lodged at a farmhouse on Garden Road.
Scarsdale's wartime history formed the basis for James Fenimore Cooper's novel, The Spy, written while the author lived at the Angevine Farm in the present-day Heathcote section of town. According to the first federal census in 1790, the town's population was 281. By 1840, that number had declined to 255—the vast majority farmers and farm workers. In 1846, the New York and Harlem Railroad connected Scarsdale to New York City, leading to an influx of commuters; the Arthur Suburban Home Company purchased a 150-acre farm in 1891 and converted it into a subdevelopment of one-family dwellings, starting a transformation of the community from rural to suburban. Civil institutions soon appeared: the Heathcote Association, the Town Club, the Scarsdale Woman's Club and the Scarsdale League of Women Voters. Scarsdale High School and Greenacres Elementary School were built in 1912, the Edgewood Elementary School opened in 1918; the first store in Scarsdale opened on the corner of Popham Road and Garth Road in 1912.
By 1915, the population approached 3000. By 1930, that number approached 10,000. In 1940, German agent Gerhardt Alois Westrick secretly met with American business leaders at his Scarsdale home until public pressure—a reaction to articles in the New York Herald Tribune produced by British Security Coordination in New York—drove his family from the community, he was subsequently deported for pursuing activities unfriendly to the United States. Scarsdale became the subject of national controversy in the 1950s when a "Committee of Ten" led by Otto Dohrenwend alleged "Communist infiltration" in the public schools. A thorough investigation by the town rejected these claims; this same group, known as the Scarsdale Citizens Committee, sued to prevent a benefit for the Freedom Riders from taking place at the public high school in 1963 because some of the performers were "communist sympathizers and subversives."Another controversy enveloped the town in 1961, when the Scarsdale Country Club, headed by Charles S. McCallister, refused to allow a young man who had converted from Judaism into the Episcopal Church, Michael Cunningham Hernstadt, to escort a young woman, Pamela Nottage, to her debut at the club.
At the time, it was the club's policy to prohibit Jews from the premises. In response, the Rev. George French Kempsell of the Church of Saint James the Less announced that he would ban any supporters of the club's decision from receiving Holy Communion; the event marked a turning point toward the decline of anti-Semitism in the town. Scarsdale's public library, housed in historic Wayside Cottage since 1928, moved to its present structure on the White Plains Post Road in 1951; the driving force behind the library was New York City publisher S. Spencer Scott, who raised $100,000 for the project after the village rejected a bond issue to fund the building in 1938; the new library opened with 27,000 books and Sylvia C. Hilton serving as the first librarian; the last of the town's five elementary schools, Heathcote School, opened in September 1953. The $1,000,000 architectural landmark was designed by Will of Chicago. Walter B. Cocking, the president of the New York State Committee for the Public Schools, delivered the dedication address.
In 1967, U. S. Secretary of State and former longtime resident Dean Rusk returned to Scarsdale at the height of the Vietnam War to receive the town's Man of the Year Award and was greeted with a silent protest. Scarsdale was the subject of a landmark United States Supreme Court decision, ACLU v. Scarsdale, that established the so-called "reindeer rule" regarding public nativity scenes and upheld the right of local religious groups to place crèches on public property. Scarsdale was involved in another United States Supreme Court case in 1985, Board of Trustees of Scarsdale v. McCreary, concerning the display of sponsored nativity scenes on public property; the Caleb Hyatt House, Scarsdale Railroad Station, Scarsdale Woman's Club, United States Post Office, Wayside Cottage are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The first official historian of the Village of Scarsdale was Richard Lederer. Lederer was succeeded by Irving J. Sloan. Following Sloan's death in 2008, Eric Rothschild assumed the position of village historian and served until his death in 2018.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 6.6 square miles, of which 0.15% is water. It is located 25 miles from midtown Manhattan, which may be reached by Metro-North Railroad express train in 30 minutes; the town is in a humid continental climate zone, with cold, snowy winters and hot, hum
Michael Monroe Lewis is an American financial journalist and bestselling non-fiction author. He has been a contributing editor to Vanity Fair since 2009. Lewis was born in New Orleans, the son of corporate lawyer J. Thomas Lewis and community activist Diana Monroe Lewis, he went to Isidore Newman School. He attended Princeton University, where he earned a cum laude bachelor's degree in art history in 1982 and was a member of the Ivy Club, he worked with New York City art dealer Daniel Wildenstein for a short while. In an interview with Charlie Rose, Lewis shared that his initial ambition was to become an art historian, but he was dissuaded once he realized that there were no jobs available for art historians, the handful would not pay much. Lewis subsequently enrolled at the London School of Economics and received an MA in economics in 1985. Lewis was hired by Salomon Brothers, stayed for a while in New York for their training program, relocated to London where he worked at Salomon's London office as a bond salesman for a few years.
Lewis described his experiences at Salomon and the evolution of the mortgage-backed bond in Liar's Poker. In The New New Thing, he investigated the then-booming Silicon Valley and discussed obsession with innovation. Four years Lewis wrote Moneyball, in which he investigated the success of Billy Beane and the Oakland A's. In August 2007, he wrote an article about catastrophe bonds, titled "In Nature's Casino", that appeared in The New York Times Magazine. Lewis has worked for The Spectator, The New York Times Magazine, as a columnist for Bloomberg, as a senior editor and campaign correspondent to The New Republic, a visiting fellow at the University of California, Berkeley, he wrote the Dad Again column for Slate. Lewis worked for Conde Nast Portfolio but in February 2009 left to join Vanity Fair, where he became a contributing editor. In September 2011, after the successful release of the film adaptation of his book Moneyball, it was reported that Lewis planned to take on "a much more active role in the what could be the next film based on one of his books" and would start writing a script for a Liar's Poker film.
In 2013, in Vanity Fair, Lewis wrote on the injustice of the prosecution of ex-Goldman Sachs programmer Sergey Aleynikov, given an entire chapter in Flash Boys. Flash Boys, which looked at high-frequency trading of Wall Street and other markets, was released in March 2014. In 2017, Lewis wrote a series of articles for Vanity Fair in which he described the Trump administration's approach to various federal agencies, including the Department of Energy and the Department of Agriculture, his articles described a sense of incredulity and disillusionment from career civil servants because of the lack of attention from the Trump administration over the importance of some of their work, the lack of care, knowledge and respect from Trump political appointees. In 2018, Lewis wrote and narrated, The Coming Storm for Audible Studios, which released the short non-fiction story as part of their new Audible Originals series of audio books. A best-selling author, Lewis has drawn vocal detractors. In a review of Moneyball, Dan Ackman of Forbes said that Lewis had a special talent: "He can walk into an area mined by hundreds of writers and find gems there all along but somehow missed by his predecessors".
A New York Times piece said that "no one writes with more narrative panache about money and finance than Mr. Lewis", praising his ability to use his subject's stories to show the problems with the systems around them. Lewis has been criticized for writing a 2007 article in Bloomberg criticizing economists at the World Economic Forum for expressing views on how the world wasn't pricing risk appropriately. Critics from outside the financial industry have criticized Lewis for what they consider to be inaccuracies in his writing. In a 2011 column in The Atlantic, American journalist and sports author Allen Barra takes issue with Lewis' characterization of Major League Baseball in Lewis' book Moneyball. Barra writes: "From a historical standpoint, Lewis is, way off base. By the end of the 20th century baseball had achieved a greater level of competitive balance than at any time in the game's history... Moneyball doesn't just get the state of present-day baseball wrong. At a House Financial Services Committee hearing in April 2014, Mary Jo White, former Wall Street insider, who served as the U.
S. Securities and Exchange Commission Chair, denied the theme of Lewis' book, stating: "The markets are not rigged". One month in June 2014, White announced that the SEC would undergo a new round of regulatory review in response to concerns about dark pools and market structure. Lewis' The Undoing Project was praised by book critics, with Glenn C. Altschuler arguing in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette that it "may well be his best book". Lewis has been married three times, his first wife is Diane de Cordova Lewis. His third is the former MTV reporter Tabitha Soren, whom he married on October 4, 1997. Lewis is an atheist. Lewis, Michael. Liar's Poker: Rising through the Wreckage on Wall Street. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-02750-3. Lewis, Michael. Pacific Rift. Knoxville, Tennessee: Whittle Direct Books. ISBN 0-9624745-6-8. Lewis, Michael; the Money Culture. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be unlisted. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular nations, therefore have national associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States is called a limited liability company, in France is called a "society of limited responsibility", in Britain a public limited company, in Germany a company with limited liability. While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade. In the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed." The securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a held company are owned by few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Public companies possess some advantages over held businesses.
Publicly traded companies are able to raise funds and capital through the sale of shares of stock. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; the profit on stock is gained in form of capital gain to the holders. The financial media and the public are able to access additional information about the business, since the business is legally bound, motivated, to publicly disseminate information regarding the financial status and future of the company to its many shareholders and the government; because many people have a vested interest in the company's success, the company may be more popular or recognizable than a private company. The initial shareholders of the company are able to share risk by selling shares to the public. If one were to hold a 100% share of the company, he or she would have to pay all of the business's debt; this increases asset liquidity and the company does not need to depend on funding from a bank. For example, in 2013 Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg owned 29.3% of the company's class A shares, which gave him enough voting power to control the business, while allowing Facebook to raise capital from, distribute risk to, the remaining shareholders.
Facebook was a held company prior to its initial public offering in 2012. If some shares are given to managers or other employees, potential conflicts of interest between employees and shareholders will be remitted; as an example, in many tech companies, entry-level software engineers are given stock in the company upon being hired. Therefore, the engineers have a vested interest in the company succeeding financially, are incentivized to work harder and more diligently to ensure that success. Many stock exchanges require that publicly traded companies have their accounts audited by outside auditors, publish the accounts to their shareholders. Besides the cost, this may make useful information available to competitors. Various other annual and quarterly reports are required by law. In the United States, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act imposes additional requirements; the requirement for audited books is not imposed by the exchange known as OTC Pink. The shares may be maliciously held by outside shareholders and the original founders or owners may lose benefits and control.
The principal-agent problem, or the agency problem is a key weakness of public companies. The separation of a company's ownership and control is prevalent in such countries as U. K and U. S. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that firms whose stock is traded publicly report their major shareholders each year; the reports identify all institutional shareholders, all company officials who own shares in their firm, any individual or institution owning more than 5% of the firm's stock. For many years, newly created companies were held but held initial
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality. The current Jewish community in the United States consists of Ashkenazi Jews, who descend from diaspora Jewish populations of Central and Eastern Europe and comprise about 90-95% of the American Jewish population. Most American Ashkenazim are US-born, with a dwindling number of now elderly earlier immigrants, as well as some more recent foreign-born immigrants. During the colonial era, prior to the mass immigration of Ashkenazim and Portuguese Jews represented the bulk of America's small Jewish population, while their descendants are a minority today, they along with an array of other Jewish communities represented the remainder of American Jews, including other more recent Sephardic Jews, Mizrahi Jews, various other ethnically Jewish communities, as well as a smaller number of converts to Judaism; the American Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, encompassing the full spectrum of Jewish religious observance.
Depending on religious definitions and varying population data, the United States has the largest or second largest Jewish community in the world, after Israel. In 2012, the American Jewish population was estimated at between 5.5 and 8 million, depending on the definition of the term, which constitutes between 1.7% and 2.6% of the total U. S. population. Jews have been present in the Thirteen Colonies since the mid-17th century. However, they were small in number, with at most 200 to 300 having arrived by 1700; those early arrivers were Sephardic Jewish immigrants, of Western Sephardic ancestry, but by 1720 Ashkenazi Jews from Central and Eastern Europe predominated. The English Plantation Act 1740 for the first time permitted Jews to become British citizens and emigrate to the colonies. Despite some being denied the ability to vote or hold office in local jurisdictions, Sephardic Jews became active in community affairs in the 1790s, after achieving political equality in the five states where they were most numerous.
Until about 1830, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America. Large-scale Jewish immigration commenced in the 19th century, when, by mid-century, many German Jews had arrived, migrating to the United States in large numbers due to antisemitic laws and restrictions in their countries of birth, they became merchants and shop-owners. There were 250,000 Jews in the United States by 1880, many of them being the educated, secular, German Jews, although a minority population of the older Sephardic Jewish families remained influential. Jewish migration to the United States increased in the early 1880s, as a result of persecution and economic difficulties in parts of Eastern Europe. Most of these new immigrants were Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, most of whom arrived from the poor diaspora communities of the Russian Empire and the Pale of Settlement, located in modern-day Poland, Belarus and Moldova. During the same period, great numbers of Ashkenazi Jews arrived from Galicia, at that time the most impoverished region of the Austro-Hungarian empire with a heavy Jewish urban population, driven out by economic reasons.
Many Jews emigrated from Romania. Over 2,000,000 Jews landed between the late 19th century and 1924, when the Immigration Act of 1924 restricted immigration. Most settled in the New York metropolitan area, establishing the world's major concentrations of Jewish population. In 1915 the circulation of the daily Yiddish newspapers was half a million in New York City alone, 600,000 nationally. In addition thousands more subscribed to the numerous weekly papers and the many magazines. At the beginning of the 20th century, these newly arrived Jews built support networks consisting of many small synagogues and Landsmanshaften for Jews from the same town or village. American Jewish writers of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture, Jews became part of American life. 500,000 American Jews fought in World War II, after the war younger families joined the new trend of suburbanization. There, Jews became assimilated and demonstrated rising intermarriage; the suburbs facilitated the formation of new centers, as Jewish school enrollment more than doubled between the end of World War II and the mid-1950s, while synagogue affiliation jumped from 20% in 1930 to 60% in 1960.
More recent waves of Jewish emigration from Russia and other regions have joined the mainstream American Jewish community. Americans of Jewish descent have been disproportionately successful in many fields and aspects over the years; the Jewish community in America has gone from a lower class minority, with most studies putting upwards of 80% as manual factory laborers prior to World War I and with the majority of fields barred to them, to the consistent richest or second richest ethnicity in America for the past 40 years in terms of average annual salary, with high concentrations in academia and other fields, today have the highest per capita income of any ethnic group in the United States, at around double the average income of non-Jewish Americans. In 2016, Modern Orthodox Jews had a median household income of $158,000, while Open Orthodox Jews had a median household income at $185,000. Scholars debate whether the favorable historical experience for Jews in the United States has been such a unique experience as to validate American exceptionalism.
Liar's Poker is a non-fiction, semi-autobiographical book by Michael Lewis describing the author's experiences as a bond salesman on Wall Street during the late 1980s. First published in 1989, it is considered one of the books that defined Wall Street during the 1980s, along with Bryan Burrough and John Helyar's Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of RJR Nabisco, the fictional The Bonfire of the Vanities by Tom Wolfe; the book captures an important period in the history of Wall Street. Two important figures in that history feature prominently in the text, the head of Salomon Brothers' mortgage department Lewis Ranieri and the firm's CEO John Gutfreund; the book's name is taken from liar's poker, a high-stakes gambling game popular with the bond traders in the book. Liar's Poker follows two different story threads, though not in chronological order; the first thread is autobiographical, follows Lewis through his college education and his hiring by Salomon Brothers in 1984. This part of the book gives a first-person account of how bond traders and salesmen work, their personalities, their culture.
The book captures well an important period in the history of Wall Street. Important figures in that history feature prominently in the text: John Meriwether, mortgage department head Lewis Ranieri, firm CEO John Gutfreund; the second thread is a history of Salomon Brothers and an overview of Wall Street in general how the firm single-handedly created a market for mortgage bonds that made the firm wealthy, only to be outdone by Michael Milken and his junk bonds. This thread is less dependent on Lewis' personal experience and features quotes drawn from interviews with various relevant figures. Lewis jumps forth between these two threads in the book. Lewis was an art history student at Princeton University, who nonetheless wanted to break into Wall Street to make money, he describes his pathetic attempts to find a finance job, only to be roundly rejected by every firm to which he applied. For example, in 1982 Lehman Brothers had rejected his employment application, he enrolled in the London School of Economics to gain a master's degree in economics.
While in England, Lewis was invited to a banquet hosted by the Queen Mother, where his cousin, Baroness Linda Monroe von Stauffenberg, one of the organizers of the banquet, purposefully seated him next to the wife of the London managing partner of Salomon Brothers. She hoped that his intelligence might impress her enough for her to suggest to her husband that Lewis, be given a job with Salomon Brothers; the strategy worked, Lewis was granted an interview and subsequently received a job offer. Lewis moved to New York City for Salomon's training program. Here, he was appalled at the sophomoric and obnoxious behavior of some of his fellow trainees, indoctrinated into the money culture of Salomon Brothers and the Wall Street culture as a whole. From New York, Lewis was shipped to the London office of Salomon Brothers as a bond salesman. Despite his lack of knowledge, he was soon handling millions of dollars in investment accounts. In 1987, he survived with his job. However, growing disillusioned with his work, Lewis quit the firm at the beginning of 1988 to write this book and become a financial journalist.
The first edition was published October 17, 1989. The book is an unflattering portrayal of Wall Street traders and salesmen, their personalities, their beliefs, their work practices. During the training sessions, Lewis was struck by the infantilism of most of his fellow trainees. Examples included yelling at and insulting financial experts who talked to them, throwing spit balls at one another and at lecturers, calling phone sex lines and broadcasting them over the company's intercom, gambling on behavioral traits, the trainees' incredible lust for money and contempt for any position that did not earn that much. Lewis attributed the bond traders' and salesmen's behavior to the fact that the trading floor required neither finesse nor advanced financial knowledge, rather, the ability and desire to exploit others' weaknesses, to intimidate others into listening to traders and salesmen, the ability to spend hours a day screaming orders under high pressure situations, he referred to their worldview as "The Law of the Jungle."
He noted that, although most arrivals on Wall Street had studied economics, this knowledge was never used. Lewis attributed the savings and loan scandal of the 1980s and 1990s to the inability of inexperienced, small-town bank managers to compete with Wall Street, he described people on Wall Street as masters at taking advantage of an undiscerning public, which the savings and loan industry provided in abundance. Lewis portrays the 1980s as an era where government deregulation allowed less-than-scrupulous people on Wall Street to take advantage of others' ignorance, thus grow wealthy, he traces the rise of Salomon Brothers through mortgage trading, when deregulation by the U. S. Congress allowed managers of savings and loan associations to start selling mortgages as bonds. Lewis Ranieri, a Salomon Brothers' employee, had created the only viable mortgage trading section on Wall Street, so when the law passed, it became a windfall for the firm. However, Lewis believed that Salomon Brothers became too complacent in their new-found wealth and took to unwise expansion and massive displays of conspicuous consumption.
When the rest of Wall Street wised up to the market, the firm lost its advantage. Another problem Lewis noticed was a large disconnect between what
History of the Jews in Germany
Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early and High Middle Ages. The community suffered during the Crusades. Accusations of well poisoning during the Black Death led to mass slaughter of German Jews and they fled in large numbers to Poland; the Jewish communities of the cities of Mainz and Worms became the center of Jewish life during Medieval times. "This was a golden age as area bishops protected the Jews resulting in increased trade and prosperity." The First Crusade began an era of persecution of Jews in Germany. Entire communities, like those of Trier, Worms and Cologne, were murdered; the war upon the Hussite heretics became the signal for renewed persecution of Jews. The end of the 15th century was a period of religious hatred that ascribed to Jews all possible evils; the atrocities during the Khmelnytsky Uprising committed by Khmelnytskyi's Cossacks drove the Polish Jews back into western Germany. With Napoleon's fall in 1815, growing nationalism resulted in increasing repression.
From August to October 1819, pogroms that came to be known as the Hep-Hep riots took place throughout Germany. During this time, many German states stripped Jews of their civil rights; as a result, many German Jews began to emigrate. From the time of Moses Mendelssohn until the 20th century, the community achieved emancipation, prospered. In January 1933, some 522,000 Jews lived in Germany. After the Nazis took power and implemented their antisemitic ideology and policies, the Jewish community was persecuted. About 60% emigrated during the first six years of the Nazi dictatorship. In 1933, persecution of the Jews became an official Nazi policy. In 1935 and 1936, the pace of antisemitic persecution increased. In 1936, Jews were banned from all professional jobs preventing them from participating in education, higher education and industry; the SS ordered the Night of Broken Glass the night of November 9–10, 1938. The storefronts of Jewish shops and offices were smashed and vandalized, many synagogues were destroyed by fire.
This prompted a wave of Jewish mass emigration from Germany throughout the 1930s. Only 214,000 Jews were left in Germany proper on the eve of World War II. Beginning in late 1941, the remaining community was subjected to systematic deportations to ghettos and to death camps in Eastern Europe. In May 1943, Germany was declared judenrein. By the end of the war, an estimated 160,000 to 180,000 German Jews had been killed by the Nazi regime, by the Germans and their collaborators. A total of about 6 million European Jews were murdered under the direction of the Nazis, in the genocide that came to be known as the Holocaust. After the war, the Jewish community in Germany started to grow again. Beginning around 1990, a spurt of growth was fueled by immigration from the former Soviet Union, so that at the turn of the 21st century, Germany had the only growing Jewish community in Europe, the majority of German Jews were Russian-speaking. By 2014, the Jewish population of Germany had leveled off at 118,000, not including non-Jewish members of households.
In Germany, denial of the Holocaust or that six million Jews were murdered in the Holocaust is a criminal act. In 2006, on the occasion of the World Cup held in Germany, the Interior Minister of Germany, Wolfgang Schäuble, urged vigilism against far-right extremism, saying: "We will not tolerate any form of extremism, xenophobia, or anti-Semitism." In spite of Germany's measures against these groups and anti-Semites, a number of incidents have occurred in recent years. Jewish migration from Roman Italy is considered the most source of the first Jews on German territory. While the date of the first settlement of Jews in the regions which the Romans called Germania Superior, Germania Inferior, Magna Germania is not known, the first authentic document relating to a large and well-organized Jewish community in these regions dates from 321 and refers to Cologne on the Rhine, it indicates. They enjoyed some civil liberties, but were restricted regarding the dissemination of their culture, the keeping of non-Jewish slaves, the holding of office under the government.
Jews were otherwise free to follow any occupation open to indigenous Germans and were engaged in agriculture, trade and money-lending. These conditions at first continued in the subsequently established Germanic kingdoms under the Burgundians and Franks, for ecclesiasticism took root slowly; the Merovingian rulers who succeeded to the Burgundian empire were devoid of fanaticism and gave scant support to the efforts of the Church to restrict the civic and social status of the Jews. Charlemagne made use of the Church for the purpose of infusing coherence into the loosely joined parts of his extensive empire, by any means a blind tool of the canonical law, he employed Jews for diplomatic purposes, for instance, a Jew as interpreter and guide with his embassy to Harun al-Rashid. Yet then, a gradual change occurred in the lives of the Jews; the Church forbade Christians to be usurers, so the Jews secured the remunerative monopoly of money-lending. This decree caused a mixed reaction of
Hungarian Americans are Americans of Hungarian descent. Estimates of the number of Hungarian Americans and the their descendants in the United States exceed 4 million, but include the large number of ethnic Hungarian immigrants most of whom have emigrated from Romania, Czechoslovakia, or the former Yugoslavia. In 1583, a Hungarian poet Stephanus Parmenius, joined Humphrey Gilbert's expedition to North America with the intention of writing a chronicle of the voyage and its discoveries. Parmenius reached Newfoundland becoming the first Hungarian in the New World. Hungarians have long settled in the New World, such as Michael de Kovats, the founder of United States Cavalry, active in the American Revolution. Hungarians have maintained a constant state of emigration to the United States since then. Agoston Haraszthy, who settled in Wisconsin in 1840, was the first Hungarian to settle permanently in the United States and the second Hungarian to write a book about the United States in his native language.
After he moved to California in the Gold Rush of 1849, Haraszthy founded the Buena Vista Vineyards in Sonoma and imported more than 100,000 European vine cuttings for the use of California winemakers. He is remembered today as the "Father of California Viticulture" or the "Father of Modern Winemaking in California." The first large wave of emigration from Hungary to the United States occurred in 1849-1850, when the so-called "Forty-Eighters" fled from retribution by Austrian authorities after the defeat of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Lajos Kossuth gave a seven-month speaking tour of the US in 1851 and 1852 to great acclaim as a champion of liberty, thereby unleashing a brief outburst of pro-Hungarian emotions, he left embittered because his refusal to oppose slavery alienated his natural constituency, his long-term impact was minimal. By 1860, 2,710 Hungarians lived in the US, at least 99 of them fought in the Civil War, their motivations were not so much antislavery as a belief in democracy, a taste for adventure, validation of their military credentials, solidarity with their American neighbors.
During the last decades of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century, the United States saw an immigration boom of Southern and Eastern Europeans, among them 650,000-700,000 ethnic Hungarian speakers. Unlike the educated classes who formed the core of the 1849 wave, the second Hungarian wave was poor and uneducated immigrants seeking a better life in America. An increase of immigration from Hungary was observed after World War II and The Holocaust, a significant percentage of whom were Jewish; the circumstances of the third wave of emigration had much in common with the first wave. In 1956, Hungary was again under the power of a foreign state, this time the Soviet Union, again, Hungarians rose up in revolution. Like the 1848 revolution, the 1956 Hungarian Revolution failed and led to the emigration of 200,000 "56-ers" fleeing persecution after the revolution, 40,000 of whom found their way to the United States. There was a renewed economic migration after the end of communism in Hungary during the 1990s to 2000s.
According to the 2010 US Census, there were 1,563,081 persons of Hungarian ancestry in the United States as of 2006, with − according to 2000 census data − 1,398,724 of them indicating Hungarian as their first ancestry. Estimates of the number of Hungarian Americans in the United States exceed 4 million, but include the large number of ethnic Hungarian immigrants most of whom have emigrated from Romania, Czechoslovakia, or the former Yugoslavia; the states with the largest Hungarian American populations include: The highest percentage of Hungarian Americans in any American town, village or city is in Kiryas Joel, New York where 18.9% of the total population claimed Hungarian as their ancestry. Other places with over 10% are Fairport Harbor and West Pike Run Township, Pennsylvania. About one hundred other municipalities have more than 5% of Hungarian-American residents, but the highest number of Hungarian Americans living in the same place is in New York City. Wallingford, has a vibrant Hungarian-American Club and community.
Columbus has a Hungarian American neighborhood named Hungarian Village. Hungarian-born population in the US since 2010: In entertainment, Szőke Szakáll, known as S. Z. Sakall, was a Hungarian-Jewish film character actor, he was in many films including In the Good Old Summertime, Lullaby of Broadway, Christmas in Connecticut and Casablanca in which he played Carl, the head waiter. The comic style of Ernie Kovacs influenced numerous television comedy programs for years to come; the Fox Film Corporation was formed by William Fox. Comedian and Producer Louis C. K is a US-Mexican dual citizen, his grandfather, Géza Székely Schweiger, immigrated to Mexico with his family from Hungary. Actress Vilma Bánky starred in numerous silent films opposite Hollywood legends such as Rudolph Valentino and Ronald Colman. Actor Adrien Brody's mother was Hungarian. Actress Rachel Weisz's father was Hungarian inventor George Weisz. Actress Drew Barrymore's mother is Hungarian. Actor Tony Curtis has been in over 100 films, including his iconic roles in Some Like It Hot and The Defiant Ones.
Actress Jessica Szohr of Gossip Girl is of partial Hungarian descent. Actor Peter Lorre became famous after his role as a murderer in Fritz Lang's M and went on to play many antagonistic villain roles. Legendary actor Béla Lugosi played Count Dracula in the stage version and subsequent film of Bram