United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
Syringa is a genus of 12 recognized species of flowering woody plants in the olive family, native to woodland and scrub from southeastern Europe to eastern Asia and cultivated in temperate areas elsewhere. The genus is most related to Ligustrum, classified with it in Oleaceae tribus Oleeae subtribus Ligustrinae. Lilacs are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including copper underwing, scalloped oak and Svensson's copper underwing, they are small trees, ranging in size from 2 to 10 metres tall, with stems up to 20 to 30 centimetres diameter. The leaves are opposite in arrangement, their shape is simple and heart-shaped to broad lanceolate in most species, but pinnate in a few species; the flowers are produced in spring, each flower being 5 to 10 millimetres in diameter with a four-lobed corolla, the corolla tube narrow, 5 to 20 millimetres long. The usual flower colour is a shade of purple, but white, pale yellow and pink, a dark burgundy color are found; the flowers grow in large panicles, in several species have a strong fragrance.
Flowering varies between mid spring depending on the species. The fruit is a brown capsule, splitting in two at maturity to release the two winged seeds; the genus Syringa was first formally described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus and the description was published in Species Plantarum. The genus name Syringa is derived from Ancient Greek word syrinx meaning "pipe" or "tube" and refers to the hollow branches of S. vulgaris. The English common name "lilac" is from the French lilac via the Arabic ليلك from Persian نیلک meaning "bluish". Lilacs are popular shrubs in parks and gardens throughout the temperate zone, several hybrids and numerous cultivars have been developed; the term French lilac is used to refer to modern double-flowered cultivars, thanks to the work of prolific breeder Victor Lemoine. Lilacs grow most in well-drained soils those based on chalk, they flower on old wood, produce more flowers if unpruned. If pruned, the plant responds by producing fast-growing young vegetative growth with no flowers, in an attempt to restore the removed branches.
Lilac bushes can be prone to powdery mildew disease. The wood of lilac is close-grained, diffuse-porous hard and one of the densest in Europe; the sapwood is cream-coloured and the heartwood has various shades of brown and purple. Lilac wood has traditionally been used for engraving, musical instruments, knife handles etc; when drying, the wood has a tendency to be encurved as a twisted material, to split into narrow sticks. Lilacs are considered to symbolize love. In Greece and Cyprus, the lilac is associated with Easter time because it flowers around that time. In the poem "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd", by Walt Whitman, lilacs are a reference to Abraham Lincoln. Syringa vulgaris is the state flower of New Hampshire, because it "is symbolic of that hardy character of the men and women of the Granite State". Several locations in North America hold annual Lilac Festivals, including: The Arnold Arboretum in Boston, which celebrates "Lilac Sunday" every May; the Arboretum shows off its collection of 194 different varieties.
Lilac Sunday is the only day of the year. Lombard, called the "Lilac Village", which has an annual lilac festival and parade in May; the village contains Lilacia Park, a garden with over 200 varieties of lilacs, as well as over 50 kinds of tulips. Mackinac Island, in Michigan, which celebrates lilac parade each June. Rochester, New York, which has held its Lilac Festival since 1898, hosts the longest-running festival in North America. Held in Highland Park, this celebration features 1,200 shrubs, representing over 500 varieties, many of which were developed in Rochester, it is the largest collection of varieties at any single place. The Royal Botanical Gardens near Hamilton, which holds its Lilac Celebration each May. Spokane, known as the "Lilac City", which holds an annual lilac festival and lilac parade. Franktown, Canada, holds an annual festival. Species and subspecies accepted as of July 2016: Syringa emodi Wall. Ex Royle - Himalayan lilac - northern India, Tibet, Nepal Syringa josikaea J. Jacq.
Ex Rchb.f. - Carpathian Mountains of Romania and Ukraine Syringa komarowii C. K. Schneid. - Gansu, Shaanxi, Yunnan Syringa oblata Lindl. - Korea, Hebei, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Shandong, Sichuan Syringa oblata subsp. Dilatata Nakai - Korea, Liaoning Syringa persica L. - Persian lilac - Afghanistan, western Himalayas, Qinghai Syringa pinetorum W. W. Sm. - Sichuan, Yunnan Syringa pinnatifolia Hemsl. - Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Sichuan Syringa pubescens Turcz. - Korea, Hebei, Hubei, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shandong, Sichuan Syringa reticulata H. Hara - Japanese tree lilac - Primorye, Korea, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Sichuan Syringa tomentella Bureau & Franch. - Sichuan, Yunnan Syringa vill
United States Postmaster General
The Postmaster General of the United States is the chief executive officer of the United States Postal Service. Appointed members of the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service select the Postmaster General and Deputy Postmaster General, who join the Board; the office, in one form or another, is older than both the United States Constitution and the United States Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin was appointed by the Continental Congress as the first Postmaster General in 1775, serving just over 15 months; until 1971, the postmaster general was the head of the Post Office Department. During that era, the postmaster general was appointed by the President of the United States, with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. From 1829 to 1971, the postmaster general was a member of the President's Cabinet; the Cabinet post of Postmaster General was given to a new President's campaign manager or other key political supporter, was considered something of a sinecure.
The Postmaster General was in charge of the governing party's patronage, was a powerful position which held much influence within the party. In 1971, the Post Office Department was re-organized into the United States Postal Service, an independent agency of the executive branch. Therefore, the Postmaster General is no longer a member of the Cabinet and is no longer in the line of presidential succession; the postmaster general is now appointed by nine "governors," appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The governors, along with the postmaster general and the deputy postmaster general, constitute the full Postal Service Board of Governors; the Postmaster General is the second-highest paid U. S. government official, based on publicly available salary information, after the President of the United States. Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Note that, while the above table indicates the President under which each postmaster general served, these postmasters general were appointed by the governors of the Postal Service and not by the President.
As of November 2017, there are four living former Postmasters General, the oldest being Anthony M. Frank; the most recent Postmaster General to die was Paul N. Carlin, on April 25, 2018; the most serving Postmaster General to die was Marvin Travis Runyon, on May 3, 2004. Postmaster General John Henninger Reagan, the only Postmaster General of the Confederate States of America Official site Papers of Arthur E. Summerfield, Postmaster General, 1953–1961, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Henry W. Keyes
Henry Wilder Keyes was a Republican politician from Haverhill, New Hampshire. He served as a United States Senator. Keyes was born in Newbury, Vermont on May 23, 1863, he was raised in New Hampshire, his father was a prominent farmer and railroad investor. Keyes graduated from Adams Academy, attended Harvard University, from which he graduated in 1887, he was a farmer and cattle breeder, initiated raising of the Holstein-Friesian breed in the United States. He was a founder of the Woodsville National Bank, served as its president. Keyes served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1891 to 1895, he served in the New Hampshire State Senate from 1903 to 1905. He was treasurer of the State license commission from 1903 to 1915, chairman of the State excise commission from 1915 to 1917. From 1915 to 1917 he served again in the state House of Representatives. In 1916 he was elected Governor of New Hampshire, he served one term, 1917 to 1919. Keyes ran for the United States Senate in 1918, he was reelected in 1924 and 1930 and served from March 4, 1919, to January 3, 1937.
He did not run for reelection in 1937. During his Senate career, Keyes served as chairman of: the Committee on Expenditures in the Post Office Department. Keyes married future prolific author Frances Parkinson Keyes in 1904, he was 40, she was 18. They had three sons together—Henry Wilder Keyes, Jr. John Parkinson Keyes, Francis Keyes. Keyes died on June 19, 1938 in North Haverhill, New Hampshire, is buried at the Oxbow Cemetery in Newbury, Vermont, he was the recipient of an honorary Master of Arts from Dartmouth College, honorary Bachelor of Science and LL. D. degrees from the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. Keyes biographic sketch at U. S. Congress Keyes at New Hampshire's Division of Historic Resources Henry W. Keyes at Find a Grave Henry Wilder Keyes at National Governors Association