President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Presidency of Abraham Lincoln
The presidency of Abraham Lincoln began on March 4, 1861, when he was inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States, ended upon his assassination and death on April 15, 1865, 42 days into his second term. Lincoln was the first member of the recently-established Republican Party elected to the presidency, he was succeeded by Vice President Andrew Johnson. Lincoln presided over the Union victory in the American Civil War. Lincoln took office following the 1860 presidential election, in which he won a plurality of the popular vote in a four-candidate field. All of Lincoln's votes came from the Northern United States, as the Republicans held little appeal to voters in the Southern United States. A former Whig, Lincoln ran on a political platform opposed to the expansion of slavery in the territories, his election served as the immediate impetus for the outbreak of the American Civil War. During the 16 weeks between Election Day and Inauguration Day, seven slave states declared their secession from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America.
After being sworn in as president, Lincoln refused to accept any resolution that would result in Southern secession from the Union. The Civil War began weeks into Lincoln's presidency with the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, a federal installation located within the boundaries of the Confederacy. Lincoln was called on to handle both the political and military aspects of the Civil War, facing challenges in both spheres; as commander-in-chief, he ordered the suspension of the constitutionally-protected right to habeas corpus in the state of Maryland in order to suppress Confederate sympathizers. He became the first president to institute a military draft; as the Union faced several early defeats in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, Lincoln cycled through numerous military commanders during the war settling on General Ulysses S. Grant, who had led the Union to several victories in the Western Theater. Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation freed about millions of slaves in Confederate-held territory, established emancipation as a Union war goal.
In 1865, Lincoln was instrumental in the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, which made slavery unconstitutional. Lincoln presided over the passage of important domestic legislation, including the first of the Homestead Acts, the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862, he ran for re-election in 1864 on the National Union ticket, supported by War Democrats in addition to Republicans. Though Lincoln feared he might lose the contest, he defeated his former subordinate, General George B. McClellan of the Democratic Party, in a landslide. Months after the election, Grant would end the war by defeating the Confederate army led by General Robert E. Lee. Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, five days after the surrender of Lee, left the final challenge of reconstructing the nation to others. Following his death, Lincoln was portrayed as the liberator of the slaves, the savior of the Union, a martyr for the cause of freedom. Political historians have long held Lincoln in high regard for his accomplishments and personal characteristics.
Alongside George Washington and Franklin D. Roosevelt, he has been ranked both by scholars and the public as one of the top three greatest presidents as number one. Lincoln, a former Whig Congressman, emerged as a major Republican presidential candidate following his narrow loss to Democrat Stephen A. Douglas in the 1858 Senate election in Illinois. Though he lacked the broad support of Republican Senator William H. Seward of New York, Lincoln believed that he could emerge as the Republican presidential nominee at the convention after multiple ballots. Lincoln spent much of 1859 and 1860 building support for his candidacy, his Cooper Union speech was well-received by eastern elites. Lincoln positioned himself in the "moderate center" of his party. On the first ballot of the May 1860 Republican National Convention, Lincoln finished second to Seward, but Seward was unable to clinch the nomination. Ignoring Lincoln's strong dictate to "make no contracts that bind me", his managers maneuvered to win Lincoln's nomination on the third ballot of the convention.
Delegates nominated Senator Hannibal Hamlin from Maine for vice president. The party platform opposed the extension of slavery into the territories but pledged not to interfere with it in the states, it endorsed a protective tariff, internal improvements such as a transcontinental railroad, policies designed to encourage the settlement of public land in the West. The 1860 Democratic National Convention met in April 1860, but adjourned after failing to agree on a candidate. A second convention met in June and nominated Stephen Douglas as the presidential nominee, but several pro-slavery Southern delegations refused to support Douglas, as they demanded a pro-slavery nominee; these Southern Democrats held a separate convention that nominated incumbent Vice President John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky for president. A group of former Whigs and Know Nothings formed the Constitutional Union Party and nominated John Bell for president. Breckinridge and Bell would contest the South, while Lincoln and Douglas would compete for votes in the North.
Republicans were confident after these party conventions, with Lincoln predicting that the fractured Democrats stood little chance of winning the election. Lincoln carried all but one Northern state to win an Electoral College majority with 180 votes to 72 for Breckinridge, 39 for Bell, 12 for Douglas. Lincoln won every county in New England and most of the remaining counties in
Dakota War of 1862
The Dakota War of 1862 known as the Sioux Uprising, the Dakota Uprising, the Sioux Outbreak of 1862, the Dakota Conflict, the U. S.–Dakota War of 1862 or Little Crow's War, was an armed conflict between the United States and several bands of Dakota. It began on August 17, 1862, along the Minnesota River in southwest Minnesota, four years after its admission as a state. Throughout the late 1850s in the lead-up to the war, treaty violations by the United States and late or unfair annuity payments by Indian agents caused increasing hunger and hardship among the Dakota. During the war, the Dakota made extensive attacks on hundreds of settlers and immigrants, which resulted in settler deaths, caused many to flee the area. Intense desire for immediate revenge ended with soldiers capturing hundreds of Dakota men and interning their families. A military tribunal tried the men, sentencing 303 to death for their crimes. President Lincoln would commute the sentence of 264 of them; the mass hanging of 38 Dakota men was conducted on December 1862, in Mankato, Minnesota.
Traders with the Dakota had demanded that the government give the annuity payments directly to them. In mid-1862, the Dakota demanded the annuities directly from Thomas J. Galbraith; the traders refused to provide any more supplies on credit under those conditions, negotiations reached an impasse. On August 17, 1862, one young Dakota with a hunting party of three others killed five settlers while on a hunting expedition; that night a council of Dakota decided to attack settlements throughout the Minnesota River valley to try to drive whites out of the area. There has never been an official report on the number of settlers killed, although in President Abraham Lincoln's second annual address, he said that no fewer than 800 men and children had died. Over the next several months, continued battles of the Dakota against settlers and the United States Army, ended with the surrender of most of the Dakota bands. By late December 1862, US soldiers had taken captive more than a thousand Dakota, including women and elderly men in addition to warriors, who were interned in jails in Minnesota.
After trials and sentencing by a military court, 38 Dakota men were hanged on December 26, 1862 in Mankato in the largest one-day mass execution in American history. In April 1863, the rest of the Dakota were expelled from Minnesota to South Dakota; the United States Congress abolished their reservations. Additionally, the Ho-Chunk people living on reservation lands near Mankato were expelled from Minnesota as a result of the war; the United States and Dakota leaders negotiated the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux on July 23, 1851, Treaty of Mendota on August 5, 1851, by which the Dakota ceded large tracts of land in Minnesota Territory to the U. S. in exchange for promises of money and goods. From that time on, the Dakota were to live on a 20-mile wide Indian reservation centered on a 150 mile stretch of the upper Minnesota River. However, the United States Senate deleted Article 3 of each treaty, which set out reservations, during the ratification process. Much of the promised compensation never arrived, was lost, or was stolen due to corruption in the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Annuity payments guaranteed to the Dakota were provided directly to traders instead. When Minnesota became a state on May 11, 1858, representatives of several Dakota bands led by Little Crow traveled to Washington, D. C. to negotiate about enforcing existing treaties. The northern half of the reservation along the Minnesota River was lost, rights to the quarry at Pipestone, were taken from the Dakota; this was a major blow to the standing of Little Crow in the Dakota community. The land was divided into plots for settlement. Logging and agriculture on these plots eliminated surrounding forests and prairies, which interrupted the Dakota's annual cycle of farming, hunting and gathering wild rice. Hunting by settlers reduced wild game, such as bison, whitetail deer and bear. Not only did this decrease the meat available for the Dakota in southern and western Minnesota, but it directly reduced their ability to sell furs to traders for additional supplies. Although payments were guaranteed, the US government was behind or failed to pay because of Federal preoccupation with the American Civil War.
Most land in the river valley was not arable, hunting could no longer support the Dakota community. The Dakota became discontented over their losses: land, non-payment of annuities, past broken treaties, plus food shortages and famine following crop failure. Tensions increased through the summer of 1862. On August 4, 1862, representatives of the northern Sissetowan and Wahpeton Dakota bands met at the Upper Sioux Agency in the northwestern part of the reservation and negotiated to obtain food; when two other bands of the Dakota, the southern Mdewakanton and the Wahpekute, turned to the Lower Sioux Agency for supplies on August 15, 1862, they were rejected. Indian Agent Thomas Galbraith managed the area and would not distribute food to these bands without payment. At a meeting of the Dakota, the U. S. government and local traders, the Dakota representatives asked the representative of the government traders, Andrew Jackson Myrick, to sell them food on credit. His response was said to be, "So far as I am concerned, if they are hungry let th
Joseph Hanks was the great-grandfather of United States President Abraham Lincoln. It is accepted that Joseph was the father of Lucy Hanks, the mother of Nancy Hanks Lincoln. There is a theory that Joseph and his wife, had a son named James who married Lucy Shipley, sired Nancy Hanks, but died before Lucy and Nancy came to Kentucky. Joseph Hanks' children and grandchildren figure prominently in Abraham Lincoln's youth. Joseph Hanks was born the second son of Catherine Hanks and John Hanks on December 20, 1725 in North Farnham Parish, Richmond County, Virginia, he oversaw a plantation. Joseph and his family lived in Richmond County until 1782 when they moved to what was Hampshire County, Virginia. One theory about the Hanks family's westward movement was that Joseph Hanks was concerned about his daughters access to returning Revolutionary War soldiers in the "lax environment" following the war. There are records that show that Joseph Hanks' mother, Catherine died in 1779. Joseph, executor of the will, inherited monies from her estate and it was after this in 1781 that the Hanks moved from Northern Neck, Virginia to a place between the forks of Mike's Run off of Patterson's Creek in Hampshire County, Virginia.
The land there had just become available with proper surveys and clear titles. Joseph married Ann known as Nancy and Nannie, she was born about 1742 and died about 1794. Joseph and Ann Hank's children are: Thomas was born in 1759, served in the militia while in Hampshire County; when the family moved to Kentucky, he remained in Hampshire County until 1800 when he settled in Rose County, Ohio. He died February 6th, 1834. Joshua was born about 1762 and died about 1835. William was born about 1765 and died about 1851 or 1852, he was father to John Hanks. He was married to Levi Hall's sister, he moved Illinois in 1826-1827 and in 1830 was a neighbor to Abraham Lincoln in Macon County, Illinois. Charles Joseph moved with the family in his youth, moved with his mother move to Virginia after the death of his father, he was raised by his older brother, either Joshua or Thomas, following his mother's death in 1794. In 1798 he moved to Kentucky and worked in an Elizabethtown carpentry shop where Thomas Lincoln worked.
He married Mary Young in 1810. He moved to Crawford County, Indiana in 1815 and to 10 years moved to Sangamon County, Illinois. Lucy, born about 1767, was the unwed mother of Nancy Hanks, she gave birth to Nancy in 1784, gave birth to Sarah Hanks about 1787 and married Henry Sparrow in 1791. Sarah Hanks gave birth to 6 illegitimate children, the eldest, Sophia Hanks was born in 1809, lived with her aunt Elizabeth and uncle Thomas Sparrow, after their death in 1818 lived with the Thomas Lincoln family. Lucy had eight children with Henry Sparrow. Nancy, the unwed mother of Dennis Hanks, married Levi Hall. Elizabeth, nicknamed Betsey, was baptized May 4, 1771, she raised Dennis and Nancy Hanks. Nancy was called Nancy Sparrow by her Hanks relatives. Polly married Jesse Friend. Joseph Hanks lived on 108 acres on a fork of Mike's Run, alongside Patterson Creek, Hampshire County, VA. Joseph Hanks is on the 1782 census for Virginia; the census showed. This would have included Joseph and his 9 children, including Lucy Hanks.
Joseph Hank's home, now in Mineral County, West Virginia, is considered Nancy Hanks's birthplace and contains a memorial to her from the state of West Virginia. In March 1784 Joseph Hanks sold his property via a mortgage and moved with his wife, eight children, granddaughter Nancy to Kentucky, having traveled on the Wilderness Road through Cumberland Gap; the family lived on land purchased February, 1787 about 2 miles north of the mouth of Pottinger's Creek and Rolling Fork, in a settlement called Rolling Fork or Pottinger's Creek settlement in Nelson County, Kentucky until the death of patriarch Joseph Hanks in 1793. Pottinger Station "Site of one of the forts. Built by Samuel Pottinger, soldier in Revolution, who first saw the land in 1778 which he came from Maryland with troops of Capt. James Harrod. In 1781 Pottinger built station, it was used as a refuge for other settlers migrating to Kentucky. A man named Zachariah Riney bought Nancy's grandfather, Joseph Hanks, Sr. property off of Rolling Fork in Kentucky.
After Nancy and Thomas Lincoln were married and had children, with Caleb Hazel, taught Nancy's children at the Knob Creek school. The Hanks property purchased by Riney was situated "on the Rolling Fork near the moth of Knob Creek and Pottinger's Creek". Joseph Hanks died in 1793. Nancy's grandmother named Nancy but called Ann, decided to return to the homeland of her youth and much of her adulthood in old Farnham parish in Virginia, his home and property were to be given to his wife during her lifetime and their youngest son, Joseph, Jr. In 1794 Nancy and her son, Joseph Hanks, Jr. sold the property along Rolling Fork near Pottinger's Creek to her son William. Ann returned to the Farnham area in Virginia with Joseph and died there. William and his wife lived in any unmarried children they were married. Joseph and Ann's grandchild, went to live with her mother, Lucy Hanks Sparrow. Abraham Lincoln's great grandparents are believed to be Ann and Joseph Hanks of North Farnham Parish, Richmond County, VA.
Joseph and Ann's children
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 to 1877 in American history. It was a significant chapter in the history of American civil rights; the term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War. Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate secession and ended slavery, making the newly-free slaves citizens with civil rights ostensibly guaranteed by three new Constitutional amendments. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought. Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the Union as as possible, while Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, while curtailing the rights of former Confederates, such as through the provisions of the Wade–Davis Bill.
Johnson, a former Tennessee Senator, former slave owner, the most prominent Southerner to oppose the Confederacy, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this. Johnson's interpretations of Lincoln's policies prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866; those elections followed outbreaks of violence against blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riot that same year. The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, enfranchise the freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U. S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau; the Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, set up schools and churches for them.
Thousands of Northerners came south as missionaries, teachers and politicians. Hostile whites began referring to these politicians as "carpetbaggers". In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature; the first bill extended the life of the bureau established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his vetos, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto; the Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The action failed by one vote in the Senate; the new national Reconstruction laws – in particular laws requiring suffrage for freedmen – incensed white supremacists in the South, giving rise to the Ku Klux Klan.
During 1867-69 the Klan murdered Republicans and outspoken freedmen in the South, including Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds. Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported Congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Grant used the Enforcement Acts to combat the Ku Klux Klan, wiped out, although a new incarnation of the Klan would again come to national prominence in the 1920s. President Grant was unable to resolve the escalating tensions inside the Republican Party between the Northerners on the one hand, those Republicans hailing from the South on the other. Meanwhile, "redeemers", self-styled conservatives in close cooperation with a faction of the Democratic Party opposed Reconstruction, they alleged widespread corruption by the "carpetbaggers", excessive state spending, ruinous taxes. Meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies, requiring continued supervision of the South, faded in the North after the Democrats, who opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in 1874.
In 1877, as part of a Congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president following the disputed 1876 presidential election, U. S. Army troops were withdrawn from the three states; this marked the end of Reconstruction. Historian Eric Foner argues: What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure. In different states Reconstruction ended at different times. In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the South as starting in 1863 rather than 1865; the usual ending for Reconstruction has always been 1877. Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the
Thomas Lincoln was an American farmer and father of 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. Unlike some of his ancestors, Lincoln could not write, but he was a well-respected community and church member known for his honesty. Lincoln struggled to make a successful living for his family and met challenges of Kentucky real estate border disputes, the early death of his first wife, the integration of his second wife's family into his own family before making his final home in Illinois. Lincoln was descended from Samuel Lincoln, a respected Puritan weaver and trader from the County of Norfolk in East Anglia who landed in Hingham in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1637; some Lincolns migrated into Berks County, where they intermarried with Quakers, but did not retain the peculiar ways. According to the National Humanities Center, both Quakers and Puritans were opposed to slavery. Noteworthy ancestors include Samuel's grandson, Mordecai who married Hannah Salter from a prominent political family, made a name for himself in Pennsylvania society as a wealthy landowner and ironmaster.
Mordecai and Hannah's son, John Lincoln settled in Rockingham County and built a large, prosperous farm nestled in Shenandoah Valley. Abraham Lincoln, instead of being the unique blossom on an otherwise barren family tree, belonged to the seventh American generation of a family with competent means, a reputation for integrity, a modest record of public service. John Lincoln gave 210 acres of prime Virginian land to his first son, Captain Abraham Lincoln, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War. In 1770, Abraham married Bathsheba Herring, born in Rockingham County, Virginia. Thomas was born in 1778 in Virginia to Bethsheba Lincoln; the Lincolns sold the land to move in the 1780s to western Virginia, now Springfield, Kentucky. He amassed an estate of 5,544 acres of prime Kentucky land, realizing the bounty as advised by Daniel Boone, a relative of the Lincoln family. In May 1786, Lincoln witnessed the murder of his father by Native American Indians "... when he was laboring to open a farm in the forest."
Lincoln's life was saved that day by Mordecai. One of the most profound stories of President Abraham Lincoln's memory was: While Abraham Lincoln and his three boys, Mordecai and Thomas, were planting a cornfield on their new property, Indians attacked them. Abraham was killed instantly. Mordecai, at fifteen the oldest son, sent Josiah running to the settlement half a mile away for help while he raced to a nearby cabin. Peering out of a crack between logs, he saw an Indian sneaking out of the forest toward his eight-year-old brother, still sitting in the field beside their father's body. Mordecai picked up a rifle, aimed for a silver pendant on the Indian's chest, killed him before he reached the boy. Between September 1786 and 1788 Bathsheba moved the family to Beech Fork in Nelson County, now Washington County. A replica of the cabin is located at the Lincoln Homestead State Park; as the oldest son, in accordance with Virginian law at the time, Mordecai inherited his father's estate and of the three boys seems to have inherited more than his share of talent and wit.
Josiah and Thomas were forced to make their own way. "The tragedy," wrote historian David Herbert Donald, "abruptly ended his prospects of being an heir of a well-to-do Kentucky planter. From 1795 to 1802, Thomas Lincoln held a variety of ill-paying jobs in several locations, he served in the state militia at the age of 19 and became a Cumberland County constable at 24. He moved to Hardin County, Kentucky in 1802 and bought a 238-acre farm the following year for £118; when he lived in Hardin County, he was a jury member, a petitioner for a road, a guard for county prisoners. Lincoln was active in community and church affairs in Hardin Counties; the following year his sister Nancy Brumfield, brother-in-law William Brumfield and his mother Bathsheba moved from Washington County to Mill Creek and lived with Lincoln. In 1805, Lincoln constructed most of the woodwork, including mantels and stairways, for the Hardin house, now restored and called the Lincoln Heritage House at Freeman Lake Park in Elizabethtown.
In 1806, he ferried merchandise on a flatboat to New Orleans down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers for the Bleakley & Montgomery store in Elizabethtown. On June 12, 1806, Lincoln married Nancy Hanks at Beechland in Kentucky. Nancy Hanks, born in what was Hampshire County, was the daughter of Lucy Hanks and a man who Abraham believed to be "a well-bred Virginia farmer or planter." She was called Nancy Sparrow and adopted daughter of Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow. Dennis Hanks, Abraham's friend and second cousin, reported that Nancy Hanks Lincoln had remarkable perception. Nathaniel Grisby, a friend and neighbor, said. Nancy taught young Abraham to read using the Bible, modeled "sweetness and benevolence". Abraham said of her, "All that I am or hope to be I get from my mother". Lincoln developed a modicum of talent as a carpenter and although called "an uneducated man, a plain unpretending plodding man", he was respected for his civil service, storytelling ability and good-nature, he was known as a "wandering" laborer and uneducated.
A rover and drifter, he kept floating about from one place to another, taking any kind of job he could get when hunger drove him to it. Aside from making cabinets and other carpentry work, Lincoln worked as a manual labor
Richard J. Oglesby
Richard James Oglesby was an American soldier and Republican politician from Illinois. He served in the United States Army during the Mexican–American War of 1846–47, after the war became a prospector during the California Gold Rush and was elected to the Illinois General Assembly. During the American Civil War, Oglesby volunteered for the Union Army and rose to the rank of major general, serving in the Western Theater, he served as a United States Senator from Illinois from 1873 to 1879. The town of Oglesby, Illinois, is named in his honor. Oglesby was born in Oldham County, Kentucky, he was orphaned and moved to live with his uncle in Decatur, Illinois, in 1832, where he worked as a farmhand and carpenter. With the outbreak of the Mexican–American War, he enlisted as a 1st Lieutenant in Company C, 4th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment taking part in the battles of Veracruz and Cerro Gordo "where his regiment captured Mexican President General Santa Anna, but they had to settle for his cork leg, carriage and $20,000 in gold".
He might have participated in what may have been the first baseball game played outside the U. S. at the end of April 1847, a few days after the Battle of Cerro Gordo, "with the wooden leg captured from General Santa Anna". He was mustered out of the volunteer service in May 1847, he studied at Louisville Law School in 1848, but traveled to California for the gold rush in 1849, where he tried his hand at gold mining. After two years of traveling in Europe, he returned to Illinois in 1851, joined the Republican Party at its formation, ran unsuccessfully for the U. S. Congress in 1858, was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1860. In 1859 Oglesby married Decatur native Anna White, they had four children. At the start of the Civil War, Oglesby was appointed colonel of the 8th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment on April 25, 1861, was soon given command of the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, District of Cairo, Department of the Missouri, serving under the command of Ulysses S. Grant, he was a well liked commander known to his troops as "Uncle Dick".
He commanded his brigade at the battles of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson and soon after was promoted to brigadier general. He commanded 2nd Division, Army of the Tennessee, during the Siege of Corinth, he was wounded in his chest and back at the Battle of Corinth in October 1862. Oglesby was promoted to major general on November 29, after a period of recovery, commanded the Left Wing of the XVI Corps, Army of the Tennessee, in western Tennessee and northern Mississippi from April to July 1863, he resigned his commission on May 1864, to run for governor on the Republican ticket. He was present in the room at the Petersen House when President Abraham Lincoln died on April 15, 1865. Oglesby was elected by a large majority and served as the Governor of Illinois between 1865 and 1869. During his tenure as governor, he advocated improving the quality of care of the mentally ill and for other groups of disabled citizens, he signed legislation expanding the State Hospital system from one campus to three.
After his term ended, he practiced law until 1872, when he agreed to a scheme in which Oglesby ran again for governor, but turned the office over to the lieutenant governor after inauguration in return for a seat in the U. S. Senate, he served as a Senator from 1873 until 1879. In 1884, he was reelected governor for a third time, becoming the first man in Illinois history to serve three times as governor. At the end of his third term as governor, he tried unsuccessfully to be reelected to his Senate seat, he died at his "Oglehurst" estate in Elkhart, Illinois. He is buried there in Elkhart Cemetery. There is a statue of Oglesby in Chicago, his son, John G. Oglesby, was a two time Lieutenant Governor of Illinois. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
Plummer, Mark A. Lincoln's Rail Splitter: Governor Richard J. Oglesby. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001. ISBN 0-252-02649-7. Townsend, George Alfred; the Life and Capture of John Wilkes Booth. New York: Dick & Fitzgerald, 1865. OCLC 8110858. Richard J. Oglesby at Find a Grave Richard Oglesby Home in Decatur, Illinois