The dignity of Knight Bachelor is the basic and lowest rank of a man, knighted by the monarch but not as a member of one of the organised orders of chivalry. Knights Bachelor are the most ancient sort of British knight, but Knights Bachelor rank below knights of chivalric orders. There is no female counterpart to Knight Bachelor; the lowest knightly honour that can be conferred upon a woman is Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, one rank higher than Knight Bachelor. Foreigners are not created Knights Bachelor. Knighthood is conferred for public service, it is possible to be a Knight Bachelor and a junior member of an order of chivalry without being a knight of that order. For instance, Sir Ian Holm, Sir Michael Gambon, Sir Derek Jacobi, Sir Anthony Hopkins, Sir Elton John, Sir Michael Caine, Sir Barry Gibb and Sir Ian McKellen are Commanders of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. None of them would be entitled to use the honorific "Sir" by virtue of their membership of the order alone, but as they are all Knights Bachelor, they are entitled to preface their names with that title.
Like other knights, Knights Bachelor are styled "Sir". Since they are not knights of any order of chivalry, there is no post-nominal associated with the honour; when the style "Sir" is awkward or incomplete due to a subsequent appointment, recipients may sometimes use the word "Knight" or "Kt" after their name in formal documents to signify that they have the additional honour. This style is adopted by Knights Bachelor who are peers, baronets or knights of the various statutory orders; until 1926 knights bachelor had no insignia which they could wear, but in that year King George V issued a warrant authorising the wearing of a badge on all appropriate occasions. The knights bachelor badge may be worn on all such occasions upon the left side of the coat or outer garment of those upon whom the degree of knight bachelor has been conferred. Measuring 2 3⁄8 inches in length and 1 3⁄8 inches in width, it is described in heraldic terms as follows: Upon an oval medallion of vermilion, enclosed by a scroll a cross-hilted sword belted and sheathed, pommel upwards, between two spurs, rowels upwards, the whole set about with the sword belt, all gilt.
In 1974, Queen Elizabeth II issued a further warrant authorising the wearing on appropriate occasions of a neck badge smaller in size, in miniature. In 1988 a new certificate of authentication, a knight's only personal documentation, was designed by the College of Arms; the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor was founded for the maintenance and consolidation of the Dignity of Knights Bachelor in 1908, obtained official recognition from the Sovereign in 1912. The Society keeps records of all Knights Bachelor, in their interest. Bachelor Knight banneret Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood British honours system: Knighthood Insignia of knights bachelor—Website of the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor The UK Honours System—Website UK Government Debrett's Media related to Knights Bachelor at Wikimedia Commons
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Yorkshire, formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Due to its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have been subject to periodic reform. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region; the name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use in the media and the military, features in the titles of current areas of civil administration such as North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire. Within the borders of the historic county of Yorkshire are vast stretches of unspoiled countryside; this can be found in the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors and with the open aspect of some of the major cities. Yorkshire has been named "God's Own County" or "God's Own Country"; the emblem of Yorkshire is the White Rose of the English royal House of York, the most used flag representative of Yorkshire is the White Rose on a blue background, which after nearly fifty years of use, was recognised by the Flag Institute on 29 July 2008.
Yorkshire Day, held annually on 1 August, is a celebration of the general culture of Yorkshire, ranging from its history to its own dialect. Yorkshire is covered by different Government Office Regions. Most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber while the extreme northern part of the county, such as Middlesbrough, Redcar and Startforth, falls within North East England. Small areas in the west of the county are covered by the North West England region. Yorkshire or the County of York was so named as it is the shire of York's Shire. "York" comes from the Viking name for Jórvík. "Shire" is from scir meaning care or official charge. The "shire" suffix is locally pronounced /-ʃə/ "shuh", or /-ʃiə/, a homophone of "sheer". Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi; the Brigantes controlled territory which became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England.
That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum was the capital town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county; the Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, might have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul. Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber Estuary. Although the Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD, the Brigantes remained in control of their kingdom as a client state of Rome for an extended period, reigned over by the Brigantian monarchs Cartimandua and her husband Venutius; this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain. Queen Cartimandua left her husband Venutius for his armour bearer, setting off a chain of events which changed control of the region. Cartimandua, due to her good relationship with the Romans, was able to keep control of the kingdom.
At the second attempt, Venutius seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, conquered the Brigantes in 71 AD. The fortified city of Eboracum was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint capital of all Roman Britain; the emperor Septimius Severus ruled the Roman Empire from Eboracum for the two years before his death. Another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Eboracum during a visit in 306 AD; this saw his son Constantine the Great, who became renowned for his contributions to Christianity, proclaimed emperor in the city. In the early 5th century, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops. By this stage, the Western Empire was in intermittent decline. After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms arose in the region, including the Kingdom of Ebrauc around York and the Kingdom of Elmet to the west. Elmet remained independent from the Germanic Northumbrian Angles until some time in the early 7th century, when King Edwin of Northumbria expelled its last king and annexed the region.
At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the Irish Sea to the North Sea and from Edinburgh down to Hallamshire in the south. Scandinavian York or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings. Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954, however the area was invaded and conquered for short periods by England between 927 and 954 before being annexed into England in 954, it was associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period. An army of Danish Vikings, the Great Heathen Army as its enemies referred to it, invaded Northumbrian territory in 866 AD; the Danes conquered and assumed what is now York and renamed it Jórvík, making it the capital city of a new Danish kingdom under the same name. The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.
The Danes went on to conque
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Sir Squire Bancroft, born Squire White Butterfield, was an English actor-manager. He and his wife Effie Bancroft are considered to have instigated a new form of drama known as'drawing-room comedy' or'cup and saucer drama', owing to the realism of their stage sets. Bancroft was born in London, his first appearance on the stage was in 1861 at Birmingham, he played in the provinces with success for several years. His first London appearance was in 1865 as Jack Crawley in J. P. Wooler's A Winning Hazard at the Prince of Wales's Theatre off Tottenham Court Road; this theatre was managed by Henry Byron and Effie Marie Wilton, whom Bancroft married in December 1867. After their marriage the couple became joint managers of the theatre. Mr and Mrs Bancroft produced and starred in all the Thomas William Robertson comedies beginning in 1865: Society, Caste, School and M. P. and, after Robertson's death, in revivals of the old comedies, for which they surrounded themselves with an admired company. Together and the Bancrofts are considered to have instigated a new form of drama known as "drawing-room comedy" or "cup and saucer drama".
The Bancrofts gave Robertson an unprecedented amount of directorial control over his plays, a key step to institutionalizing the power that directors wield in the theatre today. The Bancroft management at the Prince of Wales's Theatre constituted a new era in the development of the English stage and had the effect of reviving the London interest in modern drama, they were responsible for making fashionable the "box set", which Lucia Elizabeth Vestris had first used at the Olympic Theatre in the 1830s – this consisted of rooms on stage which were dressed with sofas, curtains and carpets on the stage floor. They provided their actors with salaries and wardrobes; the Bancrofts redesigned their theatre to suit the upscale audience: "The cheap benches near the stage, where the rowdiest elements of the audience used to sit were replaced by comfortable padded seats, carpets were laid in the aisles, the pit was renamed the stalls."Other plays they premiered or produced there were W. S. Gilbert's Allow Me To Explain and his romantic comedy tribute to Robertson, Sweethearts, as well as Tame Cats, Lytton's Money, The School for Scandal, Boucicault's London Assurance, Diplomacy, an adaptation of Sardou's Dora by Clement Scott and B. C.
Stephenson. In the 1870s and 1880s, in addition to his management responsibilities, Bancroft continued to play leading roles in numerous contemporary plays, as well as in works by Shakespeare and Richard Brinsley Sheridan's and other classic plays opposite his wife. In 1879, the Bancrofts moved to the Haymarket Theatre, where they produced or starred in a revival of Money, in Sardou's Odette and Pinero's Lords and Commons, with revivals of previous successes. Having made a considerable fortune, they retired from management in 1885, but Bancroft continued to act until 1918. Bancroft was knighted in 1897. Between 1917, his death in 1926, Bancroft maintained rooms at the fashionable Albany, in Piccadilly. Both he and his wife are buried in Brompton Cemetery. Bancroft wrote two books, in collaboration with his wife, he wrote two volumes of reminiscences called Mr. and Mrs. Bancroft On and Off the Stage, Written by Themselves and The Bancrofts: Recollections of Sixty Years; the Bancrofts: Recollections of Sixty Years Information about the Bancroft's and "cup and saucer drama" from the People Play website Britannica.com article Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Bancroft, Sir Squire". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by or about Squire Bancroft at Internet Archive Squire Bancroft Photograph part of the Nineteenth Century Notables Digital Collection at Gettysburg College
Dame Irene Vanbrugh DBE was an English actress. The daughter of a clergyman, Vanbrugh followed her elder sister Violet into the theatrical profession and sustained a career for more than 50 years. In her early days as a leading lady she was associated with the plays of Arthur Wing Pinero and had parts written for her by J. M. Barrie, Bernard Shaw, Somerset Maugham, A. A. Milne and Noël Coward. More famous for comic rather than dramatic roles, Vanbrugh played a number of the latter in both modern works and the classics, her stage debut was in Shakespeare, but she acted in his works in her career. Vanbrugh appeared in fundraising shows for various charities, she was active over many years in the support of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, of which her brother was principal. After her death the Academy's new theatre was named The Vanbrugh Theatre in honour of her and her sister. Vanbrugh was born Irene Barnes in Exeter, the youngest daughter and fifth child of six of the Rev. Reginald Henry Barnes, Prebendary of Exeter Cathedral and Vicar of Heavitree, his wife, Frances Mary Emily, née Nation.
Irene's eldest sister Violet and younger brother Kenneth were to make theatrical careers. Another sister Edith married an official in the colonial service and became a pillar of the British Raj, Angela was a professional violinist. Irene was educated at schools in Paris; when the Barnes family moved to London, she attended a school near Earls Court recommended by the actress Ellen Terry, a family friend. It was at Terry's suggestion that Violet, on starting a theatrical career, had adopted the stage name Vanbrugh. Irene did the same. Violet's early success encouraged Irene to follow her into the theatrical profession. Sir John Gielgud described the two:The Vanbrugh sisters were remarkably alike in appearance. Tall and imposing, beautifully spoken, they moved with grace... They were elegantly but never ostentatiously dressed and leaving the stage with unerring authority... Violet never struck me as a natural comedienne; as her elder sister had done, Irene enrolled at Sarah Thorne's school of acting, based at Margate, which gave her a thorough practical grounding.
She recalled, "We played every kind of play there. As a student at the school, her first appearance on stage was in August 1888, as the capricious shepherdess Phoebe in As You Like It at the Theatre Royal, opposite the Rosalind of her sister Violet. Lewis Carroll, a college friend of Vanbrugh's father, saw her performing in Margate, was impressed. On his recommendation she made her London début in December 1888, playing the White Queen and the Knave of Hearts in a revival of Alice in Wonderland at the old Globe Theatre. Another Barnes sister, joined her in this production. Violet's early theatrical engagements had been with J. L. Toole, Irene emulated her and joined his company. For Toole, she played in established comedy successes including Dion Boucicault's Dot and H. J. Byron's Uncle Dick's Darling; when Toole toured Australia in 1890, Vanbrugh was a member of his company, acting in every play in its repertoire. She commented, "I think this was better training than Miss Thorne's school. We visited all sorts of Australian cities and small, one was pretty certain before long to find out the weak points in one's method."
On her return, she remained with Toole's company, played her first original roles as Thea Tesman in James Barrie's, burlesque Ibsen's Ghost, as Bell Golightly in Barrie's Walker, London. In 1893, Vanbrugh joined Herbert Beerbohm Tree at the Haymarket Theatre as Lettice in The Tempter by Henry Arthur Jones; the play was not popular and was soon taken off, but she had more success in Jones's next play, The Masqueraders, in 1894 she was engaged by George Alexander at the St James's Theatre where she played a number of secondary parts, in 1895 created the role of Gwendolen Fairfax in The Importance of Being Earnest. When Arthur Bourchier, who had married Violet Vanbrugh, launched himself as an actor-manager, Vanbrugh joined them at the Royalty Theatre, winning good notices in The Chili Widow and in the title role of the comedy Kitty Clive, she went with the Bourchier company to America, on her return in 1898 she created Rose in Trelawny of the Wells by Arthur Pinero, during the same season, Stella in Robert Marshall's His Excellency the Governor.
After a short break she played the role that made her name, Sophy Fullgarney in Pinero's The Gay Lord Quex. This part, a little Cockney manicurist, was quite different from any she had played before, but Pinero was insistent that she should play it. In the words of the biographer S. R. Littlewood, "Vanbrugh's intelligence and alertness avoided extravagance in a subtle expression of class-contrast; this gave the character an intensity of appeal, at the time something quite new." The play was regarded as risqué, one critic commented that had Lewis Carroll still been alive, he would have approved of "Miss Vanbrugh's greatest triumph," but not of the play. In 1901 Vanbrugh married the actor Dion Boucicault Jr. son of his more famous namesake. They appeared together for the rest of his life, he became her manager in 1915. There
Arthur Wing Pinero
Sir Arthur Wing Pinero was an English playwright and, early in his career, actor. Pinero was drawn to the theatre from an early age, became a professional actor at the age of 19, he gained experience as a supporting actor in British provincial theatres, from 1876 to 1881 was a member of Henry Irving's company, based at the Lyceum Theatre, London. Pinero wrote his first play in 1877. Seven years having written 15 more, three of them successful, he abandoned acting and became a full-time playwright, he first became known for a series of farces. During the 1890s he turned to serious subjects; the Second Mrs Tanqueray, dealing with a woman with a scandalous past, was regarded as shocking, but ran well and made a large profit. His other successes included Trelawny of the "Wells", a romantic comedy celebrating the theatre and new, The Gay Lord Quex, about a reformed roué and a feisty young woman. A venture into opera, with a libretto for The Beauty Stone, was not a success, Pinero thereafter stuck to his familiar genre of society dramas and comedies.
Although he continued to write throughout the first three decades of the 20th century and into the fourth, its is Pinero's work from the 1880s and 1890s that has endured. There have been numerous revivals of many of his plays. By his years, Pinero was seen as old-fashioned, his last plays were not successful, he died in London at the age of 79. Pinero was born in London, the only son, second of three children, of John Daniel Pinero, his wife Lucy, née Daines. Pinero's father and grandfather were London solicitors, they were descended from the Pinheiro family, described by Pinero's biographer John Dawick as "a distinguished family of Sephardic Jews who rose to prominence in medieval Portugal before suffering the persecutions of the Inquisition". Pinero's branch of the family fled to England, his grandfather abandoned the Jewish faith, became a member of the Church of England, married a Christian Englishwoman, Margaret Wing, became a successful lawyer. His younger son, Pinero's father took up the legal profession, but was much less successful.
Pinero were not affluent. He attended Spa Fields Chapel charity school in Exmouth Street, London until the age of ten, when he went to work in his father's office. John Daniel Pinero died in May 1871, leaving little money. To contribute to the family income, Pinero continued to work as a solicitor's clerk, earning £1 a week. In the evenings he studied elocution at the Birkbeck Scientific Institution, he and his fellow students staged several productions of plays, Pinero became irresistibly drawn to the theatre. In May 1874 he abandoned the legal profession and joined R. H. Wyndham at the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh as a "general utility" actor, he made his professional debut in the small role of a groom in an adaptation of Wilkie Collins's The Woman in White. As a junior member of Wyndham's company Pinero gained experience in a range of roles, supporting E. A. Sothern in Our American Cousin, Charles Mathews in the Balzac adaptation A Game of Speculation, graduating to larger parts such as Crosstree in Black-Eyed Susan.
His engagement in Edinburgh came to a sudden end in February 1875 when the theatre was destroyed by fire. He was fortunate in being offered another provincial engagement, at the Royal Alexandra Theatre, where he began to be noticed by the press, gaining approving reviews for his acting in supporting roles. A production of Miss Gwilt, an adaptation of Wilkie Collins's Armadale, starring Ada Cavendish, was reported by the theatrical paper The Era as "a genuine triumph"; the production was not the hoped-for success in London, but Pinero received good notices for his performance, when the run finished after ten weeks he was engaged by Henry Irving's manager, Mrs Bateman, as a member of the supporting cast for Irving's forthcoming provincial tour. Although the tour was uncongenial, Pinero gathered some critical notices, he continued to work as a supporting actor to Irving for five years, he first appeared at the Lyceum, Irving's London base, in December 1876 and played a total of 21 parts there between and 1881.
His Shakespearean roles were Lord Stanley in Richard III, Rosencrantz in Hamlet, Guildenstern in Hamlet, Salarino in The Merchant of Venice, Roderigo in Othello. In a revival of the melodrama The Bells, with which Irving's name was synonymous, he played Dr Zimmer. While in Irving's company Pinero wrote his first plays, he began with £200 a Year, a one-act comedy written in a single afternoon for a colleague to present at a benefit performance in 1877. The play was well received and was given several further performances, bringing Pinero's name a modest amount of publicity, his first full-length play, La Comète, was staged in a theatre in Croydon in 1878, he wrote four more one-act comedies, staged in London in 1878–1880, playing in two of them – Daisy's Escape and Bygones – at the Lyceum. Another of these, Hester's Mystery, written for the comic actor J. L. Toole, ran for 300 performances at the Folly Theatre. Pinero's profile as a playwright was further raised by The Money Spinner, a full-length comedy, first given at the Prince's Theatre, Manchester in November 1880 and at the St James's in London in January 1881.
The theatre historian J. P. Wearing regards the play as of particular importance in the histo