Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications. From the Middle Ages until World War II, coastal artillery and naval artillery in the form of cannon were important to military affairs and represented the areas of highest technology and capital cost among materiel; the advent of 20th-century technologies military aviation, naval aviation, jet aircraft, guided missiles, reduced the primacy of cannon and coastal artillery. In countries where coastal artillery has not been disbanded, these forces have acquired amphibious capabilities. In littoral warfare, mobile coastal artillery armed with surface-to-surface missiles still can be used to deny the use of sea lanes, it was long held as a rule of thumb that one shore-based gun equaled three naval guns of the same caliber, due to the steadiness of the coastal gun which allowed for higher accuracy than their sea-mounted counterparts. Land-based guns benefited in most cases from the additional protection of walls or earth mounds.
The range of gun powder based coastal artillery has a derivative role in international law and diplomacy, wherein a country's three mile limit of'coastal waters' is recognized as under the nation or state's laws. One of the first recorded uses of coastal artillery was in 1381—during the war between Ferdinand I of Portugal and Henry II of Castile—when the troops of the King of Portugal used cannons to defend Lisbon against an attack from the Castilian naval fleet; the use of coastal artillery expanded in the 16th century. The Martello tower is an excellent example of a used coastal fort which mounted defensive artillery, in this case muzzle-loading cannon. During the 19th century China built hundreds of coastal fortresses in an attempt to counter Western naval threats. Coastal artillery fortifications followed the development of land fortifications. Through the middle 19th century, coastal forts could be bastion forts, star forts, polygonal forts, or sea forts, the first three types with detached gun batteries called "water batteries".
Coastal defence weapons throughout history were heavy naval guns or weapons based on them supplemented by lighter weapons. In the late 19th century separate batteries of coastal artillery replaced forts in some countries; the amount of landward defence provided began to vary by country from the late 19th century. Booms were usually part of a protected harbor's defences. In the middle 19th century underwater minefields and controlled mines were used, or stored in peacetime to be available in wartime. With the rise of the submarine threat at the beginning of the 20th century, anti-submarine nets were used extensively added to boom defences, with major warships being equipped with them through early World War I. In World War I railway artillery emerged and soon became part of coastal artillery in some countries. Coastal artillery could be part of the Army. In English-speaking countries, certain coastal artillery positions were sometimes referred to as'Land Batteries', distinguishing this form of artillery battery from for example floating batteries.
In the United Kingdom, in the 19th and earlier 20th Centuries, the land batteries of the coastal artillery were the responsibility of the Royal Garrison Artillery. In the United States, coastal artillery was established in 1794 as a branch of the Army and a series of construction programs of coastal defenses began: the "First System" in 1794, the "Second System" in 1804, the "Third System" or "Permanent System" in 1816. Masonry forts were determined to be obsolete following the American Civil War, a postwar program of earthwork defenses was poorly funded. In 1885 the Endicott Board recommended an extensive program of new U. S. harbor defenses, featuring new rifled minefield defenses. Construction on these was slow, as new weapons and systems were developed from scratch, but was hastened following the Spanish–American War of 1898. Shortly thereafter, in 1907, Congress split the field artillery and coast artillery into separate branches, creating a separate Coast Artillery Corps. In the first decade of the 20th Century, the United States Marine Corps established the Advanced Base Force.
The force was used for setting up and defending advanced overseas bases, its close ties to the Navy allowed it to man coast artillery around these bases. During the Siege of Port Arthur, Japanese forces had captured the vantage point on 203 Meter Hill overlooking Port Arthur harbor. After relocating heavy 11-inch howitzers with 500 pound armor-piercing shells to the summit of the Hill, the Japanese bombarded the Russian fleet in the harbor, systematically sinking the Russian ships within range. On December 5, 1904, the battleship Poltava was destroyed, followed by the battleship Retvizan on December 7, 1904, the battleships Pobeda and Peresvet
I Love Lucy
I Love Lucy is an American television sitcom that ran on CBS from October 15, 1951, to May 6, 1957, with a total of 180 half-hour episodes spanning 6 seasons. The show starred Lucille Ball, her real-life husband Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance, William Frawley, it followed the life of Lucy Ricardo, a middle class housewife in New York City, who either concocted plans with her best friends to appear alongside her bandleader husband Ricky Ricardo in his nightclub, or tried numerous schemes to mingle with, or be a part of show business. After the series ended in 1957, a modified version continued for three more seasons with 13 one-hour specials, it was first known as The Lucille Ball-Desi Arnaz Show and in reruns as The Lucy–Desi Comedy Hour. Following the end of that, Ball divorced Arnaz and appeared in three other sitcoms into 1986. I Love Lucy became the most watched show in the United States in four of its six seasons, it was the first to end its run at the top of the Nielsen ratings; as of 2011, episodes of the show have been syndicated in dozens of languages across the world and remain popular with an American audience of 40 million each year.
A colorized version of its Christmas episode attracted more than 8 million viewers when CBS aired it in prime time in 2013—62 years after the show premiered. The show, the first scripted television program to be shot on 35 mm film in front of a studio audience, won five Emmy Awards and received numerous nominations and honors, it was the first show to feature an ensemble cast. It is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential sitcoms in history. In 2012, it was voted the'Best TV Show of All Time' in a survey conducted by ABC News and People magazine. Set in an apartment building in New York City, I Love Lucy centers on Lucy Ricardo and her singer/bandleader husband Ricky Ricardo, along with their best friends and landlords Fred Mertz and Ethel Mertz. During the second season and Ricky have a son named Ricky Ricardo Jr. whose birth was timed to coincide with Ball's real-life birth of her son Desi Arnaz Jr. Lucy is naïve and ambitious, with an undeserved zeal for stardom and a knack for getting herself and her husband into trouble whenever Lucy yearns to make it in show business.
The Ricardos' best friends and Ethel, are former vaudevillians and this only strengthens Lucy's resolve to prove herself as a performer. She has few marketable performance skills, she does not seem to be able to carry a tune or play anything other than off-key renditions of songs such as "Glow Worm" on the saxophone, many of her performances devolve into disaster. However, to say she is without talent would be untrue, as on occasion, she is shown to be a good dancer and a competent singer, she is at least twice offered contracts by television or film companies—first in "The Audition" when she replaces an injured clown in Ricky's act, in Hollywood when she dances for a studio benefit using a rubber Ricky dummy as her dancing partner. The show provided Ball ample opportunity to display her considerable skill at clowning and physical comedy. Character development was not a major focus of early sitcoms, so little was offered about her life before the show. A few episodes mentioned that she was born in Jamestown, New York corrected to West Jamestown, that she graduated from Jamestown High School, that her maiden name was "McGillicuddy", that she met Ricky on a boat cruise with her friend from an agency she once worked for.
Her family was absent, other than occasional appearances by her scatter-brained mother, who could never get Ricky's name right. Lucy exhibited many traits that were standard for female comedians at the time, including being secretive about her age and true hair color, being careless with money, along with being somewhat materialistic, insisting on buying new dresses and hats for every occasion and telling old friends that she and Ricky were wealthy, she was depicted as a devoted housewife and attentive mother. As part of Lucy's role was to care for her husband, she stayed at home and took care of the household chores while her husband Ricky went to work. During the post war era Lucy took jobs outside of the home but in these jobs she was portrayed as being inept outside of her usual domestic duties. Lucy's husband, Ricky Ricardo, is an up-and-coming Cuban American singer and bandleader with an excitable personality, his patience is tested by his wife's antics trying to get into showbiz, exorbitant spending on clothes or furniture.
When exasperated, he reverts to speaking in Spanish. As with Lucy, not much is revealed about his family. Ricky's mother appears in two episodes. Ricky mentions that he had been "practically raised" by his uncle Alberto, that he had attended the University of Havana. An extended flashback segment in the 1957 episode "Lucy Takes a Cruise to Havana" of The Lucille Ball–Desi Arnaz Show filled in numerous details of how Lucy and Ricky met and how Ricky came to the United States; the story, a
Sam Katzman was an American film producer and director. Katzman produced low-budget genre films, including serials, which had proportionally high returns for the studios and his financial backers. Born to a Jewish family, Katzman went to work as a stage laborer at the age of 13 in the fledgling East Coast film industry and moved from prop boy to assistant director at Fox Films, he was a Hollywood producer for more than 40 years. After working as a producer of Bob Steele westerns at A. W. Hackel's Supreme Pictures, Katzman started his own studios, Victory Pictures and Puritan Pictures, in 1935. From 1935–40 Victory produced two serials and 30 features, including Western film series starring Tom Tyler and Tim McCoy, action pictures with Herman Brix and Bela Lugosi. Puritan ceased production in 1939. In 1940 Katzman moved to Monogram Pictures and produced, under the names Banner Productions, Clover Productions and Four Leaf Productions, the East Side Kids features of the 1940s, eight thrillers starring Bela Lugosi, two musicals.
In 1944 Katzman was offered a job producing serials for Columbia Pictures. With typical thrift, he produced them on the side, using technicians, he continued to produce features for Monogram through 1948. Katzman signed a seven-year, $4 million contract with Columbia to make four feature films a year through his Kay Pictures corporation, four serials a year via his Esskay Productions, a new series with Johnny Weissmuller.. Katzman and his Monogram director Arthur Dreifuss continued to make low-budget musicals, first with Jean Porter and Gloria Jean. Katzman's work on the exceptionally successful Superman serial led him away from musicals, his feature films were completed in nine days with a budget around $140,000 per film. For Prince of Thieves, however, he secured a budget of $400,000. In 1953 he was to make at least 15 films a year. Katzman specialized in films, he worked so and cheaply that he could make a feature film on a popular subject and get it into theaters while the topic was still hot.
In 1956, when Columbia wanted to release the first rock-and-roll musical, Katzman reworked elements from his Gloria Jean musical I Surrender Dear into one of Columbia's biggest hits, Rock Around the Clock with Bill Haley and His Comets. Katzman produced horror and science-fiction films for the teenage audience, including Earth vs. the Flying Saucers and The Werewolf. In 1955 it was announced. Katzman continued to supply Columbia with profitable second features until 1962, when he received a better offer from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. At MGM in the 1960s, Katzman produced two Elvis Presley films, as well as the Herman's Hermits film Hold On! and singer Roy Orbison's only film, The Fastest Guitar Alive. In 1967 he signed a new contract with MGM to make at least two films a year, he was the uncle of television producer Leonard Katzman, and, in turn, the great-great-uncle of Ethan Klein of the Israeli-American YouTube comedy channel h3h3Productions. He was married to Hortense Katzman, they married on the set of the film The Diplomats in 1928.
She sued for divorce in 1955 but the two reconciled. Sam Katzman died on August 1973, in Hollywood, he is interred in the Hillside Memorial Park Cemetery in California. NME – February 1962 As producer unless otherwise mentioned. Film version of Terry and the Pirates after buying film rights from Douglas Fairbanks Jnr sequel to the 1943 serial The Phantom – when Katzman discovered Columbia no longer had the screen rights to the character, he reshot parts of the finished film and retitled it The Adventures of Captain Africa biopic of Pretty Boy Floyd – stopped by a lawsuit from Kroger Babb Lucky based on story by Lillie Hayward Don Quixote, USA starring Robert Morse Wheeler Winston Dixon. Lost in the Fifties: Recovering Phantom Hollywood. Southern Illinois University Press, 2005. Sam Katzman on IMDb Sam Katzman at Find a Grave Meet Jungle Sam Life magazine https://books.google.com/books?id=IUIEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA79&dq=sam+katzman+%2B+3-d#v=onepage&q=sam%20katzman%20%2B%203-d&f=false Jungle Sam in Time http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,817485-1,00.html
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
The Phynx is a 1970 American comedy film directed by Lee H. Katzin about a rock and roll band named The Phynx and their mission in foreign affairs; the group is sent to the country of Albania to locate celebrity hostages taken prisoner by Communists. This turned out to be the final film appearance for several of the veteran performers in the cast, including Leo Gorcey, George Tobias and Marilyn Maxwell; the Phynx received an limited release, has since become something of an obscure seen cult film. The Phynx... Themselves A. "Michael" Miller Ray Chipperway Dennis Larden Lonny Stevens Lou Antonio... Corrigan Mike Kellin... Bogey Michael Ansara... Col. Rostinov George Tobias... Markevitch Joan Blondell... Ruby Martha Raye... Foxy Larry Hankin... Philbaby Pat McCormick... Father O'Hoolihan Ultra Violet... Felice Rich Little... Voice in Box Susan Bernard... London Belly Sally Struthers... World's No. 1 Fan List of American films of 1970 Top Secret! The Phynx on IMDb The Phynx at Rotten Tomatoes
James Fenimore Cooper
James Fenimore Cooper was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century. His historical romances draw a picture of frontier and American Indian life in the early American days which created a unique form of American literature, he lived most of his life in Cooperstown, New York, founded by his father William on property that he owned. Cooper contributed generously to it, he attended Yale University for three years. Cooper served in the U. S. Navy as a midshipman, which influenced many of his novels and other writings; the novel that launched his career was The Spy, a tale about counter-espionage set during the American Revolutionary War and published in 1821. He wrote numerous sea stories, his best-known works are five historical novels of the frontier period known as the Leatherstocking Tales. Cooper's works on the U. S. Navy have been well received among naval historians, but they were sometimes criticized by his contemporaries. Among his most famous works is the Romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans regarded as his masterpiece.
James Fenimore Cooper was born in Burlington, New Jersey in 1789 to William Cooper and Elizabeth Cooper, the eleventh of 12 children, most of whom died during infancy or childhood. He was descended from James Cooper of Stratford-upon-Avon, England, who immigrated to the American colonies in 1679. Shortly after James' first birthday, his family moved to Cooperstown, New York, a community founded by his father on a large piece of land which he had bought for development, his father was elected to the United States Congress as a representative from Otsego County. Their town was in a central area of New York along the headwaters of the Susquehanna River, patented to Colonel George Croghan by the Province of New York in 1769. Coghan mortgaged the land before the Revolution and after the war part of the tract was sold at public auction to William Cooper and his partner Andrew Craig. By 1788, William Cooper had surveyed the site where Cooperstown would be established, he erected a home on the shore of Otsego lake and moved his family there in the autumn of 1790.
He soon began construction of the mansion that became known as Otsego Hall, completed in 1799 when James was ten. Cooper was enrolled at Yale University at age 13, but he incited a dangerous prank which involved blowing up another student's door—after having locked a donkey in a recitation room, he was expelled in his third year without completing his degree, so he obtained work in 1806 as a sailor and joined the crew of a merchant vessel at age 17. By 1811, he obtained the rank of midshipman in the fledgling United States Navy, conferred upon him on an officer's warrant signed by Thomas Jefferson. At 20, Cooper inherited a fortune from his father, he married Susan Augusta de Lancey at Mamaroneck, Westchester County, New York on January 1, 1811 at age 21. She was from a wealthy family; the Coopers had seven children. Their daughter Susan Fenimore Cooper was a writer on nature, female suffrage, other topics, she and her father edited each other's work. Among his descendants was Paul Fenimore Cooper, who became a writer.
In 1806 at the age of 17, Cooper joined the crew of the merchant ship Sterling as a common sailor. At the time, the Sterling was commanded by young John Johnston from Maine. Cooper served as a common seaman before the mast, his first voyage took some 40 stormy days at sea and brought him to an English market in Cowes with a cargo of flour. There Cooper saw his first glimpses of England; the Sterling arrived at Cowes, where she dropped anchor. Britain was in the midst of war with Napoleon's France at the time, so their ship was approached by a British man-of-war and was boarded by some of its crew, they impressed him into the British Royal Navy. Their next voyage took them to the Mediterranean along the coast of Spain, including Águilas and Cabo de Gata, where they picked up cargo to be taken back to America, their stay in Spain lasted several weeks and impressed the young sailor, the accounts of which Cooper referred to in his Mercedes of Castile, a novel about Columbus. After serving aboard the Sterling for 11 months, Cooper joined the United States Navy on January 1, 1808, when he received his commission as a midshipman.
Cooper had conducted himself well as a sailor, his father, a former U. S. Congressman secured a commission for him through his long-standing connections with politicians and naval officials; the warrant for Cooper's commission as midshipman was signed by President Jefferson and mailed by Naval Secretary Robert Smith, reaching Cooper on February 19. Along with the warrant was a copy of naval rules and regulations, a description of the required naval uniform, along with an oath that Cooper was to sign in front of a witness and to be returned with his letter of acceptance. Cooper signed the oath and had it notarized by New York attorney William Williams, Jr. who had certified the Sterling's crew. After Williams had confirmed Cooper's signature, Cooper mailed the document to Washington. On February 24, he received orders to report to the naval commander at New York City. Joining the United States Navy fulfilled an aspiration Cooper had had since his youth. Cooper's first naval assignment came in March 21, 1808 aboard the USS Vesuvius, an 82-foot bomb ketch that carried twelve guns and a thirteen-inch mortar.
For his next assignment