General Motors Company referred to as General Motors, is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as a holding company; the company is the largest American automobile manufacturer, one of the world's largest. As of 2018, General Motors is ranked #10 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. General Motors manufactures vehicles in 37 countries, it owns or holds controlling interest in foreign brands such as Holden, Wuling and Jiefang. Annual worldwide sales volume reached a milestone of 10 million vehicles in 2016. In addition to its twelve brands, General Motors holds a 20% stake in IMM, a 77% stake in GM Korea, it has a number of joint-ventures, including Shanghai GM, SAIC-GM-Wuling and FAW-GM in China, GM-AvtoVAZ in Russia, GM Uzbekistan, General Motors India, General Motors Egypt, Isuzu Truck South Africa.
General Motors does business in more than 140 countries. General Motors is divided into four business segments: GM North America, GM International Operations, GM Cruze, GM Financial; the company operates a mobility division called Maven, which operates car-sharing services in the United States, is studying alternatives to individual vehicle ownership. GM Defense is General Motors' military defense division, catering to the needs of the military for advanced technology and propulsion systems for military vehicles. General Motors led global vehicle sales for 77 consecutive years from 1931 through 2007, longer than any other automaker, in 2012 was among the world's largest automakers by vehicle unit sales. General Motors acts in most countries outside the U. S. via wholly owned subsidiaries, but operates in China through 10 joint ventures. GM's OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety and information services. In 2009, General Motors shed several brands, closing Saturn and Hummer, emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization.
In 2010, the reorganized GM made an initial public offering, one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date, returned to profitability that year. General Motors Company was formed with an escrow account set up by R S McLaughlin for 15 years of Buick Motors in 1907 on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company controlled by William C. Durant, owner of Buick. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were fewer than 8,000 automobiles in the U. S. and Durant had become a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in Flint helped by his purchase of the Carriage Gear patent from the McLaughlin family in Canada, in the 1880s and 1890s, before making his foray into the automotive industry in 1904 by purchasing the fledgling Buick Motor Company. GM's co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott, whose carriage company was merged into Buick prior to GM's creation in 1918. Over the years, Mott became the largest single stockholder in The USA, spent his life with his Mott Foundation, which has benefited the city of Flint, his adopted home.
GM acquired Oldsmobile that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore and several others. In 1909, GM acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant, along with R. S. McLaughlin, lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers who held the Escrow account' trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions, coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales; the next year, Durant started the Chevrolet Motor Car Company in the U. S. and in Canada in 1915, through this, he and McLaughlin in Canada secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant regained control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in U. S. business history. Durant reorganized General Motors Holding Company into General Motors Company in 1916, merging Chevrolet with GM and allying General Motors of Canada Limited in 1918 after McLaughlin Traded his Outstanding Stocks for GM stocks to allow the Corporation in the USA.
Shortly thereafter, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation, led it to its post-war global dominance when the seven manufacturing facilities operated by Chevrolet before Chevrolet acquired the company began to contribute to GM operations; these facilities were added to the individual factories that were exclusive to Cadillac, Oldsmobile and other companies acquired by the corporation. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s, when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants in the USA. On July 10, 2009, General Motors emerged from government backed Chapter 11 reorganization after an initial filing on June 8, 2009. Through the Troubled Asset Relief Program the US Treasury invested $49.5 billion in General Motors and recovered $39 billion when it sold its shares on December 9, 2013 resulting in a loss of $10.3 billion. The Treasury invested an additional $17.2 billion into GM's former financing company, GMAC.
The shares in Ally were sold on December 2014 for $19.6 billion netting $2.4 billion. A study by the Center for Automotive Research found that the GM bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved $34.9 billion in tax revenue. In 2009 General Motors of Canada Limited was not part of the General Motors Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, the company shed several brands
The Chevrolet Camaro is a mid-size American automobile manufactured by Chevrolet, classified as a pony car and some versions as a muscle car. It went on sale on September 29, 1966, for the 1967 model year and was designed as a competing model to the Ford Mustang; the car shared its platform and major components with the Pontiac Firebird introduced for 1967. Four distinct generations of the Camaro were developed before production ended in 2002; the nameplate was revived on a concept car. Over 5 million Camaros have been sold. Before any official announcement, reports began running during April 1965 within the automotive press that Chevrolet was preparing a competitor to the Ford Mustang, code-named Panther. On June 21, 1966, around 200 automotive journalists received a telegram from General Motors stating, "...please save noon of June 28 for important SEPAW meeting. Hope you can be on hand to help scratch a cat. Details will follow... John L. Cutter – Chevrolet public relations – SEPAW secretary."
The following day, the same journalists received another General Motors telegram stating, "Society for the Eradication of Panthers from the Automotive World will hold first and last meeting on June 28... John L. Cutter – Chevrolet public relations SEPAW secretary." These telegrams puzzled the automotive journalists. On June 28, 1966, General Motors held a live press conference in Detroit’s Statler-Hilton Hotel, it was the first time that 14 cities were connected in real time for a press conference via telephone lines. Chevrolet general manager Pete Estes started the news conference stating that all attendees of the conference were charter members of the Society for the Elimination of Panthers from the Automotive World and that this would be the first and last meeting of SEPAW. Estes announced a new car line, project designation XP-836, with a name that Chevrolet chose in keeping with other car names beginning with the letter C such as the Corvair, Chevy II, Corvette, he claimed the name, suggests the comradeship of good friends as a personal car should be to its owner and that to us, the name means just what we think the car will do... go.
The Camaro name was unveiled. Automotive press asked Chevrolet product managers, what is a Camaro? and were told it was a small, vicious animal that eats Mustangs. According to the book The Complete Book of Camaro: Every Model Since 1967, the name Camaro was conceived by Chevrolet merchandising manager Bob Lund and General Motors vice president Ed Rollett, while they were reading the book Heath's French and English Dictionary by James Boïelle and by de V. Payen-Payne printed in 1936. In the book The Complete Book of Camaro, it states that Mr. Lund and Mr. Rollett found the word camaro in the French-English dictionary was slang, to mean friend, pal, or comrade; the article further repeated Estes's statement of what the word camaro was meant to imply, that the car's name "suggests the comradeship of good friends, as a personal car should be to its owner". In fact, the actual French word that has that meaning is "camarade," from which the English word "comrade" is derived, not "camaro"; the Camaro was first shown at a press preview in Detroit on September 12, 1966, in Los Angeles, on September 19, 1966.
Public introduction of the new model was on September 26, 1966. The Camaro went on sale in dealerships on September 29, 1966, for the 1967 model year; the first-generation Camaro debuted in September 1966, for the 1967 model year, up to 1969 on a new rear-wheel drive GM F-body platform and was available as a two-door coupé or convertible with 2+2 seating, a choice of 230 cu in, 250 cu in inline-6 or 302 cu in, 307 cu in, 327 cu in, 350 cu in, 396 cu in V8 powerplants. Concerned with the runaway success of the Ford Mustang, Chevrolet executives realized that their compact sporty car, the Corvair, would not be able to generate the sales volume of the Mustang due to its rear-engine design, as well as declining sales due to the negative publicity from Ralph Nader's book, Unsafe at Any Speed. Therefore, the Camaro was touted as having the same conventional rear-drive, front-engine configuration as the Mustang and Chevy II Nova. In addition, the Camaro was designed to fit a variety of power plants in the engine bay.
The first-generation Camaro lasted until the 1969 model year and inspired the design of the new retro fifth-generation Camaro. The first-generation offered a standard, Super Sport, Rally Sport editions. In 1967, the Z/28 model was added featuring stripes on the hood and trunk, styled rally road wheels, a 302 cu in V8 engine. In the Rally Sport edition it was more the style of the car itself. Placed with the hideaway headlights, wing windows, the more rounded out rear fender. Once they brought out the 1968 year they introduced the use of side marker lights. With the 1969 Camaro they did not have the wing windows as placed on the 1967 as well as having a more flat drawn out rear fender. Introduced in February 1970, the second-generation Camaro was produced through the 1981 model year, with cosmetic changes made in 1974 and 1978 model years; the car was restyled and became somewhat larger and wider with the new styling. Still based on the F-body platform, the new Camaro was similar to its predecessor, with a unibody structure, front subframe, an A-arm front suspension, leaf springs to control the solid rear axle.
Road & Track picked the 1971 SS350 as one of the 10 best cars in the world in August 1971. RS, SS package was dropped in 1972 and reintroduced in 1996; the 1980 and 1981 Z28 models included an air inductio
Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and naval architecture, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electronic and safety engineering as applied to the design and operation of motorcycles and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. It includes modification of vehicles. Manufacturing domain deals with the creation and assembling the whole parts of automobiles is included in it; the automotive engineering field is research -intensive and involves direct application of mathematical models and formulas. The study of automotive engineering is to design, develop and test vehicles or vehicle components from the concept stage to production stage. Production and manufacturing are the three major functions in this field. Automobile Engineering is a branch study of engineering which teaches manufacturing, mechanical mechanisms as well operations of automobiles, it is an introduction to vehicle engineering which deals with motorcycles, buses, etc.
It includes branch study of mechanical, electronic and safety elements. Some of the engineering attributes and disciplines that are of importance to the automotive engineer and many of the other aspects are included in it: Safety engineering: Safety engineering is the assessment of various crash scenarios and their impact on the vehicle occupants; these are tested against stringent governmental regulations. Some of these requirements include: seat belt and air bag functionality testing and side impact testing, tests of rollover resistance. Assessments are done with various methods and tools, including Computer crash simulation, crash test dummy, partial system sled and full vehicle crashes. Fuel economy/emissions: Fuel economy is the measured fuel efficiency of the vehicle in miles per gallon or kilometers per liter. Emissions testing includes the measurement of vehicle emissions, including hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, evaporative emissions. NVH engineering: NVH is the customer's feedback from the vehicle.
While sound can be interpreted as a rattle, squeal, or hot, a tactile response can be seat vibration or a buzz in the steering wheel. This feedback is generated by components either vibrating, or rotating. NVH response can be classified in various ways: powertrain NVH, road noise, wind noise, component noise, squeak and rattle. Note, there are both bad NVH qualities; the NVH engineer works to either change the "bad NVH" to good. Vehicle Electronics: Automotive electronics is an important aspect of automotive engineering. Modern vehicles employ dozens of electronic systems; these systems are responsible for operational controls such as the throttle and steering controls. It would not be possible for automobiles to meet modern safety and fuel economy requirements without electronic controls. Performance: Performance is a measurable and testable value of a vehicle's ability to perform in various conditions. Performance can be considered in a wide variety of tasks, but it's associated with how a car can accelerate, its top speed, how short and a car can come to a complete stop from a set speed, how much g-force a car can generate without losing grip, recorded lap times, cornering speed, brake fade, etc.
Performance can reflect the amount of control in inclement weather. Shift quality: Shift quality is the driver's perception of the vehicle to an automatic transmission shift event; this is influenced by the powertrain, the vehicle Shift feel is both a tactile and audible response of the vehicle. Shift quality is experienced as various events: Transmission shifts are felt as an upshift at acceleration, or a downshift maneuver in passing. Shift engagements of the vehicle are evaluated, as in Park to Reverse, etc. Durability / corrosion engineering: Durability and corrosion engineering is the evaluation testing of a vehicle for its useful life. Tests include mileage accumulation, severe driving conditions, corrosive salt baths. Drivability: Drivability is the vehicle's response to general driving conditions. Cold starts and stalls, RPM dips, idle response, launch hesitations and stumbles, performance levels. Cost: The cost of a vehicle program is split into the effect on the variable cost of the vehicle, the up-front tooling and fixed costs associated with developing the vehicle.
There are costs associated with warranty reductions and marketing. Program timing: To some extent programs are timed with respect to the market, to the production schedules of the assembly plants. Any new part in the design must support the manufacturing schedule of the model. Assembly feasibility: It is easy to design a module, hard to assemble, either resulting in damaged units or poor tolerances; the skilled product development engineer works with the assembly/manufacturing engineers so that the resulting design is easy and cheap to make and assemble, as well as delivering appropriate functionality and appearance. Quality management: Quality control is an important factor within the production process, as high quality is needed to meet customer requirements and to avoid expensive recall campaigns; the complexity of components invol
The Cadillac CTS-V is a high-performance version of the Cadillac CTS. The CTS-V series includes three body styles, all of which feature a pushrod OHV V-8 engine and a sport-tuned suspension; the four-door CTS-V sedan was introduced in 2004, the CTS-V sport wagon and coupe were introduced in 2010 for the 2011 model year. The sedan competes in the North American consumer market against other high-performance luxury sedans and "echoes" their quality but is a more affordable option than competitors such as the Audi RS6, BMW M5, Mercedes E63 AMG; the first generation CTS-V is based on the same rear-wheel-drive GM Sigma platform as is the base model CTS. The use of a V8 engine required a unique engine cradle distinct from the base CTS V6. Larger anti-roll bars and larger shocks were added; the spring rate was increased. The 2006-2007 update included a stronger rear differential and half shaft design. Unique front and rear treatments included mesh grilles over the front openings, a track-ready suspension, 18×8.5 inch wheels inside of P245/45R18 Z-rated Goodyear Eagle F1 Supercar run-flat tires.
Brakes were 13.97 in rotors in the front, with 14.37 in rotors in the rear - each with four-piston Brembo calipers on the front and rear wheels. In addition, GM badges were added on 2006 models. For performance enthusiasts, a high performance suspension package was available as a dealer installed option; the CTS sedan is enhanced with GM performance parts like a GM LS engine V8 from the C5-generation Chevrolet Corvette Z06, as well as the Corvette Z06's six-speed Tremec manual transmission gear ratios. From 2004 and 2005, the CTS-V came with the 5.7 L pushrod OHV LS6 engine producing 400 hp at 6,000 rpm and 395 lb⋅ft of torque at 4,800 rpm. The 5 lb⋅ft torque reduction of the CTS-V vs the LS6 used in the C5 Z06, was due to the exhaust manifold that needed to be used on the CTS-V. From 2006 to 2007, the previous LS6 engine was superseded by the new 6.0 L OHV LS2 engine as used in the base 2005 Chevrolet Corvette. The new LS2 engine was rated at the same 400 hp at 6,000 rpm with the peak torque of 395 lb⋅ft at 4,400 rpm.
While both engines offer the same HP and torque specifications, the LS2's benefit was a wider torque band, due to the higher displacement it offered. The only available transmission was the six-speed manual Tremec T56; the transmission used the skip-shift feature to conserve fuel during light loads by preventing drivers from using the second and third gears, a dual mass flywheel to reduce "rattle" in no load conditions. The rear axle was a Getrag limited slip IRS unit with a 3.73:1 ratio. General Motors states a 0-60 mph time of 4.6 seconds for the first generation CTS-V, with the quarter mile time estimated at 13.1 seconds at 109 mph, onward to a stated top speed of 163 mph. The 14 inch diameter Brembo brakes can slow the vehicle from 60 mph in 110 feet; the first generation CTS-V posted a lap time of 8 minutes 19 seconds at Germany's famed Nürburgring Nordschleife, competitive with rivals such as the Mercedes-Benz E55 AMG, BMW M5, Lexus IS-F. The second generation CTS-V is based on the new GM Sigma II platform.
The rear-wheel-drive platform is the basis for the 2008 to present Cadillac CTS base model with which the CTS-V shares most of the body work. The suspension features coil springs rear; the front suspension is a control arm arrangement while the rear is an independent multi-link suspension. To improve the handling and comfort, the 2009 CTS-V uses BWI Group's MagneRide technology; the dampers, filled with magnetorheological fluid, are adjusted based on sensor readings that happen at 1 ms intervals. The sedan has four-wheel disc brakes similar to the first generation; the front brakes were increased in size to 14.96 in ventilated discs with six piston Brembo fixed calipers. The rear brakes are 14.37 in ventilated rotors with four piston calipers. Steering is speed-sensing hydraulic-assist rack-and-pinion; the steering ratio is 16.1:1. Tire sizes are 255/40ZR19 front and 285/35ZR19 rear on 19×9.0 inch and 19×9.5 inch wheels front and rear. The powerplant in the 2009 CTS-V is a supercharged 6,162 cc LSA V-8, based on the LS9 V-8 from the Chevrolet Corvette C6 ZR1.
It produces 551 lb ⋅ ft of torque. The choice to use a pushrod engine arrangement is unique in the luxury performance sedan market where competitors use dual overhead camshaft engines; the engine is produced in GM's Silao, Mexico engine assembly plant. The LSA engine has a bore x stroke of 4.065 in × 3.622 in. The engine block is cast aluminium 319-T5 alloy with cast iron cylinder liners; the crankshaft is forged steel using powdered-metal connecting rods. Pistons are high-silicon Hypereutectic Aluminium alloy replacing the forged aluminum used in the LS9 engine; the compression ratio is 9.1:1. The cylinder heads are based on the Corvette's LS3 head and are cast from type 356-T6 Aluminum alloy; the exhaust manifolds are cast iron. The supercharger is a twin four-lobe screw compressor-type unit displacing 1.9 L. It is Eaton's Twin Vortices Series generating a maximum boost of 9.0 psi. Intake air is cooled with a water-to-air intercooler built directly into the supercharger unit. There are automatic transmission choices.
The manual is a Tremec TR-6060 six-speed transmission with a short-throw shifter, twin disk clutch and dual-mass flywheel. The 6L90 automatic is a paddle shift conventional automatic six-speed. Production of the CTS-V sedan began in the summer of 2008 in the Michigan GM plant. Total production of the CTS-V for the 2009 model year was approxi
The Chevrolet Cobalt is a compact car introduced by Chevrolet in 2004 for the 2005 model year. The Cobalt replaced both the Cavalier and the Toyota-based Geo Prizm/Chevrolet Prizm as Chevrolet's compact car; the Cobalt was available as both a coupe and sedan, was based on the GM Delta platform shared with the Chevrolet HHR and the Saturn ION. Available was a high performance, Chevrolet Cobalt SS. A Pontiac version was sold in the United States and Mexico under the G5 name for 2007–2009, it was sold as the Pontiac G4 in Mexico for 2005–2006 and as the Pontiac G5 in Canada for its entire run. In all cases, the G5 replaced the Cavalier-related Pontiac Sunfire. While the Cobalt was available as a 2-door coupe and a 4-door sedan in all markets it was offered in, the G5 was only available as a coupé in the United States while a sedan version was sold alongside the coupé in Canada and Mexico; as with their predecessors, all Cobalts and its Pontiac equivalents were manufactured at GM's plant in Ramos Arizpe and Lordstown, Ohio.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency classified the Cobalt as a subcompact car. The front suspension was independent with MacPherson struts, while a semi-independent torsion beam was used in the rear; the wheelbase was 103.3 in, longer than its competitors, the width was 68.4 in. Weight was average in-class, at 2,747 lb for the sedan. For 2009, the United States Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy was increased to 24 mpg‑US city/34 mpg‑US highway with automatic transmission, 26 mpg‑US city/37 mpg‑US highway with manual transmission; the engine output was increased to 155 hp. 2006: A non-supercharged Cobalt SS was added to the lineup. This car was equipped with a 2.4 L aspirated Ecotec inline-4. The LS became the base model. In addition, as with most other GM vehicles that year, GM's Mark of Excellence symbol was added to both front fenders near the doors. 2007: Both engines were retuned for more power while retaining the same fuel economy. The 2.2 L Ecotec was now rated at 148 hp with the 2.4 L Ecotec rated at 173 hp.
Other changes include a new console, new steering wheel and new radio head unit that features an audio input jack. In addition, all models except the LS and LT1 now used a 5x110 wheel bolt pattern; the LS and LT1 retained the standard 4x100. In addition, the 2007 model year marked the introduction of a new 32-bit computer that replaced the 16-bit unit from 2006. 2008: The 2.4 L aspirated, high-output SS coupe and SS sedan were renamed to just "Sport Coupe" and "Sport Sedan" respectively. The new Cobalt SS features a 260 hp turbocharged engine, replacing the Supercharged engine, offered from 2005–2007. At mid-year, the fuel economy was increased to 25 mpg‑US 5.5–7.5 km/liter city, 36 mpg‑US 9–11 km/lite highway on the LS and 1LT, coupe and sedan models with manual transmission. XM Radio, side-impact air bags for improved safety, MP3 player were now standard instead of optional. StabiliTrak stability control system was introduced. Other changes included the removal of several exterior and interior colors.
The new SS coupe launched near the end of May 2008. 2008: The special edition package for the Cobalt was introduced on August 16, 2008, which featured all the options that were available on the previous SS models except the turbocharged 2.0 engine. Instead it was once again built with the 2.4 aspirated engine similar to the Cobalt Sport models. The special edition package could come with a sunroof, GM ground effects kit, the Getrag F23 5-speed manual transmission, additionally the 5 lug wheel bearings that the SS editions featured; the special editions were all had a "Special Edition" badge and came with unique variations of colors, racing stripes. 2009: The 2.4 L aspirated "Sport Coupe and "Sport Sedan" models were both deleted, along with the 2.2 L L61 engine. Both were replaced by the 2.2 L LAP engine thus providing better fuel economy and more power, as well an SS sedan being added to the lineup. Three exterior colors were changed, an interior color deleted. Bluetooth capabilities were added.
An option for a reconfigurable performance display available on the SS coupe, could read out various engine output data and alter performance settings. 2010: The car was replaced by the Chevy Cruze. According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety the Cobalt receives an overall top score of "Good" for front collisions. However, it receives a "Poor" overall score for side impacts without side curtain airbags, an "Acceptable" overall score with side curtain airbags. In 2008, side curtain airbags became standard, but the Cobalt's structure remains the same and in structure/safety category of the IIHS's side impact test the Cobalt receives a "Marginal" score. Side airbags are limited to the curtain type. According to the IIHS's injury measurements taken from the side impact test, the driver's torso is given a "Marginal" score; the IIHS found 2005-08 model year Cobalts had the highest fatality rate in the small 4 door car class, with 117 deaths per million registered years compared to its class average of 71.2010 NHTSA sedan crash test: Frontal Driver: Frontal Passenger: Side Driver: Side Rea
Pontiac was a car brand, owned and sold by General Motors. Introduced as a companion make for GM's more expensive line of Oakland automobiles, Pontiac overtook Oakland in popularity and supplanted its parent brand by 1933. Sold in the United States and Mexico by GM, Pontiac was advertised as the performance division of General Motors from the 1960s onward. In the hierarchy of GM's five divisions, it slotted above Chevrolet, but below Oldsmobile and Cadillac. Amid late 2000s financial problems and restructuring efforts, GM announced in 2008 it would follow the same path with Pontiac as it had with Oldsmobile in 2004 and discontinued manufacturing and marketing vehicles under that brand by the end of 2010; the last Pontiac badged cars were built in December 2009, with one final vehicle in January 2010. Franchise agreements for Pontiac dealers expired October 31, 2010, leaving GM to focus on its four remaining North American brands: Chevrolet, Cadillac, GMC; the Pontiac brand was introduced by General Motors in 1926 as the companion marque to GM's Oakland division, shared the GM A platform.
Purchased by General Motors in 1909, Oakland continued to produce modestly priced automobiles until 1931 when it was renamed Pontiac. It was named after the famous Ottawa chief who had given his name to the city of Pontiac, Michigan where the car was produced. Within months of its introduction, Pontiac was outselling Oakland, a 1920s Chevrolet with a six-cylinder engine installed. Body styles offered included a sedan with both two and four doors, Landau Coupe, with the Sport Phaeton, Sport Landau Sedan, Sport Cabriolet and Sport Roadster; as a result of Pontiac's rising sales, versus Oakland's declining sales, Pontiac became the only companion marque to survive its parent, with Oakland ceasing production in 1932. Pontiacs were manufactured from knock-down kits at GM's short-lived Japanese factory at Osaka Assembly in Osaka, Japan from 1927-1941. Pontiac produced cars offering 40 hp 186.7 cu in L-head straight 6-cylinder engines in the Pontiac Chief of 1927. The Chief sold 39,000 units within six months of its appearance at the 1926 New York Auto Salon, hitting 76,742 at twelve months.
The next year, it became the top-selling six in the U. S. ranking seventh in overall sales. By 1933, it had moved up to producing the least expensive cars available with straight eight engines; this was done by using many components from the 6-cylinder Chevrolet Master, such as the body, but installing a large chrome strip on the top and center of the front hood Pontiac called the "Silver Streak". Only eight cylinder engines were offered in 1933 and 1934, displacing 223.4 cubic inches for 77 HP. In the late 1930s, Pontiac used a Buick "torpedo" body for one of its models, just prior to its being used by Chevrolet, earning some media attention for the marque. An unusual feature of the "torpedo"-bodied exhibition car was that, with push of a button, the front half of the body would open showing the engine and the car's front seat interior. 1937 was a year of major change for Pontiac, all models except the new station wagon now using the all steel B-body shared with Oldsmobile, LaSalle and small Buicks.
New stronger X frame had Hotchkiss drive using a two part drive shaft. The eight-cylinder had a 122-inch wheelbase. Both engines had increased displacements, the six going to 222.7 cubic inches for 85 HP, the eight to 248.9 for 100 HP. In 1940 & 42, Pontiac was built on three different bodies; the "A" body with Chevrolet, the "B" body shared with Oldsmobile and Buick and the "C" body shared with the large Oldsmobile and the small Cadillac. The "C" body for 1940 was called the Torpedo. In 1941 all Pontiac's were called Torpedoes. On 2 February 1942, a Pontiac was the last civilian automobile manufactured in the United States during World War II, as all automobile factories converted to military production. For an extended period of time—prewar through the early 1950s—the Pontiac was a quiet, solid car, but not powerful, it came with a flathead straight eight. Straight 8s were less expensive to produce than the popular V8s, but they were heavier and longer. Additionally, the long crankshaft suffered from excessive flex, restricting straight 8s to a low compression ratio with a modest redline.
However, in this application, inexpensive flatheads were not a liability. From 1946 to 1948, all Pontiac models were 1942 models with minor changes; the Hydra-matic automatic transmission was introduced in 1948 and helped Pontiac sales grow though their cars and Streamliners, were becoming out of date. The first all-new Pontiac models appeared in 1949, they incorporated styling cues such as lower body lines and rear fenders that were integrated in the rear-end styling of the car. Along with new styling came a new model. Continuing the Native American theme of Pontiac, the Chieftain line was introduced to replace the Torpedo; these were built on the GM B-Body platform and featured different styling than the more conservative Streamliner. In 1950, the Catalina pillarless hardtop coupe was introduced as a "halo" model, much like the Chevrolet Bel Air of the same year. In 1952, Pontiac discontinued the Streamliner and replaced it with additional models in the Chieftain line built on the GM A-body platform.
This single model line continued until 1954. The Star Chief was created by adding an 11-inch extension to the A-body platform creating a 124-inch wheelbase; the 1953 models were the first to have one-p
Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course
Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course is a road course auto racing facility located in Troy Township, Morrow County, United States, just outside the village of Lexington. Mid-Ohio has colloquially become a term for the entire north-central region of the state, from south of Sandusky to the north of Columbus; the track opened as a 2.4 mile road circuit run clockwise. The back portion of the track allows speeds approaching 180 mph. A separate starting line is located on the backstretch to allow for safer rolling starts; the regular start / finish line is located on the pit straight. In 1990 the track underwent a refurbishment. A new retaining wall was built, the entire track was resurfaced and concrete was paved in the apexes of the turns to prevent asphalt deterioration. In addition, a straightaway was paved through the chicane, allowing for two different track layouts, the original 2.4-mile circuit and a new 13-turn, 2.258 mile circuit. In 1990, the CART series began utilizing the 2.258-mile layout. In 2006 a second major refurbishment saw several improvements.
The entire circuit was repaved and the concrete patches in the turn apexes were removed. A new motorcycle "short course" was created by connecting turn one with the backstretch and another motorcycle oval was created by connecting the chicane straight with the backstretch; the additional layouts allow simultaneous use of the multiple course, for instructional and competitive uses. The improvements included a motocross facility, that has since been closed. There is grandstand seating for 10,000 spectators and three observation mounds alongside the track raise the capacity to over 75,000; the track was opened in 1962 by Les Griebling and several Mansfield-area businessmen as a location for weekend sports car racing. In 1982 Mid-Ohio was purchased by Jim Trueman, a renowned road racer and the founder of Red Roof Inns. Trueman added permanent grandstands, amphitheater-style seating, garages with spectator balconies, a five-story media and hospitality center, underground tunnels and an updated paddock area.
In addition, a tall, three-sided scoreboard tower was constructed in the infield, strategically placed such that it was visible from nearly all spectator areas around the track. Trueman's daughter, Michelle Trueman Gajoch, was named the president in 1989 and saw day-to-day operations of the circuit. In 1990 the track underwent a refurbishment. A new retaining wall was built, the entire track was resurfaced and concrete was paved in the apexes of the turns to prevent asphalt deterioration. In addition, a straightaway was paved through the chicane, allowing for two different track layouts, the original 2.4-mile circuit and a new 13-turn, 2.258 mile circuit. In 2006 the track again underwent extensive renovation; the track and pit lane were resurfaced and connectors were added to the track's famed Keyhole section to allow for three separate road course configurations. Completed was the removal of concrete patches from the track, the relocation of the wall and guardrail at Turn 1, the expansion of gravel traps at the exits of Turn 1 and the keyhole, the replacement of all remaining old-style catch fencing and the standardization of curbing throughout the circuit.
These changes have resulted in a faster, more competitive and attractive facility for drivers and race fans. The sports car course operates from April through to November each year. During this time the facility is host to a number of nationally sanctioned race weekends, all of which are open to the public. Mid-Ohio has hosted "closed course" events for kart racing events since the late 1960s sanctioned by I. K. F. & W. K. A. and run by the Dart kart Club, with up to 400 entries participating. Karts use the full track with the chicane. Additionally, on-site motor home and tent camping spaces are available. On March 2, 2011 it was announced that the track had been purchased from Truesports by Green Savoree Racing Promotions, which promotes other IndyCar races, ending Truesports' 29 years of ownership. On November 13, 2012, NASCAR announced that the track would hold the Mid-Ohio Challenge in the 2013 season. Acura Sports Car Challenge At Mid Ohio May 4–6 Vintage Grand Prix of Mid Ohio June 22–24 AMA Vintage Motorcycle Days July 6–8 Honda Indy 200 at Mid-Ohio July 27–29 B&L Transport 170 August 10–11 Founded in 1993, The Mid-Ohio School offers licensed drivers and motorcycle riders programs in defensive driving, high performance driving and performance track riding programs.
Students in each course partake in classroom and private group drills. Participants test their newly-refined skills in the controlled environment of the facility's Vehicle Dynamics Center and on the track; the Mid-Ohio School is AAA Approved and recognized as a recent recipient of the Ohio State Highway Patrol’s Partners for Safety award. 18 programs are available to drivers and riders of all ages and ability levels from defensive driving programs for teens and adults, on-track high performance courses for the automotive enthusiasts to current and aspiring racers. There have been over 50,000 graduates from the Mid-Ohio School, including 18,500 teenagers and 13,300 motorcycle riders. Honda Indy 200 944 Cup Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course – official site of Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course Map and circuit history at RacingCircuits.info Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course race results at Racing-Reference The Mid-Ohio School – official site of The Mid-Ohio School 1tail Resource Database: Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course