George Paul Chalmers
George Paul Chalmers was a Scottish landscape marine and portrait painter. Chalmers was born at Montrose, the son of a captain of a coastal vessel, at the age of twenty he started to study at the Trustees Academy in Edinburgh under Robert Scott Lauder, he was nicknamed The Angus Rembrandt. He started painting portraits including those of many artists such as Jozef Israëls "the most respected Dutch artist of the second half of the nineteenth century", painted together with Hugh Cameron, the portrait painters William McTaggart and John Pettie the paintings of the two artists are in the collection of the National Galleries of Scotland, he painted the interiors of houses and cottages like the Cranbrook Colony painters and some Dutch painters but he turned to landscapes and seascapes in his career. The best of these are The End of the Harvest, Running Water, The Legend, he became a full member of the Royal Scottish Academy. His life was cut short in 1878 when he was violently mugged just off Charlotte Square in Edinburgh and died as a result of his injuries.
He died established as one of the most important Scottish artists of his period. He and his work were celebrated in a sizeable volume edited by Edward Pinnington; this volume was produced in collaboration with his patron, George B. Simpson. Copies of Chalmers' correspondence with Simpson from 1864 to 1873 are held in the Royal Scottish Academy's George B. Simpson Collection, he was one of the teachers to the Scottish marine painter James Campbell Noble. A portrait of Chalmers was painted by the portrait painter John Pettie, which hangs in the National Portrait Gallery, London. Chalmers has over 65 oil paintings in public ownership in the United Kingdom, he is buried in Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh, just west of the city centre. The grave has a sculpted bust of Chalmers, facing the north path of the original cemetery. List of Scots Christopher Wood, The Dictionary of Victorian Painters. Edward Pinnington. George Paul Chalmers, R. S. A. and the Art of his Time. Glasgow: T. R. Annan & Sons: Glasgow, 1896 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Chalmers, George Paul". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. 68 paintings by or after George Paul Chalmers at the Art UK site George Paul Chalmers, Angus Council
Scottish National Gallery
The Scottish National Gallery is the national art gallery of Scotland. It is located on The Mound in central Edinburgh, close to Princes Street; the building was designed in a neoclassical style by William Henry Playfair, first opened to the public in 1859. The gallery houses Scotland's national collection of fine art, spanning Scottish and international art from the beginning of the Renaissance up to the start of the 20th century; the Scottish National Gallery is run by National Galleries of Scotland, a public body that owns the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art and the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. Because of its architectural similarity, the Scottish National Gallery is confused by visitors with the neighbouring Royal Scottish Academy Building, a separate institution which works with the Scottish National Gallery; the origins of Scotland's national collection lie with the Royal Institution for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts in Scotland, founded in 1819. It began to acquire paintings, in 1828 the Royal Institution building opened on The Mound.
In 1826, the Scottish Academy was founded by a group of artists as an offshoot of the Royal Institution, in 1838 it became the Royal Scottish Academy. A key aim of the RSA was the founding of a national collection, it began to build up a collection and from 1835 rented exhibition space within the Royal Institution building. In the 1840s, plans were put in place for a new building to house the RSA; the noted Scottish architect William Henry Playfair was commissioned to prepare designs, on 30 August 1850, Prince Albert laid the foundation stone. The building was divided along the middle, with the east half housing the exhibition galleries of the RSA, the western half containing the new National Gallery of Scotland, formed from the collection of the Royal Institution. In 1912 the RSA moved into the Royal Institution building, which remains known as the Royal Scottish Academy Building; when it re-opened, the gallery concentrated on building its permanent collection of Scottish and European art for the nation of Scotland.
In the early 21st century, the National Galleries launched the Playfair Project, a scheme to create a new basement entrance to the National Gallery in Princes Street Gardens and an underground connecting space, called the Weston Link, between the Gallery and the renovated Royal Scottish Academy building. The new underground space opened in 2004. In 2012, the gallery's umbrella organisation, National Galleries of Scotland, underwent a rebranding exercise, National Gallery of Scotland was renamed the Scottish National Gallery. William Playfair's building — like its neighbour, the Royal Scottish Academy — was designed in the form of an Ancient Greek temple atop a stylobate steps. While Playfair designed the RSA in the Doric order, the National Gallery building was surrounded by Ionic columns topped with tetrastyle porticoes; the pair of porticoes at the main entrance reflect the building's original dual purpose, to house the two collections of the NGS and the RSA, these served as two separate entrances.
Playfair worked to a much more limited budget than the RSA project, this is reflected in his comparatively austere architectural style. He may have drawn inspiration from an 1829 scheme for an arcade of shops by Archibald Elliot II, son of Archibald Elliot. Playfair's National Gallery was laid out in a cruciform plan; when the RSA moved into the former Royal Institution building in 1912, the English architect William Thomas Oldrieve was engaged to remodel the NGS interior to house the National Gallery collection exclusively. In the 1970s, when the gallery was under the direction of the Department of the Environment, the building was extended. An upper floor was added at the south end in 1972, creating five new small galleries, in 1978 a new gallery was opened in the basement to house the Gallery's Scottish Collection; the new Princes Street Gardens entrance and underground space opened in 2004 was designed by John Miller and Partners. Construction cost £ 32 million; the area contains a lecture theatre, education area, restaurant, an interactive gallery, a link to the RSA building.
In January 2019, construction work began on a project to alter the lower level areas and to create extended exhibition space. It is planned. Architectural features The research facilities at the Scottish National Gallery include the Prints and Drawings Collection of over 30,000 works on paper, from the early Renaissance to the late nineteenth century; the Research Library covers the period from 1300 to 1900 and holds 50,000 volumes of books, journals and microfiches, as well as some archival material relating to the collections and history of the National Gallery. The Print Room or Research Library can be accessed by appointment. At the heart of the National Gallery's collection is a group of paintings transferred from the Royal Scottish Academy Building; this includes masterpieces by Van Dyck and Giambattista Tiepolo. The National Gallery did not receive its own purchase grant until 1903. In the Gallery's main ground floor rooms are displayed a number of major large-scale canvases such as Benjamin West's Alexander III of Scotland Rescued from the Fury of a Stag, Rubens's The Feast of Herod
William McTaggart was a Scottish landscape and marine painter, influenced by Impressionism. The son of a crofter, William McTaggart was born in the small village of Aros, near Campbeltown, in Kintyre a western peninsula of Scotland, he moved to Edinburgh at the age of 16 and studied at the Trustees' Academy under Robert Scott Lauder. He won several prizes as a student and exhibited his work in the Royal Scottish Academy, becoming a full member of the Academy in 1870, his early works were figure paintings of children, but he turned to land and marine art seascape painting, inspired by his childhood love of the sea and the rugged, Atlantic-lashed west coast of his birth. McTaggart was fascinated with nature and man’s relationship with it, he strove to capture aspects such as the transient effects of light on water, he adopted the Impressionist practice of painting out of doors, his use of colour and bold brushwork resemble qualities found in paintings by Constable and Turner, both artists whom he admired.
McTaggart was skilled in the use of both oil and watercolour and, in addition to Kintyre seascapes, he painted landscapes and seascapes in Midlothian and East Lothian. Many of his works depict the Moorfoot Hills which could be seen from his house near Lasswade, which he moved to in 1889, he is regarded as one of the great interpreters of the Scottish landscape and is labelled the "Scottish Impressionist". He married Marjory Henderson, the daughter of another painter, Joseph Henderson RSW, Joseph's sons John Henderson and Joseph Morris Henderson being painters. McTaggart painted a striking portrait of his father-in-law, Joseph Henderson, which hangs in the Glasgow Museum. One of his pupils was the Scottish marine painter James Campbell Noble, he is buried in Newington Cemetery in Edinburgh just south of the main roundel on a corner between paths. He lies with both his first and second wives: Marjory Henderson. Three of his children are buried with him, his daughter, Annie Mary, who married the art historian Sir James Caw, lies alongside.
His paper are held by Lasswade Local History Society. Amongst McTaggart's better known works are: Spring, 1864 Off to the Fishing, 1871 Through Wind and Rain, 1875 The Bait Gatherers, 1879 The Storm, 1890 Lobster Fishers Machrihanish Bay, 1909 Fisher Boy, 1862 John Kelly Stuart, 1879 List of Scots artists William McTaggart at artcyclopedia.com William McTaggart on the Gazetteer for Scotland National Galleries Scotland Notes from a lecture on "The Life of William McTaggart RSA"
James Lorimer (advocate)
James Lorimer of Kellyfield, FRSE LLD was a Scottish advocate and professor of public law. He was an authority on international law. Lorimer was born in Aberdalgie House in Perthshire, he was the son of manager of the Earl of Kinnoul's estates. He was educated at the High School in Perth studied Law at Edinburgh University, doing further postgraduate studies in Berlin and Geneva, broadening his understanding of European Law, he was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1845. He purchased an impressive Georgian townhouse at 22 Queen Street, with James Jardine as a close neighbour. In 1861 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh his proposer being Leonard Schmitz, he became Regius Professor of Public Law at the University of Edinburgh in 1862, a post he retained until his death. The post had been vacant since the death of Robert Hamilton in 1831. After gaining this post he moved to 21 Hill Street, close to Old College. Lorimer first rented Kellie Castle in 1878 and it became the family home.
His children included the painter John Henry Lorimer and the architect Sir Robert Lorimer and his nephew was the sculptor Hew Lorimer. In Edinburgh after retiral he moved to the suburb of Bruntsfield, he is buried in the extreme south-west corner of the small and remote Newburn Churchyard in Fife with his wife and children. The grave is designed by his son, Robert Lorimer, buried in the same grave. A plaque in his memory is situated at the entrance to the Law Faculty at the University of Edinburgh. Lorimer's publications include The Institutes of Law: a Treatise of the Principles of Jurisprudence as Determined by Nature and The Institutes of the Law of Nations: a Treatise of the Jural Relations of Separate Political Communities, his legal philosophy was one of Natural law. His concerns with the application of natural law to international relations were influential in formalising the forms of inter-state recognition in 19th century continental Europe. In 1873 he was one of the founders of the Institut de Droit International.
Lorimer married Hannah Stodart in 1851. She was only 16, he was 33. Lorimer was the father of both the noted architect, Sir Robert Lorimer, the famous painter, John Henry Lorimer; these sons are buried with him, together with Louise Lorimer. He was the father of the artist Hannah Cassels im Thurn, their eldest son James Lorimer died in South Africa. Lorimer's portrait, by J. H. Lawson, hangs in the main stair leading to the Playfair Library in Old College, University of Edinburgh, his sketch portraits of 1884, by William Brassey Hole, are held by the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. He was sketched and painted by his son John Henry on several occasions
Hew Martin Lorimer, OBE was a Scottish sculptor. He was born in the second son of architect Sir Robert Lorimer, he was educated at Loretto School in Musselburgh at Magdalen College, Oxford University, but he left Oxford prematurely to study design and sculpture under Alexander Carrick at the Edinburgh College of Art. After graduating in 1934, he entered an apprenticeship with stonemason Eric Gill. Lorimer was principally an architectural sculptor, his profound religious beliefs had a lasting effect on his art and subject matter. After World War II, he worked on many grand sculptures, including Our Lady of the Isles, 1958, a massive granite statue of the mother and child sited at Rueval on South Uist. Between 1950 and 1955 he sculpted the artwork adorning the facade of the National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh, for which he produced a series of tall, allegorical figures, depicting history, medicine, poetry and theology; the architect of the library was Reginald Fairlie, apprentice to Lorimer's father Robert.
Lorimer carved the figures directly into the stone rather than copying from clay models, a practice known as direct carving. Crucifix on exterior east wall of St Martin and St Ninian Church, Whithorn. A statue of St Meddan in niche above the main entrance to Our Lady of the Assumption and St Meddan's Church in Troon, he was awarded an OBE in 1986 for services to conservation. The Lorimers, a family of the arts in Fife: an exhibition for the 1983 St. Andrews Festival. Crawford Centre for the Arts. 1983. Hew was the nephew of the Scottish painter John Henry Lorimer and the grandson of Prof. James Lorimer and academic. Lorimer lived in Kellie Castle in Fife, died in a nursing home in St Andrews in 1993, he is survived by his sons and Henry, daughter, Monica. The castle is owned today by the National Trust for Scotland who maintain a changing exhibition of his works plus those of his father, Robert Lorimer, his uncle, the painter John Henry Lorimer. Hew Lorimer on the Gazetteer for Scotland Hew Martin Lorimer CBE, RSA, FRBS at the Mapping Sculpture project
The Edinburgh Academy is an independent school, opened in 1824. The original building, in Henderson Row on the northern fringe of the New Town of Edinburgh, Scotland, is now part of the Senior School; the Junior School is located on Arboretum Road to the north of the city's Royal Botanic Garden. The Edinburgh Academy was a day and boarding school for boys, it ceased boarding and transitioned to co-education in 2008 and is now a coeducational day school. The nursery, housed in a 2008 purpose built block on the Junior campus, caters for children from 2 to 5; the Junior School admits children from age 6 to 10 whilst the Senior School takes pupils from age 10 to 18. In 1822, the school's founders, Henry Cockburn and Leonard Horner agreed that Edinburgh required a new school to promote classical learning. Edinburgh's Royal High School provided a classical education, but the founders felt that greater provision was needed for the teaching of Greek, to compete with some of England's public schools. Cockburn and Horner recruited John Russell as a co-founder and the three of them, together with other interested parties, put a proposal to the City Council for the building of a new school.
The City Fathers gave their approval in 1823 and fifteen Directors were elected, comprising the three founders and twelve other luminaries, including Sir Walter Scott, Sir John Hay and Robert Dundas. The main building of the Senior School, with its Greek Doric frontage, was designed by architect William Burn; the stone used was principally from the nearby Craigleith Quarry. The Foundation Stone was laid in June 1823 and the school opened for the first session in October 1824. In 1892, new classrooms were built along the western wall of the site, in 1900, the School Library was opened, followed by the new Science Block in 1909, both along the eastern wall. At the back of the school the Dining Hall, the Rifle Range beneath it, was opened in 1912 and after World War I, the Gymnasium was built; this was dedicated as a War Memorial to Edinburgh Academicals who had fallen during the hostilities of 1914 to 1918. The memorial was by Pilkington Jackson. A plaque commemorates ex-pupils who fell in the Second World War.
In 1945, a new building, Denham Green House, was acquired in the Trinity area of Edinburgh. This was used for the junior department of the Preparatory School. In 1960, a new building for the upper three years of the Preparatory School was completed in Inverleith. Denham Green's nursery and early years facilities were relocated to purpose built accommodation on the Preparatory school's Arboretum campus in 1987. In 1992, the Rector's residence, Academy House and in 1997, a new Games Hall were constructed on the same campus; the latter was funded by money from The Lottery and Sports Council and is for the use not only of pupils in both parts of the school but of the community in the area. A new computing and music building was completed at the Junior School in 2005 and a new nursery and after school facility in 2008. At Henderson Row, the property next to the school, No 32, was acquired for administrative use in 1972 and in 1977, the Academy acquired the junior school of Donaldson's College, to the west.
This allowed departments to expand and a purpose built Music School was opened on this part of the campus in 1991. In 2005 the 1909 science block was demolished and a new science block, the James Clerk Maxwell Centre, named in honour of the 19th century scientist and former pupil, was opened on 3 November 2006 by Lord Falconer of Thoroton. Since 2000, there have been serious allegations of bullying. More allegations of bullying resurfaced when fellow students were physically abused by older pupils during a Combined Cadet Force camp in 2014. Allegations of the sale of drugs amongst 13-year old pupils made the headlines in the same year. In 2015, it was revealed that police were investigating claims made by pupils from further back of alleged sexual abuse by staff members in the 1970s. Former pupils have been investigated for allegations of abuse. In 2017, the school was under controversy for an organised'fight club' which involved up to 50 pupils. Alumni of The Edinburgh Academy are known as Academicals, or Accies, a name shared with the Rugby team.
Famous alumni of the school include Robert Louis Stevenson, James Clerk Maxwell, Magnus Magnusson, Baron Falconer of Thoroton and Mike Blair. It has produced one Nobel Prize winner, numerous political and legal figures, several rugby internationals and seven recipients of the Victoria Cross - the highest number of any school in Scotland. According to the Sutton Trust, the school is placed second in Scotland and joint 36th in the UK for the number of the nation's leading people produced. There have been 18 rectors of The Edinburgh Academy since it was founded in 1824. 1824-28: John Williams 1828-29: Rev Thomas Sheepshanks 1829-47: John Williams, again 1847-54: Rev John Hannah FRSE 1854-69: Rev Dr James Stephen Hodson FRSE 1869-88: Thomas Harvey FRSE 1888-1901: Robert Mackenzie 1901-10: Reginald Carter 1910-26: Robert Ferard 1926-31: Hugh Lyon 1931-45: Lionel Smith 1945-51: Clarence Seaman 1951-62: Robert Watt 1962-77: Herbert Mills 1977-92: Laurence Ellis 1992-95: John Rees 1995-2008: John Light 2008-2017: Marco Longmore 2017–present: Barry Welsh List of Victoria Crosses by School List of schools in Edinburgh List of independent schools in Scotland Magnus Magnusson, The Clacken and the Slate, London.
ISBN 0-00-411170-2 Edinburgh Academical Club, List of Past and Present Pupils 1824-1995, Edinburgh Academical Club Stirling, Bill, 175 Accies, Edinburgh Academical Club The School website Edinburgh Academy's page on Scottish Schools
Genre art is the pictorial representation in any of various media of scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, parties, inn scenes, street scenes. Such representations imagined, or romanticized by the artist; some variations of the term genre art specify the medium or type of visual work, as in genre painting, genre prints, genre photographs, so on. Rather confusingly, the normal meaning of genre, covering any particular combination of an artistic medium and a type of subject matter, is used in the visual arts. Thus, genre works when referring to the painting of the Dutch Golden Age and Flemish Baroque painting—the great periods of genre works—may be used as an umbrella term for painting in various specialized categories such as still-life, marine painting, architectural painting and animal painting, as well as genre scenes proper where the emphasis is on human figures. Painting was divided into a hierarchy of genres, with history painting at the top, as the most difficult and therefore prestigious, still life and architectural painting at the bottom.
But history paintings are a genre in painting, not genre works. The following concentrates on painting, but genre motifs were extremely popular in many forms of the decorative arts from the Rococo of the early 18th century onwards. Single figures or small groups decorated a huge variety of objects such as porcelain, furniture and textiles. Genre painting called genre scene or petit genre, depicts aspects of everyday life by portraying ordinary people engaged in common activities. One common definition of a genre scene is that it shows figures to whom no identity can be attached either individually or collectively—thus distinguishing petit genre from history paintings and portraits. A work would be considered as a genre work if it could be shown that the artist had used a known person—a member of his family, say—as a model. In this case it would depend on whether the work was to have been intended by the artist to be perceived as a portrait—sometimes a subjective question; the depictions imagined, or romanticized by the artist.
Because of their familiar and sentimental subject matter, genre paintings have proven popular with the bourgeoisie, or middle class. Genre themes appear in nearly all art traditions. Painted decorations in ancient Egyptian tombs depict banquets and agrarian scenes, Peiraikos is mentioned by Pliny the Elder as a Hellenistic panel painter of "low" subjects, such as survive in mosaic versions and provincial wall-paintings at Pompeii: "barbers' shops, cobblers' stalls, asses and similar subjects". Medieval illuminated manuscripts illustrated scenes of everyday peasant life in the Labours of the Months in the calendar section of books of hours, most famously Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry; the Low Countries dominated the field until the 18th century, in the 17th century both Flemish Baroque painting and Dutch Golden Age painting produced numerous specialists who painted genre scenes. In the previous century, the Flemish Renaissance painter Jan Sanders van Hemessen painted innovative large-scale genre scenes, sometimes including a moral theme or a religious scene in the background in the first half of the 16th century.
These were part of a pattern of "Mannerist inversion" in Antwerp painting, giving "low" elements in the decorative background of images prominent emphasis. Joachim Patinir expanded his landscapes, making the figures a small element, Pieter Aertsen painted works dominated by spreads of still life food and genre figures of cooks or market-sellers, with small religious scenes in spaces in the background. Pieter Brueghel the Elder made peasants and their activities naturalistically treated, the subject of many of his paintings, genre painting was to flourish in Northern Europe in Brueghel's wake. Adriaen and Isaac van Ostade, Jan Steen, Adriaan Brouwer, David Teniers, Aelbert Cuyp, Johannes Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch were among the many painters specializing in genre subjects in the Low Countries during the 17th century; the small scale of these artists' paintings was appropriate for their display in the homes of middle class purchasers. The subject of a genre painting was based on a popular emblem from an emblem book.
This can give the painting a double meaning, such as in Gabriel Metsu's The Poultry seller, 1662, showing an old man offering a rooster in a symbolic pose, based on a lewd engraving by Gillis van Breen, with the same scene. The merry company showed a group of figures at a party, whether making music at home or just drinking in a tavern. Other common types of scenes showed village festivities, or soldiers in camp. In Italy, a "school" of genre painting was stimulated by the arrival in Rome of the Dutch painter Pieter van Laer in 1625, he acquired the nickname "Il Bamboccio" and his followers were called the Bamboccianti, whose works would inspire Giacomo Ceruti, Antonio Cifrondi, Giuseppe Maria Crespi among many others. Louis le Nain was an important exponent of genre painting in 17th-century France, painting groups of peasants at home, where the 18th century would bring a heightened interest in the depiction of everyday life, whether through the romanticized paintings of Watteau and Fragonard, or the careful realism of Chardin.
Jean-Baptiste Greuze and others painted detailed and rather sentimental groups or individual portraits of peasants that were to be influential on 19th-century painting. In England, William Hoga