William Makepeace Thackeray
William Makepeace Thackeray was a British novelist and author. He is known for his satirical works Vanity Fair, a panoramic portrait of English society. Thackeray, an only child, was born in Calcutta, British India, where his father, Richmond Thackeray, was secretary to the Board of Revenue in the British East India Company, his mother, Anne Becher, was the second daughter of Harriet Becher and John Harman Becher, a secretary for the East India Company. Richmond died in 1815, which caused Anne to send her son to England in 1816, while she remained in British India; the ship on which he travelled made a short stopover at Saint Helena, where the imprisoned Napoleon was pointed out to him. Once in England he was educated at schools in Southampton and Chiswick, at Charterhouse School, where he became a close friend of John Leech. Thackeray disliked Charterhouse, parodied it in his fiction as "Slaughterhouse". Thackeray was honoured in the Charterhouse Chapel with a monument after his death. Illness in his last year there, during which he grew to his full height of six foot three, postponed his matriculation at Trinity College, until February 1829.
Never too keen on academic studies, Thackeray left Cambridge in 1830, but some of his earliest published writing appeared in two university periodicals, The Snob and The Gownsman. Thackeray travelled for some time on the continent, visiting Paris and Weimar, where he met Goethe, he began to study law at the Middle Temple, but soon gave that up. On reaching the age of 21 he came into his inheritance from his father, but he squandered much of it on gambling and on funding two unsuccessful newspapers, The National Standard and The Constitutional, for which he had hoped to write, he lost a good part of his fortune in the collapse of two Indian banks. Forced to consider a profession to support himself, he turned first to art, which he studied in Paris, but did not pursue it, except in years as the illustrator of some of his own novels and other writings. Thackeray's years of semi-idleness ended after he married, on 20 August 1836, Isabella Gethin Shawe, second daughter of Isabella Creagh Shawe and Matthew Shawe, a colonel who had died after distinguished service in India.
The Thackerays had three children, all girls: Anne Isabella and Harriet Marian, who married Sir Leslie Stephen, editor and philosopher. Thackeray now began "writing for his life", as he put it, turning to journalism in an effort to support his young family, he worked for Fraser's Magazine, a sharp-witted and sharp-tongued conservative publication for which he produced art criticism, short fictional sketches, two longer fictional works and The Luck of Barry Lyndon. Between 1837 and 1840 he reviewed books for The Times, he was a regular contributor to The Morning Chronicle and The Foreign Quarterly Review. Through his connection to the illustrator John Leech, he began writing for the newly created magazine Punch, in which he published The Snob Papers collected as The Book of Snobs; this work popularised the modern meaning of the word "snob". Thackeray was a regular contributor to Punch between 1843 and 1854. Tragedy struck in Thackeray's personal life as his wife, succumbed to depression after the birth of their third child, in 1840.
Finding that he could get no work done at home, he spent more and more time away until September 1840, when he realised how grave his wife's condition was. Struck by guilt, he set out with his wife to Ireland. During the crossing she threw herself from a water-closet into the sea, but she was pulled from the waters, they fled back home after a four-week battle with her mother. From November 1840 to February 1842 Isabella was in and out of professional care, as her condition waxed and waned, she deteriorated into a permanent state of detachment from reality. Thackeray sought cures for her, but nothing worked, she ended up in two different asylums in or near Paris until 1845, after which Thackeray took her back to England, where he installed her with a Mrs Bakewell at Camberwell. Isabella outlived her husband by 30 years, in the end being cared for by a family named Thompson in Leigh-on-Sea at Southend until her death in 1894. After his wife's illness Thackeray became a de facto widower, never establishing another permanent relationship.
He did pursue other women, however, in particular Mrs Jane Sally Baxter. In 1851 Mr Brookfield barred Thackeray from further visits to or correspondence with Jane. Baxter, an American twenty years Thackeray's junior whom he met during a lecture tour in New York City in 1852, married another man in 1855. In the early 1840s Thackeray had some success with two travel books, The Paris Sketch Book and The Irish Sketch Book, the latter marked by hostility to Irish Catholics. However, as the book appealed to British prejudices, Thackeray was given the job of being Punch's Irish expert under the pseudonym Hibernis Hibernior, it was Thackeray, in other words, chiefly responsible for Punch's notoriously hostile and condescending depictions of the Irish during the Irish Famine. Thackeray achieved more recognition with his Snob Papers, but the work that established his fame was the novel Vanity Fair, which first appeared in serialised instalments beginning in January 1847. Before Vanity Fair completed its serial run Thackeray had become a celebrity, sought after by the lords and ladies whom he satirised.
They hailed him as the equal of Dickens. He rem
The can-can is a high-energy, physically demanding dance that became a popular music hall dance in the 1840s, continuing in popularity in French cabaret to this day. Danced by both sexes, it is now traditionally associated with a chorus line of female dancers; the main features of the dance are the vigorous manipulation of skirts and petticoats, along with high kicks and cartwheels. The cancan is believed to have evolved from the final figure in the quadrille, a social dance, four couples would dance to; the exact origin of the dance is obscure, but the steps may have been inspired by a popular entertainer of the 1820s, Charles Mazurier, well known for his acrobatics, including the grand écart or jump splits—both popular features of the cancan. The dance was considered scandalous, for a while, there were attempts to suppress it; this may have been because in the 19th century, women wore pantalettes, which had an open crotch, meaning that a high kick could be unintentionally revealing. There is no evidence that cancan dancers wore special closed underwear, although it has been said that the Moulin Rouge management did not permit dancers to perform in "revealing undergarments".
People dancing the cancan were arrested, but there is no record of its being banned, as some accounts claim. Throughout the 1830s, it was groups of men students, who danced the cancan at public dance-halls; as the dance became more popular, professional performers emerged, although it was still danced by individuals, not by a chorus line. A few men became cancan stars in the 1840s to 1861 and an all-male group known as the Quadrille des Clodoches performed in London in 1870. However, women performers were much more known; the early cancan dancers were prostitutes, but by the 1890s, it was possible to earn a living as a full-time dancer and stars such as La Goulue and Jane Avril emerged, who were paid for their appearances at the Moulin Rouge and elsewhere. The most prominent male can-can dancer of the time was Valentin le Désossé a frequent partner of La Goulue; the professional dancers of the Second Empire and the fin de siècle developed the cancan moves that were incorporated by the choreographer Pierre Sandrini in the spectacular "French Cancan", which he devised at the Moulin Rouge in the 1920s and presented at his own Bal Tabarin from 1928.
This was a combination of the individual style of the Parisian dance-halls and the chorus-line style of British and American music halls. In the United States and elsewhere, the can-can achieved popularity in music halls, where it was danced by groups of women in choreographed routines; this style was imported back into France in the 1920s for the benefit of tourists, the French Cancan was born—a choreographed routine lasting ten minutes or more, with the opportunity for individuals to display their "specialities". The main moves are the high kick or battement, the rond de jambe, the port d'armes, the cartwheel and the grand écart, it has become common practice for dancers to yelp while performing the cancan. The cancan was introduced in America on 23 December 1867 by Giuseppina Morlacchi, dancing as a part of The Devil's Auction at the Theatre Comique in Boston, it was billed as "Grand Gallop Can-Can and danced by Mlles. Morlacchi, Diani, Baretta... accompanied with cymbals and triangles by the coryphees and corps de ballet."
The new dance received an enthusiastic reception. By the 1890s the cancan was out of style in New York dance halls, having been replaced by the hoochie coochie; the cancan became popular in Alaska and Yukon, where theatrical performances feature cancan dancers to the present day. The cancan is now considered a part of world dance culture; the main feature observed today is how physically demanding and tiring the dance is to perform, but it still retains a bawdy, suggestive element. When the dance first appeared in the early 19th century, it was considered a scandalous dance, similar to how rock and roll was perceived in the 1950s. In the mid-19th century it was thought to be immoral by respectable society. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the cancan was viewed as much more erotic because the dancers made use of the extravagant underwear of the period, the contrasting black stockings, they lifted and manipulated their skirts much more, incorporated a move sometimes considered the most cheeky and provocative—bending over and throwing their skirts over their backs, presenting their bottoms to the audience.
The Moulin Rouge dancer La Goulue was well known for this gesture, had a heart embroidered on the seat of her drawers. A cancan dancer would sometimes stand close to a man, bet that she could take off his hat without using her hands; when he took the bet, she would execute a high kick that would take off his hat—and give him a quick look at her pantaloons while she was at it. It was a warning that anyone taking unwanted liberties with a dancer could expect a kick in the face. Early editions of The Oxford Companion to Music defined the cancan as "A boisterous and latterly indecorous dance of the quadrille order, exploited in Paris for the benefit of such British and American tourists as will pay well to be well shocked, its exact nature is unknown to anyone connected with this Companion." Many composers have written music for the cancan. The most famous music is French composer Jacques Offenbach's Galop Infernal in his operetta Orphée aux Enfer
Robert le diable
Robert le diable is an opera in five acts composed by Giacomo Meyerbeer from a libretto written by Eugène Scribe and Germain Delavigne. Robert le diable is regarded as one of the first grand operas at the Paris Opéra, it has only a superficial connection to the medieval legend of Robert the Devil. The opera was successful from its first night on 21 November 1831 at the Opéra, it is a masterpiece... Meyerbeer has made himself immortal". Robert initiated the European fame of its composer, consolidated the fame of its librettist and launched the reputation of the new director of the Opéra, Louis-Désiré Véron, as a purveyor of a new genre of opera, it had influence on development of the ballet, was mentioned and discussed in contemporary French literature. Robert continued as a favourite in opera houses all over the world throughout the nineteenth century. After a period of neglect, it began to be revived towards the end of the twentieth century. Giacomo Meyerbeer's early studies had been from 1816 to 1825 he worked in Italy.
There he studied opera dominated by Gioachino Rossini, wrote his own Italian operas, which were moderately successful and had some performances in other European countries. The success of Il crociato in Egitto throughout Europe, including at Paris in 1825, persuaded Meyerbeer, thirty-three years old, to fulfil at last his ambition to base himself in Paris, to seek a suitable libretto for an opera to be launched there. Meyerbeer first mentions Robert le diable in his diaries in February 1827; the Journal de Paris announced on 19 April 1827 that the libretto of Scribe and Delavigne had been passed by the censor and that'the music is to be entrusted to a composer, M. Meyer-Beer, having acquired a brilliant reputation in Germany and Italy, is extending it to our country, where several of his works have been successfully represented.'The libretto was fabricated on the basis of old legends about Duke Robert the Magnificent of Normandy, the father of William the Conqueror, alleged in some versions to have been the son of the Devil.
The librettists padded out this outline with a variety of melodramatic incidents. The plot reflected'the fantastic legendary elements which fascinated the opera public of 1830', a taste which had evolved from the 1824 Paris production of Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischütz, which features a doubtful hero befriended by a demon promising him success; the libretto was planned as a three-act opéra comique for the Opéra-Comique theatre. Meyerbeer stopped work on the opera in 1827. In August 1829, the composer and librettists agreed to refashion the work in a five-act form to meet the requirements of the Paris Opéra; this entailed some significant rewriting of the storyline, reducing the comic role of Raimbaut. It meant that the traditional'pairing' of lovers in opéra comique was swept aside in favour of concentration on the more sensational story-line of Robert's diabolic ancestry; the contract for the opera, specifying it as a "grand opera in five acts and seven scenes", was signed by the director of the Opéra, Émile Lubbert, on 29 December 1829.
Meyerbeer completed the composition of the work in Spa, Belgium in June and July 1830. Its characterisation as a'grand opera' placed it in succession to Auber's La muette de Portici and Rossini's Guillaume Tell in this new genre; the composer undertook further work on the opera in early 1831, converting spoken passages to recitatives and adding ballet episodes, including, in Act 3, the "Ballet of the Nuns", to prove one of the opera's great sensations, which Henri Duponchel had suggested to replace the original humdrum scenario set in Olympus. He rewrote the two major male roles of Bertrand and Robert to suit the talents of Nicolas Levasseur and Adolphe Nourrit, respectively; the opera premiered on 21 November 1831 at the Paris Opéra. The success owed much to the opera's star singers – Levasseur as Bertram, Nourrit as Robert — and to the provocative "Ballet of the Nuns" in the third act, featuring the great ballerina, Marie Taglioni; the choreography for the ballet was elaborated by Filippo Taglioni.
The audience's prurient delight in this scandalous scene is well conveyed by the reviewer for the Revue des Deux-Mondes: A crowd of mute shades glides through the arches. All these women cast off their nuns' costume, they shake off the cold powder of the grave. What a pleasure to see these light women... The set for the ballet was an innovative and striking design by Henri Duponchel and Pierre-Luc-Charles Ciceri. Duponchel had introduced technical innovations for the staging, including'English traps' for the sudden appearance and disappearance of the ghosts.. Taglioni danced the Abbess only six times in Paris. At the invitation of Nourrit, Cornélie Falcon made her
In Greek mythology, Terpsichore "delight in dancing" is one of the nine Muses and goddess of dance and chorus. She lends her name to the word "terpsichorean" which means "of or relating to dance", she is depicted sitting down, holding a lyre, accompanying the dancers' choirs with her music. Her name comes from the Greek words τέρπω and χoρός, she was said to be the mother of the Sirens and Parthenope by Achelous. In some accounts, she bore the Thracian king Biston by Ares; the British 32-gun frigate HMS Terpsichore commanded by Captain Bowen participated in the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Terpsichore is the name of a street in New Orleans' historic neighborhoods of Faubourg Lafayette and the Lower Garden District, it runs alongside Euterpe and Melpomene streets named for Greek muses. Terpsichorean is the name of the Choreography Society of University of Delhi. Terpsichore figures among her sisters in Hesiod's Theogony; when The Histories of Herodotus were divided by editors into nine books, each book was named after a Muse.
Terpsichore was the name of the fifth book. The character of Wilkins Micawber, Esq, Jr. is described as a "votary of Terpsichore", in an Australian newspaper brought to London by Dan Peggotty in 1850 novel David Copperfield by Charles Dickens. T. S. Eliot in the poem Jellicle Cats from Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats, refers to the "terpsichorean powers'" Jellicle Cats as they dance by the light of the Jellicle Moon. Terpischore "Choral Dance" is the name of a chapter in Theresa Cha's Dictee. "Some Terpsichore" is the title of a short story in a 2014 book and Other Stories, by Elizabeth McCracken. "The Chaos" is a poem. Terpsichore is referenced in George Orwell's first novel "Burmese Days" in a dialogue by one of the minor characters, Mr Macgegror. "Terpsichore" is the title of a large collection of dance tunes collected by Michael Praetorius, some originating with Pierre-Francisque Caroubel and some adapted for wind ensemble by Bob Margolis. Terpsichore is found in François Couperin's "Second Ordre" from the Pièces de clavecin, in the third version of Handel's opera Il pastor fido.
This opera is sometimes referred to as Il pastor fido. The Jimmy Van Heusen/Sammy Cahn song "Come Dance with Me" includes the lyric "what an evening for some Terpsichore." However it is sung as a three-syllable word with the "chore" component pronounced like "core" rather than "curry". The Russian singer Origa sings a song, "Tersicore". Canadian punk band Gob has a song called "Terpsichore" on their album Apt. 13. The eighteenth century French dancer and courtesan Marie-Madeleine Guimard named the private theater in her private palace the Temple of Terpsichore. Terpsichore in Sneakers is the title of a 1980 study of postmodern dance by dance historian and critic Sally Banes; the song "Terpsichora" is included on J-Pop singer Akiko Shikata's 2007 album Istoria: Musa. The album Cool by Bob James and Earl Klugh features a track called "Terpsichore". In the art of the Russian rockband "Splean" is the eponymous song In the 1936 feature film Swing Time starring Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers, when asked by Mr. Gordon, why he wishes to learn to dance, answers: "To flirt with terpsichore".
He proceeds to take a dance lesson with Penny, culminating in a paired tap routine. In the 1947 film Down To Earth, Rita Hayworth plays Terpsichore, annoyed and visits Earth to change a musical that depicts her in a bad light. In the 1948 Musical Comedy film "April Showers", starring Jack Carson and Ann Sothern, Carson plays a Victorian Era vaudevillian. While performing an act with his son, Buster asks "Shall we dance Mr. Lovejoy?", Carson replies by saying "Terpsichore Mr. Gay!" In the 1969 Western film McLintock!, Drago introduces an exhibition of new dance steps as Terpsichorean. Olivia Newton-John plays the muse Terpsichore as "Kira" in the 1980 film Xanadu, a remake of Down To Earth. Terpsichore is featured as a character in the 1997 Disney animated film Hercules. In the 1961 Gunsmoke episode "Old Yellow Boots", Doc boasts to Chester that in his younger days he was known as "the terror of Terpsichore". In an episode called "Quick-Quick Slow Death" of the UK crime agent series The Avengers, a dance institute is called Terpsichorean Training Techniques Inc.
The Terpsichorean Muse is referred to by John Cleese in the Cheese Shop sketch of Monty Python's Flying Circus. The fifth season episode of Xena: Warrior Princess, "Lyre, Hearts on Fire", centers around a battle of the bands for Terpsichore's Lyre. Terpsichore is a technique used by the royal guard Neferpitou to "dance past one's limits" in the manga Hunter × Hunter. In the Les Luthiers' Unen canto con humor comedy show is referred in a sketch by Daniel Rabinovich and Marcos Mundstock, but Daniel improperly pronounces her name, calling her "Esther Píscore". Terpsichore is one of the legendary "Mythic Weapons" obtainable in Final Fantasy XI, only equipped by the Dancer class; the Onyx Terpsichore is a weapon of the Hunting Horn class in 2015's Monster Hunter 4 Ultimate for Nintendo 3DS. In an episode from 1966 called "Space Circus" of the US science fiction series Lost In Space, the character of Dr. Zachary Smith, whilst preparing to rehearse for an audition with an alien circus troupe, refers to his intention to make use of the "art of Terpsichore" after deciding to let the character of the robot sing instead of him, thus leaving him free to concentrate purely on dancing.
In the 2011 animated movie Rango, when attempting to steal a huge jug of water back from a clan
Robert the Devil (Gilbert)
Robert the Devil, or The Nun, the Dun, the Son of a Gun is an operatic parody by W. S. Gilbert of Giacomo Meyerbeer's grand opera Robert le diable, named after, but bears little resemblance to, the medieval French legend of the same name. Gilbert set new lyrics to tunes by Meyerbeer, Bellini and others; the piece premiered at the opening of the newly rebuilt Gaiety Theatre in London on 21 December 1868. An extravaganza played on a large scale, it ran for over 120 performances and played continuously in the British provinces for three years thereafter, it enjoyed several revivals. The original production starred Nellie Farren in the title role – she became the company's leading "principal boy". Several of the other male roles were played by women. Robert the Devil was part of a series of five operatic burlesques written early in Gilbert's career; the first was Dulcamara, or the Little Duck and the Great Quack an 1866 musical spoof of Donizetti's L'elisir d'amore. The second was La Vivandière; the others were The Merry Zingara.
The libretto of Robert the Devil is set in rhyming couplets. The opening night performance was under-rehearsed because the new Gaiety Theatre was not finished until the last moment, leaving no time for rehearsal on its stage. Therefore, the evening's entertainments received mixed reviews, except for the uniformly enthusiastic reviews of Nellie Farren. However, The Times noted that "Like the other extravaganzas from the same pen, Robert the Devil shows an endeavour to avoid the ordinary vulgarities of grotesque drama, bring its most elegant contingencies into the foreground.... The burlesque has been received with a storm of approbation."The success of Robert and Dulcamara showed that Gilbert could write entertainingly in this form and, together with his early pantomimes and farces, full of awful puns, though they do, at times, show signs of the satire that would be a defining part of his work. These led to Gilbert's more mature "fairy comedies", such as The Palace of Truth and Pygmalion and Galatea, which in turn led to the famous Gilbert and Sullivan operas.
Although Gilbert gave up direct parodies of opera soon after Robert, his parodic pokes at grand opera continued to be seen in the Savoy operas. The title character, a breeches role, was played as an insouciant "swell" by Nellie Farren, who became famous as the theatre's "principal boy". Gilbert renounced travesti roles and revealing dresses on his actresses, made publicly known his disapproval of them. In January 1885 Hollingshead crossed swords him on the subject, writing to the Pall Mall Gazette, "Mr. Gilbert is somewhat severe on a style of burlesque which he did much to popularise in the old days before he invented what I may call burlesque in long clothes. … Mr Gilbert never objected to the dresses in Robert the Devil nor to the dresses in Thespis." Robert the Devil was part of a triple bill that opened John Hollingshead's new Gaiety Theatre in London on 21 December 1868. On the programme, preceding Gilbert's piece, were a one-act adaptation by Gilbert Arthur à Beckett of a French operetta by Émile Jonas, called The Two Harlequins, a three-act parody of L'Escamoteur by Paulin Meunier, adapted by Alfred Thompson, called On the Cards.
All three of these were parodies of operas written between 1830 and 1840. Alfred Thompson designed the sets of the triple bill. Gilbert set new lyrics to tunes by Meyerbeer, Hérold, Hervé, Offenbach and others, arranged by Mr. Kettenus, the theatre's music director; the burlesque was Gilbert's biggest success to date, running for over 120 performances and playing continuously in the provinces for three years thereafter. It was an extravaganza played on a large scale. By 29 March 1869, it was preceded by T. W. Robertson's play Dreams and The Two Harlequins and sometimes ran with Letty the Basketmaker, an obscure opera by Michael Balfe; the work was revived at the Gaiety Theatre several times over the next few years, a tenth anniversary revival was staged at the Gaiety in 1878. The piece starred Nellie Farren in the title role and featured women as Ferdinando and Albert, Constance Loseby as Raimbault, totalling five actresses playing male roles, a practice that Gilbert would disclaim; the piece featured Emily Fowler as Alice, and, in his stage debut, Richard Barker Richard D'Oyly Carte's long-serving stage manager.
The principal dancer was Anna Bossi, from the Opera-house, St Petersburg, the pantomimists were John D'Auban and John Warde, who had worked with Hollingshead at the Alhambra Theatre. The supporting cast changed for revivals at the Gaiety; the 1871 revival cast included "the Misses Farren, Loseby and Wilson, Messrs Maclean, Taylor etc." It is possible. In 1872 the Gaiety company took the piece on tour in England and Ireland, where it was played in double or triple bills, sometimes in tandem with Sullivan and Burnand's Cox and Box. In that company were Farren, Alice Cook, J. G. Taylor, T. Sullivan, Marian West, Miss Wallace, Miss Berend, Miss Gordon. In the port of Palermo, the crowd are watching Robert, Duke of Normandy, consuming an enormous meal and smoking cigaret
Frederick Hobson Leslie
Frederick George Hobson, known as Fred Leslie, was an English actor, singer and dramatist. Beginning his career in operetta, Leslie became best known for starring in, writing, popular burlesque plays and other comic works of theatre. Leslie was born in London, he was the youngest son of Charles Hobson, a wealthy military outfitter, Sarah Hobson, née Pye. Leslie was educated in Woolwich and Pas-de-Calais; as a young man, he performed in amateur plays. He married Louisa Agate in 1879; the couple had three children. The oldest of them, William Herbert Leslie Hobson, became a stage and film actor and singer using the name "Fred Leslie". After touring the British provinces, he made his first stage appearance in London at the Royalty Theatre as old Colonel Hardy in Paul Pry in 1878, he was soon engaged by Kate Santley at the Royalty. At the same theatre in 1879, he played the part of Po-Hi opposite Santley in Tita in Thibet, a two-act comedy musical by Frank Desprez, he next played Agamemnon in La belle Hélène by Jacques Offenbach.
His vocal quality suited him to play the comic baritone roles in French operettas. He soon appeared in operettas such as La fille du tambour-major and Olivette. In addition, he played some leading roles in musical theatre pieces under the management of Selina Dolaro at the Folly Theatre and at the Alhambra Theatre in The Bronze Horse La petite mademoiselle and Les manteaux noirs, among others. In 1882, Leslie found wide success as the title character in the operetta Rip Van Winkle, by Robert Planquette, at the Comedy Theatre starring W. S. Penley. In 1882 and 1883 he played in America at the Casino Theatre and elsewhere with the McCaull Comic Opera Company in The Merry War and The Beggar Student. In 1884 he played in Fay o' Fire; the same year, at the Comedy Theatre, he played in H. B. Farnie and Edmond Audran's adaptation, The Great Mogul with Florence St. John, Frank Wyatt and Arthur Roberts. In 1885 Leslie joined the Gaiety Theatre, London company as Jonathan Wild in H. P. Stephens and W. Yardley's burlesque Little Jack Sheppard, with music by Meyer Lutz, starring Nellie Farren as Jack.
The piece was a hit, for the next seven years he and Farren were the pillars of the popular Gaiety Theatre burlesques. In 1887, his Miss Esmeralda was successful. In 1888–89, with Farren's Gaiety company, toured in the US and Australia, in Monte Cristo Jr. and Miss Esmeralda. At the same time, Leslie played roles in other pieces, for example David Garrick by Thomas W. Robertson at the Gaiety in 1886. Leslie's Don Caesar de Bazan in Ruy Blas and the Blasé Roué, was the most popular of his parts, he and Farren starred at the Gaiety and toured in this production and in Miss Esmeralda, Joan of Arc. In 1891, Leslie and Farren again toured Australia with the Gaiety company in Ruy Blas and Cinder Ellen up too Late. Leslie died while rehearsing for Don Juan, his early death, coupled with Farren's illness and retirement in 1892, brought to an end the type of Gaiety burlesque associated with them, at the same time that Edwardian musical comedy came to dominate the London theatre. Leslie was known for his versatility, entertaining personality and talent as a mimic.
His performances, including singing, dancing and whistling, were noted for their high spirits and ludicrous charm. Under the pseudonym of "A. C. Torr", he was part-author of many of his burlesques and wrote the burlesque Guy Fawkes Jr for Arthur Roberts in 1890. Although Leslie is remembered best for the burlesques, he was a fine comic actor whom the critic Clement Scott called "one of the great lyric and comic artists of my time." Leslie died of typhoid fever at his home in London at the age of 37. He was buried in Charlton Cemetery in England. Adams, William Davenport. A Dictionary of the Drama, Burt Franklin, 1904 Gänzl, Kurt; the British musical theatre, 2 vols. Gänzl, Kurt; the encyclopaedia of the musical theatre, 2 vols. Hollingshead, John. Gaiety Chronicles A. Constable & co.: London Hollingshead, John. Good Old Gaiety: An Historiette & Remembrance London:Gaity Theatre Co Traubner, Richard. Operetta: A Theatrical History, Routledge, 2003 ISBN 0-415-96641-8 Vincent, William Thomas and Clement Scott.
Recollections of Fred Leslie, London: Kegan, Trench, Trübner & Co. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Leslie, Fred". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 492. Signed 1884 photo of Leslie
Norman Macleod (1812–1872)
Reverend Norman Macleod was a Scottish clergyman and author who served as Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1869/70. Norman Macleod was born in Kirk Street, Campbeltown, to the Rev. Dr. Norman Macleod and Agnes Maxwell, his father, at that time minister of Campbeltown, was himself an exceptional man. His entire life was bound to the Highlanders of Scotland, catering to their spiritual and intellectual needs, he was the author of an extensive literature described by Professor Blackie as the "great work of classical Gaelic prose....written in a dialogue form, enriched by the dramatic grace of Plato and the shrewd humour of Lucian", played a major role in the creation of an educational infrastructure for the Highlands and Islands. He was an untiring supporter of the interests of the Highlanders, his name was respected throughout the North and West of Scotland. In 1827, Macleod became a student at the University of Glasgow. On 18 March 1838, he became parish minister at Ayrshire.
At this time the troubles in the Scottish Church were gathering to a head. Macleod, although he had no love for lay patronage, wished the Church to be free to do its proper work, clung to the idea of a national Established Church, therefore remained in the Establishment when the Disruption of 1843 took place, he was one of those who took a middle course in the non-intrusion controversy, holding that the fitness of those who were presented to parishes should be judged by the presbyteries, the principle of Lord Aberdeens Bill. On the secession of 1843 he was offered many different parishes, having settled at Dalkeith, devoted himself to parish work and to questions affecting the Church as a whole, he was instrumental in the work of strengthening the Church. In 1847 he became one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance, from 1849 edited the Christian Instructor. In 1851 he was called to Glasgow, in which city the rest of his days were passed. There the more liberal theology made way among a people who judged it more by its fruits than its arguments, MacLeod won many adherents by his practical schemes for the social reform of the people.
He instituted temperance refreshment rooms, a Congregational penny savings bank, held services specially for the poor. Despite his liberal stance on some issues, he was one of many clergy who preached against Verdi's La Traviata. In a sermon just after its 1857 Scottish premiere, Macleod argued that'no woman could hear it without a blush'In 1860 Macleod was appointed editor of the new monthly magazine Good Words, illustrated by Arthur Hughes, Francis Arthur Fraser, John Leighton, James Mahoney, Francis S. Walker, Townley Green and others. Under his control the magazine, of a religious character, became popular, his own literary work, nearly all of which appeared in its pages — sermons, travels, poems — was only a by-product of a busy life. By far his best work was the delightful Reminiscences of a Highland Parish. While Good Words made his name known, helped the cause he had so at heart, his relations with the queen and the royal family strengthened yet further his position in the country. Never since Principal Carstairs had any Scottish clergyman been on such terms with his sovereign.
In 1865, Macleod risked an encounter with Scottish Sabbatarian ideas. The presbytery of Glasgow issued a pastoral letter on the subject of Sunday trains and other infringements of the Christian Sabbath. Macleod protested against the grounds. For a time, owing to a misleading report of his statement, he became the man in all Scotland most profoundly distrusted, but four years the Church accorded him the highest honor in her power by choosing him as moderator of her general assembly. In 1867, along with Dr Archibald Watson, Macleod was sent to India, to inquire into the state of the missions, he undertook the journey in spite of failing health, seems never to have recovered from its effects. He returned resolved to devote the rest of his days to rousing the Church to her duty in the sphere of foreign missions, but his health was now broken, his old energy flagged, he is buried at Campsie. His Glasgow church was named after the Macleod Parish Church. Queen Victoria gave two memorial windows to Crathie church as a testimony of her admiration for his work.
Macleod was painted by Tavernor Knott around 1850. The portrait is held by the National Portrait Gallery of Scotland but is displayed. In August 1851, he married, Catherine Ann, daughter of William Mackintosh of Geddes, sister of John Mackintosh, his daughter, Ann Campbell Macleod, married in 1888 Sir James Wilson, published two books based on her letters to friends and family while they lived in India. His grandson, George MacLeod was to become Moderator of the Church of Scotland, having founded the Iona Community. John Wellwood, Norman Macleod, Edinburgh: Oliphant and Ferrier; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Macleod, Norman". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. P. 262. Hamilton, Thomas. "Macleod, Norman". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 35. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Anonymous. Cartoon portraits and biographical sketches of men of the day. Illustrated